Lesson 7: Korean Irregulars

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Korean Irregulars
ㅅ Irregular
ㄷ Irregular
ㅂ Irregular
ㅡ Irregular
르 Irregular
ㄹ Irregular

Irregular Quick Reference (another page)

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Vocabulary

The vocabulary is separated into nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs for the purpose of simplicity.

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use (you probably won’t be able to understand the grammar within the sentences at this point, but it is good to see as you progress through your learning).

A PDF file neatly presenting all of these words, example sentences and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
눈썹 = eyebrow

Common Usages:
속눈썹 = eyelashes

Example: 그 사람의 눈썹은 짙어요 = That person’s eyebrows are thick

교사 = teacher

Notes: 교사 refers more to the position of a teacher. You would usually refer to a teacher by calling him/her “선생님.” However, if you wanted to tell somebody what your position was, you could use 교사 (선생님 would also work here as well)

Example: 저는 영어교사예요 = I am an English teacher

= class of students in school

Common Usages:
우리 반 = our class
2학년 3반 = class 2-3
반장 = class president

Example:
이에요? = What class are you in?

직장 = location of work

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “직짱”

Notes: In English, we say “work” to refer to what is being done and where it is being done. For example “I am doing work at work.” 직장 refers to the location in which you work.

Example: 그는 직장에서 일찍 퇴근했어요 = He left work early

= wall

Common Usages:
벽지 = wallpaper
절벽 = cliff
벽에 기대다 = to lean against a wall

Examples:
저는 사진을 에 걸었어요 = I hung a picture on a wall
그림은 에 걸려 있어요 = The picture is hanging on the wall

= hair (not on head), fur

Common Usages:
코털 = nose hair
깃털 = feathers

Notes: In English, we say “hair” for all of the hair on our body. However, in Korean, 털 is used to refer to any hair that is not on your head. It is also used to refer to the fur of an animal.

Example:
저는 팔에 이 많아요 = I have a lot of hair on my arms

머리카락 = hair (on head)

Example:
그 여자의 머리카락은 길어요 = That girl’s hair is long

저녁 = dinner, evening

Notes:
The word “저녁” can refer to the evening time, or the meal that is eaten at that time (dinner). To distinguish between them, 저녁식사 (dinner) and 저녁시간 (the evening) can also be used.

Examples:
저녁으로 뭐 먹었어요? = What did you eat for dinner?
엄마가 온 후에 저는 저녁식사를 먹을 거예요 = After mom comes home, I will eat dinner
요리사들은 저녁을 부엌에서 준비했어요 = The chefs prepared the dinner in the kitchen
저는 저녁에 공부했어요 = I studied in the evening
저는 일요일에 저녁을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat dinner on Sunday

점심 = lunch, noonish

Notes:
The word “점심” can refer to the time around noon, or the meal that is eaten at that time (lunch). To distinguish between them, 점심식사 (lunch) and 점심시간 (noonish) can also be used.

Examples:
점심으로 뭐 먹고 싶어요? = What do you want to eat for lunch?
저는 보통 점심식사로 과일만 먹어요 = I usually only eat fruit for lunch
점심은 어땠어요? = How was lunch?
점심을 먹었어? = Did you eat lunch?
오빠는 바닥에 앉아서 점심을 먹었어요 = My brother ate lunch sitting on the floor

= clothes

Common Usages:
옷을 입다 = to put on clothes
옷을 벗다 = to take off clothes
옷을 벗기다 = to take clothes off of another person
옷을 갈아입다 = to change clothes
비옷 = rain clothes
겉옷 = some kind of outer clothing

Notes: One way and one form of telling somebody to put on clothes is to say “옷 입어.” This sounds like “온 이버”

Examples:
저는 저의 을 벗었어요 = I took off my clothes
저는 자주 을 충동적으로 사요 = I often buy clothes impulsively
저는 따뜻한 을 입고 싶어요 = I want to wear (put on) warm clothes
을 갈아입으러 탈의실에 갔어요 = He went to the change-room to change his clothes
여행할 때 을 많이 챙길 필요가 없어요 = I/you don’t need to pack a lot of clothes when you travel
우리가 똑같은 을 입고 있어요 = We are wearing exactly the same clothes

Verbs:
찾다 = to search for, find

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “찯따”

Notes: In English, the words “looking for/searching” and “find” have a similar meaning but are used differently. We use “find” after something is found. However, before something is found we use “look for/search.” In Korean, the 찾다 is used for both of these usages. This confusion often leads Korean people to incorrectly say things like “I am finding my brother.”

Examples:
저는 저의 지갑을 고 있어요 = I am looking for my wallet
누군가(는) 너를 고 있어 = Somebody is looking for you
저는 그 사실을 백과사전에 찾았어요 = I looked up that fact in an encyclopedia
우리 회사는 새로운 회사원을 고 있어요 = Our company is looking for new workers

가르치다 = to teach

Common Usages:
수업을 가르치다 = to teach a class
학생을 가르치다 = to teach a student

Examples:
저는 고등학교에서 10년 동안 영어를 가르쳤어요 = I taught English at a high school for 10 years
저는 학생들한테 한국어를 가르쳤어요 = I taught Korean to the students
어제 학생들한테 뭐 가르쳤어요? = What did you teach the students yesterday?
저는 선생님이 그것을 언제 가르쳤는지 기억 안 나요 = I don’t remember when the teacher taught that
선생님은 우리를 너무 잘 가르치셨어 = Our teacher taught us really well
이것을 가르쳐 줘서 감사합니다 = Thanks for teaching that to me
그 선생님은 한국어를 저에게 가르쳐 줬어요 = That teacher taught me Korean

일하다 = to work

Notes:
The noun form of 일하다 (일) literally means “work” (as in, something you need to do). However, it is often used to refer to a task or anything that needs to be done. For example:

저는 내일 할 일이 있어요 = I have something I need to do tomorrow

Examples:
저는 그 회사에서 일해요 = I work at/for that company
저는 지난 월요일에 일했어요 = I worked last Monday
저는 2주 동안 열심히 일했어요 = I worked hard for 2 weeks
저는 그 회사에서 5월까지 일할 거예요 = I will work at that company until May
저는 회사를 위해 열심히 일할 거예요 = I will work hard for the company
아버지는 지금 일하고 있어요 = Dad is working now
그 사람은 10년 동안 열심히 일하고 부자가 되었어요 = That person worked hard for 10 years and then became a rich person

짓다 = to build

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “짇따”

짓다 follows the ㅅ irregular

Common Usages:
집을 짓다 = to build a house

Examples:
그 집을 언제 지었어요? = When did you build that house?
저는 집을 지었어요 = I built a house
저는 우리 집을 나무로 지었어요 = I built our house out of wood

가지다 = to own, to possess

Common Usages:
가지고 있다 = to have

Notes: When you use “있다” to indicate that you have something, you must put the particle ~이/가 on the object you have. For example: 저는 펜이 있어요

However, you can attach ~을/을 to that object if you use ~가지고 있다.

갖다 is a shortened version of this word. See Lesson 97 for more information.

Example:
저는 펜을 가지고 있어요 = I have a pen

잠그다 = to lock

잠그다 follows the ㅡ irregular

Common Usages:
수도꼭지를 잠그다 = to turn the water (from a tap) off

Example:
저는 문을 잠갔어요 = I locked the door
아버지는 창문을 잠갔어요 = Dad locked the window

잊다 = to forget

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “읻따”

Common Usages:
잊어버리다 = to forget

Notes: ~아/어버리다 is added to some verbs to express the emotion that something was done and “thrown away” at the same time. It is commonly attached to 잊다 to express that something was “forgotten and thrown away.”

Example:
저를 지 마세요! = Don’t forget me!
저는 아빠의 죽음을 지 않았어요 = I didn’t forget the death of my father
열쇠를 어디 둔지 어버렸어요 = I forget where I put my keys

돕다 = to help

돕다 is an irregular ㅂ irregular. ㅂ changes to 오 when ~아/어 is added. However, ㅂ changes to 우 when any other vowel is added.

Common usages:
도와주다 = to give help

Notes: ~아/어주다 is commonly added to this word, because usually when one helps somebody, it is a form of “giving”

Example:
도와주세요! = help me please!

주다 = to give

When giving something to a person who deserves respect, 드리다 is used.

Notes: Often conjugated in the imperative voice (for example, ~세요) to ask for something. For example:
밥을 많이 주세요 = Give me lots of rice

Often gets placed after a verb if somebody does an action for somebody. For example:
이것을 만들어 주세요 = Please, make this for me

See Lesson 41 for more information.

Examples:
그 그릇을 세요 = Give me that bowl, please
밥을 사 세요 = Buy me food, please
어머님은 너에게 돈을 줬어? = Did your mother give you money?
저는 저의 친구에게 돈을 줬어요 = I gave my friend money
아빠는 나에게 음식을 줬어 = Dad gave me food
그 선생님은 한국어를 저에게 가르쳐 줬어요 = That teacher taught me Korean

맞다 = to be correct

Common Usages:
입맛에 맞다 = to fit one’s taste in food

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “맏따”

Notes: In every way, 맞다looks, feels and sounds like an adjective. However, in Korean 맞다 is a verb. In most cases this is irrelevant, but keep this in mind when conjugating.

Example:
선생님! 이 거 맞아요? = Teacher! Is this correct?
고객님들은 항상 맞아요 = The customer is (customers are) always right
이 자세 맞아요? = Is this posture right/correct?
그 학설은 맞을 리가 없어요 = That theory cannot be right

Adjectives:
쉽다 = to be easy

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “쉽따”

쉽다 follows the ㅂ irregular

Examples:
그 일은 너무 쉬웠어요 = that task was very easy
저는 쉬운 일을 했어요 = I did easy work
누구나 그 쉬운 일을 잘 해요 = Anybody can do that easy job well

덥다 = to be hot

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “덥따”

덥다follows this ㅂ irregular

Common Usages:
날씨가 덥다 = the weather is hot

Notes: 덥다 is only used to talk about the weather or one’s body, not the temperature of objects.

Examples:
오늘 날씨가 너무 더워요 = Today the weather is too hot
오늘은 어제보다 더 더워 = Today is hotter than yesterday
너무 더워서 창문을 열었어요 = I opened a window because it is too hot

그립다 = to miss (a thing)

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “그립따”

그립다 follows this ㅂ irregular

Notes: “보고 싶다” can is used when one misses a person.

In English “to miss” is a verb. 그립다 is an adjective in Korean that describes the feeling that is felt when one misses something. It is more commonly used when one misses a non-person. As an adjective, it must get treated as one. Therefore, in order to say that one misses something, it is commonly used in the Subject – Object – Adjective form that is taught in Lesson 15.

Example:
저는 우리 학교가 그리워요 = I miss our school
저는 한국 음식이 그리워요 = I miss Korean food

귀엽다 = to be cute

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “귀엽따”

귀엽다follows this ㅂ irregular

Common Usages:
귀여운 여자 = cute girl

Examples:
저의 여자 친구는 너무 귀여워요 = My girlfriend is very cute
그 여자는 귀여워요 That girl is cute
저는 귀여운 여자를 좋아해요 = I like cute girls
그 강아지의 꼬리는 아주 귀여워요 = That puppy’s tail is very cute

춥다 = to be cold

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “춥따”

춥다 follows this ㅂ irregular

Common Usages:
날씨가 춥다 = the weather is cold

Notes:
춥다 is only used to talk about the weather or one’s body, not the temperature of objects.

Examples:
캐나다는 겨울이 추운 나라예요 = Canada is a cold country in the winter
날씨는 주말에 추워졌어요 = The weather got cold over the weekend
너무 추워서 저는 겨울이 싫어요 = I don’t like winter because it is too cold
현재 날씨는 평소보다 조금 추워요 = The present/recent weather is colder than normal
요즘에 날씨가 점점 추워져요 = Lately, the weather is getting gradually colder
날씨가 추워서 따뜻한 옷을 입었어요 = The weather is cold, so I put on warm clothes

어렵다 = to be difficult

어렵다 follows the ㅂ irregular

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “어렵따”

Common Usages:
어려운 문제 = difficult problem

Examples:
수학은 너무 어려워요 = Math is too difficult
한국에서 대학교는 고등학교보다 덜 어려워요 = In Korea, University is not as hard as high school
저는 어려운 내용을 천천히 설명했어요 = I explained the difficult content slowly
부장님을 만족시키는 것은 어려워요 = Is it is difficult to satisfy our boss
고등학교는 한국에서 어려워요 = High school is difficult in Korea

더럽다 = to be dirty

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “더럽따”

더럽다 follows the ㅂ irregular

Example:
우리 집은 지금 매우 더러워요 = Our house is really dirty right now
쥐는 너무 더러워요 = Rats are very dirty

바쁘다 = to be busy

바쁘다 follows the ㅡ irregular

Example:
제가 너무 바빠서 내일 못 가요 = I can’t go tomorrow because I am so busy
저는 어제 너무 바빴어요 = I was very/too busy yesterday

같다 = to be the same

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “갇따”

Common Usages:
~ㄹ 것 같다 grammatical principle (Introduced in Lesson 35)
똑같다 (exactly the same)

Notes: See Lesson 15 for more information

Example:
저는 같은 바지가 있어요 = I have the same pants
캐나다 사람들은 한국 사람들과 같아요 = Canadian people are the same as Korean people
이 학교는 우리 학교와 같아요 = This school and our school are the same
저 식당은 이 식당과 같아요 = That restaurant is the same as this one
우리 아빠는 저것을 싫어할 것 같아요 = Dad will probably not like that
선생님이 그 수업을 하지 않을 것 같아요 = The teacher probably won’t (teach) that lesson

안전하다 = to be safe

Examples:
이 직업은 안전해서 좋아요 = This job is good because it is safe
저는 거리를 안전하게 건넜어요 = I crossed the street safely
우리 아버지는 차를 항상 안전하게 운전해요= Our dad always drives his car safely

딱딱하다 = to be hard, to be rigid

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “딱따카다”

Example:
이 빵은 너무 딱딱해요 = This bread is too hard
다이아몬드는 딱딱하다 = Diamonds are hard

부드럽다 = to be soft

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “부드럽따”

부드럽다 follows the ㅂ irregular

Example:
그녀의 손은 부드러워요 = Her hands are very soft
그 여자의 피부가 너무 부드러워요 = That girl’s skin is very smooth/soft
손이 부드럽지 않아서 로션을 발랐어요 = I put lotion on my hands because they weren’t soft

가능하다 = to be possible

Example:
그것이 가능하다고 생각해요? = Do you think that is possible?

불가능하다 = to be impossible

Example:
그것을 움직이는 것이 불가능해요 = It is impossible to move that

Adverbs:
일찍 = early

Notes: 일찍 is an adverb. The opposite of “early” is typically 늦다 which is an adjective. 늦게 can be used as the adverb to have the meaning of “late.” For example:
우리는 일찍 도착했어요 = We arrived early
우리는 늦게 도착했어요 = We arrived late (it would be awkward to say “lately” in English)

Examples:
우리는 내일 일찍 일어나야 돼요 = We need to wake up early tomorrow morning
왜 이렇게 일찍 가요? = Why are you going so early (like this)?
제가 일찍 가도 돼요? = May I go early?
저는 아침에 일찍 일어났어요 = I woke up early in the morning
그는 직장에서 일찍 퇴근했어요 = He left work early
밖에 일찍 나가려고 숙제를 빨리 했어요 = I did my homework fast in order to go out early

오전 = morning

Notes: This generally refers to any time before noon, but to refer to specifically refer to something early in the morning “새벽” can be used. “아침” refers to the time from breakfast until around noon.

Example:
저는 내일 오전에 교회에 가야 돼요 = I have to go to church tomorrow in the morning

오후 = afternoon

Notes: To refer to a time later than 5:00 or so “밤” or “저녁” would more commonly be used

Example:
오후에 뭐 할 거예요? = What are you doing in the afternoon?
저는 오늘 오후에 낮잠을 잤어요 = I took a nap in the afternoon today

매일 = everyday

Examples:
저는 매일 운동하겠습니다 = I will exercise everyday
저는 매일 운동해요 = I exercise everyday
매일
같은 운동을 하지 말고 많이 쉬세요 = Don’t do the same exercise every day, and get lots of rest
그 남자는 매일 까만색 옷을 입어요 = That man wears black clothes everyday
저는 공휴일을 빼고 매일 일해요 = I work every day except for public holidays
저의 엄마는 매일 운동해요 = My mother exercises every day

여름 = summer

Common Usages:
여름 방학 = summer vacation

Notes: For more information, words and sentences about seasons check out our Weather Theme Lesson.

Examples:
이번 여름은 너무 더워요 = This summer is too hot
여름에 저는 공부하겠어요 = I will study in the summer

가을 = fall

Example:
가을이 시원해서 좋아요 = Fall is nice because it is cool
가을에 잎의 색깔은 변해요 = The color of the leaves changes in the fall

겨울 = winter

Common Usages:
겨울 방학 = winter vacation
겨울잠 = hibernation

Example:
너무 추워서 저는 겨울이 싫어요 = I don’t like winter because it is too cold
캐나다는 겨울이 추운 나라예요 = Canada is  a country of/with cold winters

겨울에 한국 사람들이 문을 왜 안 닫는지 이해가 안 돼요
= I don’t understand why Korean people don’t close the door in the winter

피부가 너무 약해서 겨울에도 로션을 발라야 돼요
= I even need to out on lotion in the winter because my skin is weak

= spring

Example:
나무는 에 예뻐요 = The trees are pretty in spring
한국에는 황사가 중국에서 마다 와요 = Yellow dust comes to Korea ever spring from China
에는 꽃가루 알레르기를 조심해 야 해요 = You need to be careful about pollen allergies in the spring

There are 1050 vocabulary entries in Unit 1. All entries are linked to an audio file.
You can download all of these files in one package here.

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Irregulars

As with all languages, there are some irregular conjugations that you need to know. Irregulars are applied to certain verbs or adjectives when adding something to the stem of the word. Korean grammar is based on these “additions” that are added to stems. I mentioned this in Lesson 5, but I want to reiterate it here.

There are hundreds of additions that you can add to the stem of a verb or adjective. Some of these additions are conjugations and some of them are grammatical principles that have meaning in a sentence.

You have learned about some of these additions now. For example:

  • ~ㄴ/는다 to conjugate to the plain form
  • ~아/어 to conjugate to the informal low respect form
  • ~아/어요 to conjugate to the informal high respect form
  • ~ㅂ/습니다 to conjugate to the formal high respect form
  • ~았/었어 to conjugate to the informal low respect form in the past tense
  • ~ㄴ/은 added to an adjective to describe an upcoming noun

In future lessons, you will learn about many more of these additions. For example, some of them are:

  • ~ㄴ/은 후에 to mean “after”
  • ~기 전에 to mean “before”
  • ~기 때문에 to mean “because”
  • ~아/어서 to mean “because”
  • ~(으)면 to mean “when”
  • ~아/어야 하다 to mean “one must”
  • ~아/어서는 안 되다 to mean “one should not”

Notice that some of these additions start with a vowel, and some of them start with a consonant. Most of the irregulars are applied when adding a vowel to a stem. The ㄹ irregular that is introduced at the end of the lesson is the only irregular that applies when adding a consonant to a stem.

Let’s look at one example before I introduce each irregular one by one. Let’s say we want to conjugate the word “어렵다” into the past tense using the informal low respect form. The following would happen:

어렵다 + ~았/었어 = 어려웠어

Here, you can see that the actual stem of the word changed. This is referred to as the “ㅂ irregular” because the same phenomenon happens with many (but not all) words whose stem ends in “ㅂ”.

As I mentioned previously, most of these irregulars are applied when adding a vowel to a stem.  There are many additions that start with a vowel, and you got a start on learning some of those conjugations in Lessons 5 and 6:

  • ~아/어
  • ~아/어요
  • ~았/었어
  • ~았/었어요
  • ~았/었습니다
  • ~았/었다

As such, this lesson will present the Korean irregulars and how they change as a result of adding these conjugations. In later lessons when you learn about other additions, you can apply what you learned in this lesson to those concepts. For now, let’s get started.

 

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ㅅ Irregular

If the last letter of a word stem ends in ㅅ (for example: 짓다 = to build), the ㅅ gets removed when adding a vowel. For example, when conjugating:

짓다 = to make/build
짓 + 어 = 지어
나는 집을 지어 = I build a house

짓 + 었어요 = 지었어요
저는 집을 지었어요 = I built a house

Notice that this only happens when adding a vowel. When conjugating to the plain form, for example, you only add “~는다” to a stem and thus ㅅ does not get removed. For example:

집을 짓는다 = to  build a house

The reason this irregular is done is to avoid changing the sound of a word completely after conjugating it.

Pronouncing 짓다 sounds like ‘jit-da.’
Pronouncing 지어 sounds like ‘ji-uh’
Pronouncing 짓어 sounds like ‘jis-suh’

The third one (which is incorrect) completely changes the sound of the word stem when a vowel is added (from ‘jit’ to ‘jis.’ Whereas in the second one, the sound of the word stem only changes from ‘jit’ to ‘ji,’ which is much smaller of a difference (especially considering the ‘t’ in the pronunciation of 짓 is not aspirated – which makes it barely audible). I know that is confusing, but if you can’t understand why it is done, that’s fine. Just know that it must be done.

Some other examples of words that follow this irregular are (these words are too difficult for you right now, but I’m just showing you):

낫다 = better (adjective) – You will learn more about this word in Lesson 19
잇다 = to continue (verb)

Common words that this does not apply to are:
웃다 (to laugh) = 저는 웃었어요 = I laughed
벗다 (to take off clothes) = 저는 저의 옷을 벗었어요 = I took off my clothes
씻다 (to wash) = 저는 저의 손을 씻었어요 = I washed my hands

Here is a table with the word “짓다 (to build)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

짓다 = build Past Present Future
Informal low 지었어 지어 짓겠어
Informal high 지었어요 지어요 짓겠어요
Plain form 지었다 짓는다 짓겠다
Formal high 지었습니다 짓습니다 짓겠습니다

Note that when a word stem has as the fourth consonant, this irregular does not apply. For example, this does not apply to 없다, which you will learn about in the next lesson.

 

 

ㄷ irregular

If the last letter of a word stem ends in ㄷ (for example: 걷다 = to walk), the ㄷ gets changed to ㄹ when adding a vowel. This is only done with verbs. For example:

걷다 = to walk
걷 + 어 = 걸어
저는 걸어요 = I walk

걷 + 었어요 = 걸었어요
저는 걸었어요 = I walked

I don’t mean to confuse you, but I will:

걷다 means “to walk.” When conjugating, by adding a vowel it changes to 걸어
Another meaning of 걷다 is “to tuck.” But this meaning of 걷다 does not follow the irregular rule. So, when conjugating, by adding a vowel is simply stays as 걷어.
걸다 means “to hang.” When conjugating, by adding a vowel it stays as 걸어

Confusing enough? Let’s look at all three:

걷다
To walk
걷다
To tuck
걸다
To hang
Past Formal 걸었어요 걷었어요 걸었어요
Present Formal 걸어요 걷어요 걸어요
Future Formal 걷겠어요 걷겠어요 걸겠어요

Honestly, though, the whole 걷다/걷다/걸다 thing is probably the most confusing part of this conjugation, and don’t worry too much about it. “Walk” is a word that is used much more frequently than “tuck,” so it is not something that comes up a lot.

The reason this conjugation is done is simply because the sounds flows off your tongue better. It is similar to pronouncing the word “butter” in English. When pronouncing “butter” we don’t say “butt-tter,” we just say “bud-er.” Like the ㄷ irregular, it is simply to avoid saying a hard consonant.

This is done to most stems ending in ㄷ, common words that this does not apply to (like 걷다 = to tuck) are:
받다 (to get/receive) = 돈을 받았어요 = I received money
묻다 = 묻어요 (to bury) = 저는 저의 강아지를 묻었어요 = I buried my dog
닫다 = 닫아요 (to close) = 저는 문을 닫았어요 = I closed the door

Here is a table with the word “걷다 (to walk)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

걷다 = walk Past Present Future
Informal low 걸었어 걸어 걷겠어
Informal high 걸었어요 걸어요 걷겠어요
Plain form 걸었다 걷는다 걷겠다
Formal high 걸었습니다 걷습니다 걷겠습니다

 

 

ㅂ Irregular

If the last letter of a word stem ends in ㅂ (쉽다 = easy), the ㅂ changes to 우 when adding a vowel. 우 then gets added to the next syllable in the conjugated word.

This is mostly done with adjectives. Many verbs end with ㅂ but this rule is rarely applied to verbs (some of the few verbs where this rule applies are: 줍다 (to pick up), 눕다 (to lie down)). For example:

쉽다 = to be easy
쉽 + 어 = 쉬 + 우 + 어 = 쉬워
그것은 쉬워 = That thing is easy

어렵다 = to be difficult
어렵 + 어요 = 어려 + 우 + 어요 = 어려워요
그것은 어려워요 = That is difficult

귀엽다 = cute
귀엽 + 어요 = 귀여 + 우 + 어요 = 귀여워요
그 여자는 귀여워요 = That girl is cute

In the words “돕다” (to help) and “곱다” (an uncommon way to say “beautiful”) ㅂ changes to 오 instead of 우. For example:

돕다 = to help
돕 + 았어요 = 도 + 오 + 았어요 = 도왔어요
저는 저의 어머니를 도왔어요 = I helped my mother

Note: The in 돕다 and 곱다 changes to only when ~아/어 (or any derivative like ~았/었다 or ~아/어요) is added. When adding any other vowel, changes to . As of now, you haven’t learned when you would need to add a different vowel. For example, in future lessons you will learn about adding ~ㄹ/을 to verbs. When this gets added to 돕다, it changes to 도울. This isn’t immediately pressing to you now, but you should make a mental note of it.

Because the ㅂ irregular is found in adjectives, you will be conjugating it not only at the end of a sentence, but also in the middle of a sentence (before a noun). Remember the difference between these two sentences.

사과는 크다 = Apples are big
나는 큰 사과를 좋아한다 = I like big apples

In the first sentence, ‘big’ is an adjective that describes the noun (apple) at the end of the sentence.
In the second, ‘big’ describes the apple (as ‘a big apple’) and then “like” acts on the noun. In Lesson 4, you learned how to describe a noun by placing an adjective with ~ㄴ/은 before it. Adding ~ㄴ/은 to adjectives where the stem ends in “ㅂ” causes this irregular to come into play.

When placing an adjective (who’s stem ends in “ㅂ”)  before a noun to describe it, you add ~ㄴ to the newly formed 우/오 syllable:

귀엽 + ㄴ = 귀여 + 우 + ㄴ = 귀여운
저는 귀여운 여자를 좋아해요 = I like cute girls

More examples:
쉽다 = easy
쉽 + ㄴ = 쉬 + 우 + ㄴ = 쉬운
저는 쉬운 일을 했어요 = I did easy work

부드럽다 = soft
부드럽 + ㄴ = 부드러 + 우 + ㄴ = 부드러운
나는 부드러운 손이 있어= I have soft hands

춥다 = cold
춥 + ㄴ = 추 + 우 + ㄴ = 추운
저는 추운 날씨를 좋아해요 = I like cold weather

Note that in most irregulars, the word changes differently if the last vowel in the stem is ㅗ OR ㅏ. However, in the ㅂ irregular, except for 돕다 and 곱다, all applicable words are changed by adding 우. Therefore, even in words where the last vowel in the stem is ㅏ (ex: 아름답다) or ㅗ (ex: 새롭다), 우 is added. For example:

아름답다 = beautiful:
아름답 + 어요 = 아름다 + 우 + 어요 = 아름다워요
그 여자는 아름다워요 = That girl is beautiful

새롭다 = new
새롭 + 어요 = 새로 + 우 + 어요 = 새로워요
그 학교는 새로워요 = That school is new
그것은 새로운 학교예요 = That (thing) is a new school

Probably the most confusing of all irregulars, mainly because it seems strange that ㅂ can change to 우/오. The reason this happens is similar to the ㅅ irregular. As you know already, when pronouncing a syllable with the last letter ㅂ, you don’t really pronounce the ‘B’ sound. If you don’t know what I mean, check out the Pronunciation guide. But, if you add a vowel after ㅂ the sound of ‘B’ would be pronounced. The purpose of the irregular is to eliminate the ‘B’ sound which isn’t actually in the word. Confusing? Yes, I know, but again, you don’t really need to care about why it is done.

This is done to some words ending in ㅂ. Some common words in which this does not apply:

좁다 (narrow) = 이 방은 좁아요 = This room is narrow
넓다 (wide) = 이 방은 넓어요 = This room is wide (Korean people often describe a room/place being “big” by saying it is “wide”
잡다 (to catch/grab) = 저는 공을 잡았어요 = I caught the ball

Here is a table with the word “춥다 (cold)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

춥다 = cold Past Present Future
Informal low 추웠어 추워 춥겠어
Informal high 추웠어요 추워요 춥겠어요
Plain form 추웠다 춥다 춥겠다
Formal high 추웠습니다 춥습니다 춥겠습니다
Adjective form 추운 날씨 = cold weather

 

 

ㅡ Irregular

If the final vowel in a stem is ㅡ (for example: 잠그다 = to lock), when adding ~아/어, you can not determine whether you need to add ~어 or ~아 to the stem by looking at ㅡ. Instead, you must look at the vowel in the second last syllable. For example, in the word “잠그다”, the second last syllable in the stem is “잠”, and the vowel here is ㅏ. Therefore, as usual, we add ~아  to 잠그. For example:

잠그다 + ~아/어
= 잠그아

In cases like this where a word ends in “ㅡ” (that is, there is no final consonant after “ㅡ”) and is followed by ~아/어 (or any of its derivatives), the ~아/어~ the “ㅡ” is eliminated and the addition of ~아/어~ merges to the stem. For example:

잠그다 = to lock
The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. The vowel in the second last syllable is ㅏ, so we add ~아.
For example: 잠그 + 아
Because there is no final consonant after “ㅡ”, ~아 replaces ㅡ.
잠그 + 아 = 잠가

This would be the same in the past tense as well, for example:

잠그 + 았어요 = 잠갔어요
저는 문을 잠갔어요 = I locked the door

Let’s look at another example:

바쁘다 = to be busy
The last vowel in stem is ㅡ. The vowel in the second last syllable is ㅏ, so we add 아.
For example: 바쁘 + 아
Because there is no final consonant after “ㅡ”, ~아 replaces ㅡ.
바쁘 + 아요 = 바빠요
저는 바빠요 = I am busy

Let’s look at another example:

예쁘다 = pretty
The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. The vowel in the second last syllable is not ㅏ or ㅗ, so we add 어.
For example: 예쁘 + 어
Because there is no final consonant after “ㅡ”, ~어 replaces ㅡ.
예쁘 + 어요 = 예뻐
그 여자는 예뻐요 = That girl is pretty

 

Some stems only have one syllable. For example, the stem of 크다 is just 크. In this case, we know that we need to use the ㅡ irregular, but there is no previous syllable to draw on to determine what should be added to the stem. In these cases, ~어 is added to the stem. For example:

크다 = to be big
The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. 크 is the only syllable in the stem, so we add 어
For example: 크 + 어
Because there is no final consonant after “ㅡ”, ~어 replaces ㅡ
크 + 어요 = 커요
그 집은 커요 = That house is big

This same rule applies when adding ~아/어 to words where, not only is the last vowel in the stem ㅡ, but all the vowels in the stem are ㅡ. For example, in the word “슬프다,” not only does the stem end in “ㅡ” but the vowel in the second last syllable is also “ㅡ”. In this case as well, ~어 should merge to the stem. For example:

슬프다 = to be sad
The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. The second last vowel in the stem is also ㅡ, so we add 어
For example: 슬프 + 어
Because there is no final consonant after “ㅡ”, ~어 replaces ㅡ
슬프 + 어요 = 슬퍼요
저는 아주 슬퍼요 = I am very sad

Sometimes the last vowel of a stem is ㅡ, but the stem ends in a consonant. In these cases, all of the above rules still apply, but the addition of ~아/어 does not merge to the stem (because it is blocked by the consonant). For example:

긁다 = to scratch
The last vowel in the stem is ㅡ. 긁 is the only syllable in the stem, so we add 어
For example: 긁 + 어
Because there is a final consonant after “ㅡ”, ~어 does not merge to the stem
긁 + 어요 = 긁어요
저는 머리를 긁었어요 = I scratched my head

Another example where we find a single-syllable word with “ㅡ” as the only vowel is “듣다 (to hear)”

듣다 = to hear
Last vowel in stem is ㅡ. There is no syllable preceding 듣, so we must add 어.
듣 ends in a consonant, so 어 does not get added directly to the syllable.
듣 + 었어요 = 듣었어요

But wait! Don’t forget the ㄷ irregular. In this example, both ㅡ and ㄷ irregulars are used:

듣 + 었다 = 들었다
저는 쥐를 들었어요 = I heard a mouse

An irregular to this already irregular rule is “만들다 (to make).” Even though the second last syllable in the stem has the vowel “ㅏ”, ~어~ is added instead of ~아~. For example:

만들다 + ~아/어요
= 만들어요

Here is a table with the word “잠그다 (to lock – which is a verb)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

잠그다 = lock Past Present Future
Informal low 잠갔어 잠가 잠그겠어
Informal high 잠갔어요 잠가요 잠그겠어요
Plain form 잠갔다 잠근다 잠그겠다
Formal high 잠갔습니다 잠급니다 잠그겠습니다

And here is a table with the word “예쁘다 (pretty – which is an adjective)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

예쁘다 = pretty Past Present Future
Informal low 예뻤어 예뻐 예쁘겠어
Informal high 예뻤어요 예뻐요 예쁘겠어요
Plain form 예뻤다 예쁘다 예쁘겠다
Formal high 예뻤습니다 예쁩니다 예쁘겠습니다

 

Finally, here is a table with the word “만들다 (to make – which is a verb)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.

만들다 = to make Past Present Future
Informal low 만들었어 만들어 만들겠어
Informal high 만들었어요 만들어요 만들겠어요
Plain form 만들었다 만든다 만들겠다
Formal high 만들었습니다 만듭니다 만들겠습니다

You will learn how 만든다 and 만듭니다 are formed later in the lesson when you learn about the irregular.

 

르 Irregular

If the final syllable in a stem is 르 (마르다), it is conjugated differently when adding ~아/어. This irregular only applies when adding ~아/어(or any of its derivatives) to a stem and not when adding any other grammatical principles that starts with a vowel or consonant. Up until now, you haven’t learned about any of these other grammatical principles, that can start with anything other than ~아/어~, so don’t worry about this distinction too much.

When adding ~아/어 to these words, an additional ㄹ is created and placed in the syllable preceding 르 as the last consonant. The 르 also gets changed to either 러 or 라 (depending on if you are adding 어 or 아). This is done to both verbs and adjectives (the only exception is 따르다 = to follow/to pour). This is difficult to explain, and much easier to show with examples:

다르다 = different
다르 + 아요 = 다 + ㄹ + 라요 = 달라요
그것은 달라요 = That thing is different

빠르다 = to be fast
빠르 + 아요 = 빠 + ㄹ + 라요 = 빨라요
그 남자는 빨라요 = That man is fast

부르다 = to call somebody’s name
부르 + 었어요 = 부 + ㄹ + 렀어요 = 불렀어요
저는 저의 누나를 불렀어요 = I called my sister

Here is a table with the word “고르다 (to choose – which is a verb)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

고르다 = choose Past Present Future
Informal low 골랐어 골라 고르겠어
Informal high 골랐어요 골라요 고르겠어요
Plain form 골랐다 고른다 고르겠다
Formal high 골랐습니다 고릅니다 고르겠습니다

And here is a table with the word “마르다 (thin – which is an adjective)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives like ~았/었어요) is added to the verb stem.

마르다 = thin Past Present Future
Informal low 말랐어 말라 마르겠어
Informal high 말랐어요 말라요 마르겠어요
Plain form 말랐다 마르다 마르겠다
Formal high 말랐습니다 마릅니다 마르겠습니다
Adjective form 마른 여자 = thin girl

 

 

ㄹ Irregular

Okay, last one, I promise.

As you know, there are times when you must choose between two things to add to a stem. For example:

~아/어 means you must choose between adding ~아 or ~어
~ㄴ/은 means you must choose between adding ~ㄴ or ~은
~ㅂ/습 means you must choose between adding ~ㅂ or ~습
~ㄹ/을 means you must choose between adding ~ㄹ or ~을

As you know, you choose the correct addition based on the stem.

If the final letter of a stem is ㄹ AND you add any of the following:

~ㄴ/은
~ㄴ/는
~ㅂ/습
~ㄹ/을

The first option (~ㄴ/ ~ㅂ / ~ㄹ ) should be used. In addition, the ㄹ is removed from the stem and the ~ㄴ / ~ㅂ / ~ㄹ is add directly to the stem. Let’s look at each one individually.

 

ㄹ Irregular: Adding ~ㄴ/은 to words

You have learned about adding ~ㄴ/은 to adjective stems when describing nouns. Usually, you add ~ㄴ directly to the stem of an adjective ending in a vowel, and ~은 to the stem of an adjective ending in a consonant, for example:

크다 = 큰 남자
작다 = 작은 남자

When adding ~ㄴ/은 to a stem which ends in ㄹ, the ㄹ is removed and ㄴ is added to the stem:

길다 = long
길 + ㄴ = 긴
저는 긴 거리를 건넜어요 = I crossed the long street

멀다 = far away
멀 + ㄴ = 먼
저는 먼 병원에 갔어요 = I went to a far away hospital (a hospital that is far away)

There will be times when you have to add ~ㄴ/은 to verbs stems as well, but you haven’t learned about this yet. I introduce this concept in Lesson 26, and then talk about the irregular being applied in Lesson 28. I don’t want you to think about this too much until those lessons, but just so you know, the concept is the same as adding ~ㄴ/은 to an adjective. For example:

열다 = to open
열 + ㄴ = 연

Although you haven’t learned about adding ~ㄴ/은 to stems, you have learned about adding ~ㄴ/는다 to verb stems. Normally, you add ~ㄴ다 to the stem of a verb ending in a vowel, and ~는다 to the stem of a verb ending in a consonant. For example:

나는 집에 간다 = I go home
나는 밥을 먹는다 = I eat rice

But when adding ~ㄴ/는다 to a verb stem that ends in ㄹ, you must remove ㄹ and add ~ㄴ다 to the verb stem:

나는 문을 연다 = I open the door
나는 케이크를 만든다 = I make a cake

 

ㄹ Irregular: Adding ~ㅂ/습 to words

You have also learned about adding ~ㅂ/습니다 to verb and adjective stems when conjugating in the Formal high respect form: Normally, you add ~ㅂ니다 to the stem of a word ending in a vowel, and ~습니다 to the stem of a word ending in a consonant. For example:

Verbs:
저는 집에 갑니다 = I go home
저는 밥을 먹습니다 = I eat rice

Adjectives:
그 여자는 예쁩니다 = That girl is pretty
이 방은 넓습니다 = This room is big/wide

But when adding ~ㅂ니다 to the stem of a word that ends in ㄹ, you must remove ㄹ and add ~ㅂ directly to the stem. For example:

Verbs:
저는 문을 엽니다 = I open the door
저는 케이크를 만듭니다 = I make a cake

Adjectives:
그 병원은 멉니다 = That hospital is far
그 여자의 머리카락은 깁니다 = That girls hair is long

머리 can mean ‘head’ or ‘hair’ depending on the context. If you want to specifically mention your hair, you can say “머리카락” always means the hair on one’s head. 머리 or 머리카락 does not refer to the hair on an animal, or the body hair of a human. This hair is referred to as “” and extends to most of the hair that can be found on animals (fur, the wool on a sheep, etc)

Here is a table with the word “열다 (to open – which is a verb)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  The irregular conjugations are in bold. Notice that this only occurs when ~ㄴ or ~ㅂ is added to the verb stem.

열다 = open Past Present Future
Informal low 열었어 열어 열겠어
Informal high 열었어요 열어요 열겠어요
Plain form 열었다 연다 열겠다
Formal high 열었습니다 엽니다 열겠습니다

And here is a table with the word “길다 (long – which is an adjective)” being conjugated using all the honorific forms you have learned so far.  Notice that this only occurs when ~ㄴ or ~ㅂ is added to the verb stem (it would happen when ~ㄴ is added, but you don’t add ~ㄴ/는 to an adjective when you conjugate it like this. There are times, however, when this would happen, but you haven’t even gotten close to learning about them yet. For example, in Lesson 76, we talk about the addition of ~ㄴ/는데 to clauses. This would make 길다 turn into 긴데. Please don’t even think about looking ahead until Lesson 76 until you’ve finished with this lesson, and the 69 lessons in between.

길다 = long Past Present Future
Informal low 길었어 길어 길겠어
Informal high 길었어요 길어요 길겠어요
Plain form 길었다 길다 길겠다
Formal high 길었습니다 깁니다 길겠습니다
Adjective form 거리 = long road

I don’t want to confuse you too much more because I am sure you are already really confused. Just the amount of content on this page alone is enough to make somebody cry. That being said, I think it is a very good exercise to try to compare how the words 듣다 and 들다 differ in their conjugations. Don’t worry about the meaning of 들다 yet (it is a very complex word that has many meanings), but just assume it is a verb in this case. For now, let’s just focus on how they are conjugated.

Notice that when conjugating 듣다, you need to consider the following irregular patterns:

  • ㄷ irregular (because it ends in ㄷ)
  • ㅡ irregular (because the final vowel is ㅡ)

The following table shows how 듣다 should be conjugated across the honorifics and tenses you have learned so far:

듣다 = to hear Past Present Future
Informal low 들었어 들어 듣겠어
Informal high 들었어요 들어요 듣겠어요
Plain form 들었다 듣는다 듣겠다
Formal high 들었습니다 듣습니다 듣겠습니다

Notice when conjugating 들다, you need to consider the following irregular patterns:

  • ㄹ irregular (because it ends in ㄹ)
  • ㅡ irregular (because the final vowel is ㅡ)

The following table shows how 들다 should be conjugated across the honorifics and tenses you have learned so far:

들다 Past Present Future
Informal low 들었어 들어 들겠어
Informal high 들었어요 들어요 들겠어요
Plain form 들었다 든다 들겠다
Formal high 들었습니다 듭니다 들겠습니다

I feel that comparing these two is a very good exercise because you can see that sometimes, because of the irregular conjugations, 듣다 might look exactly like 들다. For example, in all of the past tense conjugations, there is no way to distinguish between the two based on sound, and the only way to distinguish them is by context in a sentence.

There is no easy way around memorizing stuff like this. The only words of encouragement I can give you is that – as you become more and more familiar with the language, and as you expose yourself to it more and more, it does become second nature. I know you can’t believe that now, but it does.

 

 

ㄹ Irregular: Adding ~ㄹ/을 to words

You have yet to learn any situation where you would need to add ~ㄹ/을 to a stem, so don’t worry about this too much now right now. I will show you the examples, but you won’t be able to understand them. Just try to see how the irregular works within these examples, and I will re-present these again when you learn how to deal with adding ~ㄹ/을.

Normally (just like with other similar additions), you would add ~ㄹ to the stem of a word ending in a vowel, and ~을 to the stem of a word ending in a consonant. For example:

작다 + ~ㄹ/을 = 작을
크다 + ~ㄹ/을 = 클

However, when you add ~ㄹ/을 to a stem of a word that ends in ㄹ, the ㄹ is dropped and ㄹ is attached directly to the stem. In effect, you removed something and replace it with exactly the same thing. For example:

갈다 + ㄹ/을 = 갈
빨다 + ㄹ/을 = 빨

Again, that is just for your reference. I will teach you more about this irregular when I teach you about the specific grammar within it in Lesson 9. You will also see this irregular applied again in Lesson 28.

.

ㄹ Irregular – Adding Anything that Starts with a “Solid” ㄴ or ㅅ

As of now, you have not yet learned about adding anything that starts with a solid ㄴ or ㅅ to a stem, so don’t worry about this too much now. What I mean by “solid ㄴ” is that – any addition where you add something that starts with “ㄴ,” but there is no choice of having to add ~ㄴ or something else. For example, even though the plain form conjugation “~ㄴ/는다” starts with “~ㄴ”, there is a choice of having to add “ㄴ” OR “는”. This irregular only applies to grammar additions that start with “ㄴ”, and there is no alternate addition. For example, as you will learn later, a grammatical addition to form a question is ~니. There is no alternate addition to this. For example, it is not ~ㄴ/니.

I will show you the examples of how this works, but you won’t be able to understand them. Just try to see how the irregular works within these examples, and I will re-present these again when you learn how to deal with adding a solid ~ㄴ and ~ㅅ.

When you add a solid ~ㄴ or ~ㅅ to a stem of a word that ends in ㄹ, you must drop the ㄹ from the stem, and add the solid ~ㄴ or ~ㅅ after the stem:

For example:

열다 + ~나(요) = 여나요
열다 + ~니 = 여니
열다 + ~는 = 여는
열다 + ~냐 = 여냐

열다 + ~세요 = 여세요

Again, that is just for your reference. I will teach you more about those irregulars when I teach you about the specific grammar within them. Specifically, you will learn about adding ~니 and ~나 to stems in Lesson 21; you will learn about ~는 in Lessons 26, 27 and 28; and will learn about~세요 in Lesson 40.

As of now, you have not yet learned about adding ~는 or ~ㅅ to a stem, so don’t worry about this too much now. I will show you the examples, but you won’t be able to understand them. Just try to see how the irregular works within these examples, and I will re-present these again when you learn how to deal with adding ~는 and ~ㅅ.

Make sure that you realize that you have not learned any grammatical principle where “~는” is added. The addition of “~는” is not the diary form conjugation that you learned in Lesson 5. That conjugation is ~ㄴ/는다 – where, depending on the stem of the verb, you might need add ~ㄴ다 or ~는다. The “~는” addition is not the same, and will be talked about in Lessons 26, 27 and 28, but try not to worry about it now.

Just to make my point clear – the diary form present tense conjugation of “열다” is “연다” (based on the information earlier). It is not 여는다.

 

 

 

 

Adding ~ㄴ/은 to Adjectives

I mentioned this in some of the sections above, but I would like to organize it all here. In Lesson 4, you learned how to add ~ㄴ/은 to adjectives to describe an upcoming noun. Some irregulars will come into play when adding doing this because of the possibility of adding a vowel to a stem. Let’s look at the word “어렵다” as an example. 어렵다 has a consonant as its final letter, which means that ~은 must be added (instead of ~ㄴ). Therefore, we end up with:

어렵은

Because of this, we now have the final consonant “ㅂ” followed by a vowel, which causes the ㅂ irregular to be applied. The correct conjugation of 어렵다 + ~ㄴ/은 is therefore “어려운.”

Below is a table that shows how irregular adjectives can change because of adding ~ㄴ/은:

Irregular Example Word Does this apply? Application
ㅅ Irregular 낫다 (better) YES 나은
ㄷ Irregular NA NA NA
ㅂ Irregular 쉽다 (easy) YES 쉬운
ㅡ Irregular 바쁘다 (busy) NO 바쁜
르 Irregular 빠르다 (fast) NO 빠른
ㄹ Irregular 길다 (long) YES

 


 

 

That’s it! Wow that is a lot of irregulars.

Note that these irregulars do not apply to word stems ending with a four-letter syllable. For example, the irregular does not apply to 없다, which you will learn about in the next lesson.

Check out our Irregular Guide if you are confused (I’m sure you are!).

Everybody is confused when they learn these irregulars. Eventually you will reach a point where all of these will come natural to you. Whenever you learn a new word where the stem ends in ㅅ/ㄹ/ㅂ/ㄷ/르/ㅡ just make a mental note about how you should conjugate that word in the future. I don’t even have to think about these irregulars anymore because they just flow out naturally. If you can’t memorize them all right now, just try to understand them, which will allow you to recognize them later. Eventually, you will memorize them simply from using and hearing them so much.

There are 1250 example sentences in Unit 1.
All entries are linked to an audio file. You can download all of these files in one package here.

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