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국민 = people of a country/citizen
독학 = self-study
옆집 = next door
재즈 = jazz
이웃 = neighborhood
변화 = change
중심 = center/heart/middle of something
터 = site/ground/lot
진실 = truth
끔찍하다 = terrible
난처하다 = embarrassed
추측(하다) = guess
도박하다 = gamble
노름하다 = gamble
내려다보다 = look down
알려지다 = become known
Adverbs and Other Words:
그 후로 = since then
정상 = top
현재로는 = as of now
지금으로(서)는 = as of now
힘내 = cheer up
전체 = whole/entire thing
마침내 = finally/at last
최종적으로 = finally/at last
년대 = (2010년대) = year
For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.
In this lesson, you will learn about the word 갖다, which is actually a colloquial abbreviation of the word “가지다.” The Korean language has evolved in such a way that “갖다” can now be thought of as a word, but due to the fact that it is actually an abbreviation, it has atypical grammatical rules. I will break these rules open for you. Let’s get started.
An abbreviation of 가지다: 갖다
First things first – let’s remember what the word “가지다” means and how it is used. Though “가지다” can be used in a variety of situations, it always has a translation of “to have” or “to possess” or something similar. It is most commonly used with 있다 to indicate that one “has” an object. For example:
저는 지금 돈을 가지고 있어요 = I have money now
그 학생은 그림을 잘 그리는 재능을 가지고 있어요 = That student has a talent for drawing
예쁜 지갑을 가지고 있는 여자가 누구예요? = Who is the girl that has the beautiful bag (who is the girl with the beautiful bag?)
우리 집주인은 집 세 개를 가지고 있어요 = Our landlord owns three houses
In practice, the word “있다” can change to another verb to indicate that one does something while possessing an object. For example:
그는 항상 사진기를 가지고 다녀요 = He always carries his camera with him (while walking around)
열쇠를 가지고 나왔어요? = Did you bring your keys (did you come out while possessing your keys?)
동물원에 카메라를 가지고 입장해도 돼요? = Am I allowed to enter the zoo with a camera? (Am I allowed to enter the zoo while possessing camera?)
갖다 can replace 가지다 in all of these cases:
저는 지금 돈을 갖고 있어요 = I have money now
그 학생은 잘 그림을 그리는 재능을 갖고 있어요 = That student has a talent for drawing
예쁜 지갑 갖고 있는 여자가 누구예요? = Who is the girl that has the beautiful bag (who is the girl with the beautiful bag?)
우리 집주인은 집 세 개를 갖고 있어요 = Our landlord owns three houses
그는 항상 사진기를 갖고 다녀요 = He always carries his camera with him (while walking around)
돈을 갖고 나왔어요? = Did you bring your keys (did you come out while possessing your keys?)
동물원에 카메라를 갖고 입장해도 돼요? = Am I allowed to enter the zoo with a camera? (Am I allowed to enter the zoo while possessing camera?)
What is interesting is that 갖다 is very often used without any form of conjugation. When used in this form, it is most commonly done when one is giving an order to another person. Including “갖다” in the sentence implies that the person should go or come somewhere while possessing some object. For example:
휴지를 갖다 주세요 = Give me a tissue, please (Please go get me a tissue, and come back [with the tissue in your hand])
펜을 갖다 주세요 = Give me a pen, please (Please go get me a pen, and come back [with the pen in your hand])
쓰레기를 갖다 버리세요 = Throw out the garbage (go [with the garbage in your hand] and throw out the garbage)
The same form is also often used when telling somebody that you will do something – usually with the ~게(요) or ~까(요) ending (which you learned in Lesson 63). For example:
커피를 갖다 드릴까요? = Would you like some coffee? Shall I give you some coffee? (Would you like me to go, and return [with coffee in my hand]?)
영수증을 갖다 줄게요 = I am going to go and get your receipt
As you can see – when used in the plain (unconjugated) form of 갖다, the meaning usually implies that somebody is going somewhere and then returns with some object.
This usage can often be confused with 갔다(가), which was taught in Lesson 88. Look at the following example:
휴지를 주세요 = Give me a tissue, please
네, 갔다 올게요 = Okay, I will go, and then come back
네, 갖다 올게요 = Okay, I will go, and then come back [with the tissue in my hand]
Notice that the two sentences above would sound exactly the same. Therefore, you don’t really need to worry about distinguishing between them in speech. However, you should make sure you understand which one is used in which situation for reading and writing.
As I mentioned in the introduction of this lesson, 갖다 is actually an abbreviated form of 가지다. Because of this, it actually follows some strange rules that aren’t followed by other words (aside from a few other abbreviated words).
Notice how the last vowel in “가지다” is “ㅣ,” which means that when adding ~아/어 to it, one must add “~어” because the last vowel is not ㅏ or ㅗ.
However, in the abbreviated form of 갖다, the last vowel is “ㅏ.” So… what should we add to it? 아 or 어? In the “가지다” form, one should add “ㅓ,” but not that it is abbreviated to “갖다,” should one add “ㅏ?”
Not only that, but the stem of “가지다” ends in a vowel, whereas the stem of “갖다” ends in a consonant. Therefore, when adding grammatical principles that change based on whether the stem of a words ends in a vowel or consonant – what should we do? When adding “(으)면” to 가지다, we know that it should be “가지면”, but “갖다” (which is actually the same word), ends in “ㅈ”. So, should it be “갖으면” or “갖면”?
This ambiguity has led to a fairly strange rule: It is incorrect to add any grammatical principle starting with a vowel to 갖다.
For example, while any of these would be correct:
가지다 + 아/어 = 가져
가지다 + 았다/었다 = 가졌다
가지다 + (으)면 = 가지면
가지다 + ㄴ/은 = 가진
None of the above could be added to 갖다. Notice that the reason this rule is in place is because people wouldn’t know which form to add – one that corresponds to rules of 가지다 or one that corresponds to rules 갖다.
However, it is acceptable to add grammatical principles that apply to both 가지다 and 갖다.
For example, any of these would be correct:
가지다 + 고 = 가지고
가지다 + 는 = 가지는
가지다 + 지~ = 가지지~
And any of these would also be correct:
갖다 + 고 = 갖고
갖다 + 는 = 갖는
갖다 + 지~ = 갖지~
As you can see, adding grammatical principles to ~갖다 is only acceptable if there would be no change to the grammatical principle if it were attached to 가지다. I actually find this rule quite interesting, and if you do too, it is safe to say that you are now a Korean grammar nerd!
거기에 가서 돈을 갖고 돌아오세요! = Go over there, get the money and then come back!
이 문법 현상에 관심을 갖는 사람이 없어요 = There is nobody interested in this grammatical phenomenon
Those two are exactly the same as:
거기에 가서 돈을 가지고 돌아오세요! = Go over there, get the money and then come back!
이 문법 현상에 관심을 가지는 사람이 없어요 = There is nobody interested in this grammatical phenomenon
Because: ~아/어 가지고
In addition to everything that has been discussed so far in this lesson, “가지다” can also be used as a grammatical principle to mean “because”. In order to do this, ~아/어 가지다 is added to the end of one clause that indicates the reason for the next clause. The word in the first clause can be a verb or adjective. For example:
어제 늦게 끝나 가지고 집에 못 갔어요 = Because I finished late yesterday, I couldn’t go home
오늘 날씨가 너무 더워 가지고 약속을 취소했어요 = Because the weather is so hot today, I cancelled my plans
우리가 너무 일찍 와 가지고 오랫동안 기다렸어요 = Because we came so early, we had to wait for a long time
It should be noted that the use of this grammatical principle is very common in speech, but very uncommon in any form of writing (except for quoted dialogue).
It is also very common for people to pronounce “가지고” as “가주고” or even “가주구”.
머무르다 (머물다), 서두르다 (서둘다) and 서투르다 (서툴다)
Another word that follows a similar type of rule (but not the same rule) is 머무르다. Just like 가지다 and 갖다, there is a shortened version of 머무르다 – which is 머물다.
머무르다 can be used any way and with any grammatical principle, but must be used in accordance with the 르 irregular. For example:
한국에서 온 교환학생이 우리 집에서 1년 동안 머물렀어요 = A Korean exchange student stayed at our house for a year
However, 머물다 cannot be used with all grammatical principles.
Any grammatical principle that starts with a consonant (and there is no option other than that one consonant), can be added to 머물다. For example:
머물다 + ~자 = 머물자 = okay
머물다 + ~고 = 머물고 = okay
머물다 + 겠다 = 머물겠다 = okay
머물다 + ~지 않다 = 머물지 않다 = okay
Any grammatical principle where there is a choice of whether a vowel or consonant needs to be added, then it is also acceptable.
머물다 + ~(으)면서 = 머물면서 = okay
머물다 + ~(으)면 = 머물면 = okay
Note that this in these cases 머물다 acts just like any other verb/adjective where the final consonant is “ㄹ”. All of the grammatical principles above are added to 팔다 (to sell) in the exact same way that they are added to 머물다. For example:
Because the last letter in the stem of 머물다 (and 팔다) is “ㄹ”, a lot of these additions require the application of the ㄹ irregular. For example.
머물다 + ~ㄹ/을 것이다 머물 것이다
머물다 + ~ㄹ/을래 = 머물래
머물다 + ~(으)시다 = 머무시다
머물다 + ~(으)세요 = 머무세요
Again, all of the above are the same as they would be when adding them to 팔다 or any other verb with ㄹ as the final consonant. For example:
Everything so far seems normal about 머물다, but it differs from most verbs in the following way: if a grammatical principle that is added to 머물다 is a vowel – and there is no other option other than a vowel – then that grammatical principle cannot be added to 머물다. The two most common grammatical principles where this occurs is when conjugating in the past or present tenses. For examples:
머물다 + ~아/어(요) = 머물어요 – this is incorrect
머물다 + ~았/었어요 = 머물었어요 – this is incorrect
This same rule also applies to:
서둘다 (a shortened version of 서두르다 – to rush ), and
서툴다 (a shortened version of 서투르다 – to not be good at something)
Okay, I think that’s it for this lesson!