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Lesson 97: Abbreviated Conjugations: 갖다 and 머물다

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Vocabulary
Introduction

An abbreviation of 가지다: 갖다
Because: ~아/어 가지고
머무르다 (머물다), 서두르다 (서둘다) and 서투르다 (서툴다)

 

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
국민 = people of a country/citizen

Common Usages:
국민은행 = Kookmin bank
국민연금 = Korean national pension plan
국민건강보험 = Korean national health insurance

Examples:
모든 국가의 자원은 국민이다
= The resource of all nations is its people

그 나라의 국민들이 한국에서 1900 년대에 머물렀어요
= That country’s people stayed in Korean during the 1900’s

북한 경제가 발전하려면 정부는 국민들을 더 이상 통제하면 안 돼요
= If North Korea wants to improve their economy, the government shouldn’t control its citizens anymore

김연아 선수는 모든 대한민국 국민들이 좋아하는 스포츠 영웅과 같은 선수예요
= Kim Yeo-na is the kind of sports hero all Korean citizens like/love

독학 = self-study

Notes: When people ask me how I learned Korean, I usually just respond with “독학,” or “독학으로.”

Examples:
교과서를 가지고 도서관에서 독학했어요
= I studied alone at the library with my textbook

학원을 한번도 다니지 않고 독학으로만 공부해서 서울대학교에 갔어요
= After never going to hagwon once and only self-studying, I got into Seoul National University

옆집 = next door

Examples:
옆집 아이는 부모님과 싸운 후 가출했어요
= The child of the house next door ran away after fighting with his parents

옆집에 사는 할아버지는 우리 열쇠를 가지고 있어요
= The grandpa living next door has our keys

옆집에 사는 이웃사람이 엄마에게 준 컴퓨터를 제가 가진다고 했어요
= I said that I am going to keep the computer that the neighbor living next door gave to mom

변화 = change

Common Usages:
기후변화 = climate change
환경변화 = environment change
신체적 변화 = body change
정서적 변화 = emotional change
긍정적인 변화 = positive change
부정적인 변화 = negative change

Examples:
기후변화를 측정할 길이 없어요
= There is no way of measuring climate change

기후변화 때문에 바다 해수면이 높아지고 있어요
= The sea level is rising because of climate change

이 법이 시행되면 사회에 많은 변화가 있을 것으로 예상됩니다
= If this law is implemented/enforced, it is expected that there will be lot of changes in society

지난 50 년 동안 과학 기술은 사람들의 생각을 많이 변화시켰어요
= Technology has really changed the way people think over the past 50 years

중심 = center/heart/middle of something

Examples:
우리는 부산 중심에 있는 호텔에서 머물렀어요
= We stayed in a hotel in the center of Busan

공기가 좋지 않은 도심 중심에 살고 있어 가지고 항상 목이 아파요
= Because I live in the middle of a city with bad air, my throat is always sore

진실 = truth

Common Usages:
진실성 = truthfulness

Examples:
그 사람의 말은 항상 진실성이 부족해요
= That person’s words always lack sincerity

그 사람이 말할 때마다 진실성이 느껴져요
= Every time that person speaks, you can feel sincerity

부모님께 어쩔 수 없이 진실을 알려줬어요
= I had no choice but to tell my parents the truth

그 변호사가 진실이 쓰여 있는 서류를 가지고 있어요
= That lawyer has the document with the truth written on it

정상 = top

Common Usages:
최정상 = the very top
정상에 오르다 = to go to the top
정상에 도달하다 = to arrive at/reach the top

Examples:
저는 카메라를 가지고 산 정상에 올라갔어요
= I went to the top of the mountain with my camera

배우로써 최정상에 오른 후 서서히 내려와 은퇴하고 싶었어요
= As an actor, after making it to the top and slowly coming down, I wanted to retire early

용기 = courage, guts, bravery

Common Usages:
용기를 내다 = to be brave, to show courage

Examples:
누군가를 좋아한다면, 고민하지 말고 용기를 가지고 고백해 보세요
= If you like somebody, don’t stress about it, pick up your courage and try confessing

원래 그 여자랑 얘기하는 게 너무 무서웠지만 지금은 갑자기 용기가 났어요
= Originally I was too scared to talk with that girl, but now all of a sudden I have courage

나는 용기를 내고 그의 수업이 있는 교실에서 기다렸다. 하나, 둘, 셋! 멀리서 그가 수업이 끝나고 걸어 오는 것이 보였다.
= I summoned up the courage, and waited at the classroom where he has class. One. Two Three! I saw him finish class and come walking.

시기 = time

Common Usages:
시기를 놓치다 = to miss the timing
시기가 잘 맞다 = for the time to be right

Examples:
각 가게마다 환불을 받을 수 있는 시기가 다르니 꼼꼼히 확인해야 해요
= The time/period that you can receive a refund at each store is different, so make sure you check them meticulously

제일 일이 바쁜 시기에 엄마가 가게 일을 도와 달라 해 가지고 난처했어요
= In the time that I am the busiest with work, mom asked me to help her with some of her store work, so I was a little taken aback

저기 누군가가 산불을 냈나 봐. 연기가 많이 나는데
자연산불일걸. 이 시기에 나무가 건조해서 산불이 자주 나
= It seems like somebody started a forest fire over there. There is a lot of smoke coming up.
= It is probably just a natural forest fire. At this time (of year), the trees are dry so forest fires often come up

최종적 = final, last

Examples:
최종적으로 아무도 그녀에게 관심을 가지고 않았어요
= In the end, nobody had any interest in her

그 대회에서 최종적으로 우승한 사람은 우리 학교 학생이였어요
= The last person to win that competition was a student from our school

Verbs:
힘내다 = to cheer up, to get cheered up

Notes: Korean people exclaim 힘내(요) to mean something similar to “Cheer-up!” or “Good luck!”

Examples:
용기를 가지고 힘내세요!
= Get some courage, and good luck!

지금까지 아주 끔찍한 시간인 것을 알고 있지만 조금 더 힘내고 자신감을 가지고
다시 나가 보세요
= I know it has been a very terrible time so far, but try to cheer up a bit, get some
confidence and go outside again

알려지다 = to become known

Common Usages:
세상에 알려지다 = to let the world know

Examples:
이 약의 위험성을 잘 알려지지 않았어요
= The danger of this drug/medicine was not well known

세계에서 가장 잘 알려진 왕비 중 한 명은 영국의 왕비에요
= The most well known queen in the world is the Queen of England

추측하다 = to guess

The noun form of this verb “추측” translates to “a guess.”

Common Usages:
추측한 대로 = as one guessed

Examples:
그 여자가 임신한 아이가 남자아이란 것은 제 추측이에요
= It is my guess that the baby that woman is pregnant with is a boy

그 사람이 저녁식사를 같이 했을 때 고기를 먹지 않아 가지고 채식주의자라고 추측했어요
= When I had dinner with that person, he didn’t eat meat, so I guessed that he is a vegetarian

도박하다 = to gamble

The noun form of this verb “도박” translates to “gambling.”

Common Usages:
원정도박 = to go abroad and gamble
불법도박 = illegal gambling

Examples:
급하게 돈이 필요해서 도박을 한다는 생각으로 코인을 샀어요
= I needed money very quickly, so I bought some cryptocurrency as a form of gambling

불법도박을 하고 있는 도중에 갑자기 경찰이 들이닥쳐 재빨리 도망쳤어요
= As I was gambling illegally, all of a sudden the police approached so I swiftly ran away

내려다보다 = to look down

Examples:
너무 높은 곳에 올라가 있어 가지고 무서워서 밑을 내려다보지 못했어요
= Because I went up to a really high place and was scared I couldn’t look down요

그 사람은 자기가 부자라는 이유로 자기보다 돈이 없는 사람을 내려다봐요
= That person, based on the reason that he is rich, looks down on other people who don’t have as much money as him

머물다 = abbreviated form of 머무르다

Notes: Any grammatical principle that starts with a consonant (and there is no option other than that one consonant), can be added to 머물다. For example:
머물다 + ~자 = 머물자

Any grammatical principle where there is a choice of whether a vowel or consonant needs to be added, then it is also acceptable:

머물다 + ~(으)면 = 머물면

If a grammatical principle that is added to 머물다 is a vowel – and there is no other option other than a vowel – then that grammatical principle cannot be added to 머물다. The two most common grammatical principles where this occurs is when conjugating in the past or present tenses. For examples:

머물다 + ~아/어(요) = 머물어(요) – this is incorrect
머물다 + ~았/었어(요) = 머물었어(요) – this is incorrect

Examples:
여기서 머물고 싶으면 여권을 줘야 돼요
= If you want to stay here, you need to give us/me your passport

우리가 신혼여행을 갈 때 10 일 동안 런던에서 머물 거예요
= When we go on our honeymoon, we will stay in London for 10 days

우리가 거기서 하룻밤만 있을 텐데 좀 더 싼 데에서 머물자
= We will spend just one night there, so let’s stay at a place that is a little cheaper

서두르다 = to rush

This word follows the 르 irregular.

Examples:
문을 잠그지 않은 채 서둘러 집에서 나갔어요
= I went out of the house with the door unlocked

공부를 할 때 잘 이해하려면 서둘러서는 안 돼요
= When you study, in order to understand (things) well, you shouldn’t rush

서둘다 = abbreviated form of 서두르다

Notes: Any grammatical principle that starts with a consonant (and there is no option other than that one consonant), can be added to 서둘다. For example:
서둘다 + ~자 = 서둘자

Any grammatical principle where there is a choice of whether a vowel or consonant needs to be added, then it is also acceptable:

서둘다 + ~(으)면 = 서둘면

If a grammatical principle that is added to 서둘다 is a vowel – and there is no other option other than a vowel – then that grammatical principle cannot be added to 머물다. The two most common grammatical principles where this occurs is when conjugating in the past or present tenses. For examples:

서둘다 + ~아/어(요) = 서둘어(요) – this is incorrect
서둘다 + ~았/었어(요) = 서둘었어(요) – this is incorrect

Examples:
기차가 출발시간이 얼마 남지 않아 기차역까지 서둘자고 했어요
= There wasn’t a lot of time until the train left from the station, so I said “let’s hurry up”

늦잠 자는 바람에 학교에 늦게 갈까 봐 엄마가 서둘라고 재촉했어요
= My mom told me to hurry up because I slept in and she was worried I would be late for school

서투르다 = to not be good at something

This word follows the 르 irregular.

Examples:
아이들은 모든 게 처음이라 서투르지만 차근차근 배워 나갈 거예요
= Kids are not good at things something because it is their first time to do something, but they will slowly learn how to do them

처음으로 혼자서 해 본 음식이라 서툴렀지만 부모님께서 맛있게 드셔서 뿌듯했어요
= This is food that I had never made before, so it wasn’t very good, but I was so happy (satisfied) because my parents ate it really well

서툴다 = abbreviated form of 서투르다

Notes: Any grammatical principle that starts with a consonant (and there is no option other than that one consonant), can be added to 서툴다. For example:

서툴다 + ~자 = 서툴고

Any grammatical principle where there is a choice of whether a vowel or consonant needs to be added, then it is also acceptable:

서툴다 + ~(으)면 = 서툴면

If a grammatical principle that is added to 서툴다 is a vowel – and there is no other option other than a vowel – then that grammatical principle cannot be added to 서툴다. The two most common grammatical principles where this occurs is when conjugating in the past or present tenses. For examples:

서툴다 + ~아/어(요) = 서툴어(요) – this is incorrect
서툴다 + ~았/었어(요) = 서툴었어(요) – this is incorrect

Examples:
젓가락질이 아직 서툴면 포크로 먹어도 돼
= If you’re not good at using chopsticks, you may use a fork

나는 아직 한국어를 배운 지 얼마 안돼서 서툴다
= I haven’t been learning Korean for very long, so I’m not very good at it

Adjectives:
끔찍하다 = to be terrible

Examples:
지금까지 아주 끔찍한 시간인 것을 알고 있지만 조금 더 힘내고 자신감을 가지고
다시 나가 보세요
= I know it has been a very terrible time so far, but try to cheer up a bit, get some
confidence and go outside again

어제 집 근처에서 일어난 살인 사건은 아주 끔찍했어요
= The murder that took place yesterday near our house is terrible

난처하다 = to be embarrassed

Examples:
제일 일이 바쁜 시기에 엄마가 가게 일을 도와 달라 해 가지고 난처했어요
= In the time that I am the busiest with work, mom asked me to help her with some of her store work, so I was a little taken aback

남자친구랑 데이트를 하기로 한 날 친구가 갑자기 급한 일이 생겨서 만나자고 해서 난처했어요
= On a day that I planned to have a date with my boyfriend, a friend had something urgent come up and asked to meet, so I didn’t know what to do

Adverbs and Other Words:
년대 = referring to the period of years within a decade, century or millennium

Common Usages:
1980년대 = the time between 1980 and 1989
1900년대 = the time between 1900 and 1999
2000년대 = the time between 2000 and 2999

Examples:
그 나라의 국민들이 한국에서 1900 년대에 머물렀어요
= That country’s people stayed in Korean during the 1900’s

1960년대 태어난 아이들을 베이비붐 시대 아이들이라고 해요
= Kids born in the 1960s were called the baby boomer generation

마침내 = finally, at last

Examples:
저는 지난 주에 읽던 책을 마침내 가지고 왔어요
= I finally brought the book that I was reading last week

마침내 졸업 논문을 끝내고 2년간의 대학원 생활에 마침표를 찍게 됐어요
= I finally finished my graduate thesis, which allowed me to put an end/stop to the two years of my graduate program

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn about the word 갖다, which is an abbreviation of the word 가지다. The Korean language has evolved in such a way that 갖다 can now be thought of as a word, but due to the fact that it is actually an abbreviation, it has atypical grammatical rules. I will break these rules open for you. Let’s get started!

 

An abbreviation of 가지다: 갖다

First things first – let’s remember what the word 가지다 means and how it is used. Though it can be used in a variety of situations, it always has a translation of “to have,” “to possess” or something similar. It is most commonly used with 있다 to indicate that one “has” an object. For example:

그 나라의 국민들은 다 여권을 가지고 있어야 돼요
= That country’s people all need to have a passport

옆집에 사는 할아버지는 우리 열쇠를 가지고 있어요
= The grandpa living next door has our keys

그 변호사가 진실이 쓰여 있는 서류를 가지고 있어요
= That lawyer has the document with the truth written on it

In practice, the word “있다” can change to another verb to indicate that one does something while possessing an object. For example:

술을 가지고 영화관에 입장해도 돼요?
= Am I allowed to enter the cinema with alcohol?

교과서를 가지고 도서관에서 독학했어요
= I studied alone at the library with my textbook

저는 카메라를 가지고 산 정상에 올라갔어요
= I went to the top of the mountain with my camera

갖다 can replace 가지다 in all of these cases. For example:

그 나라의 국민들은 다 여권을 갖고 있어야 돼요
옆집에 사는 할아버지는 우리 열쇠를 갖고 있어요
그 변호사가 진실이 쓰여 있는 서류를 갖고 있어요

술을 갖고 영화관에 입장해도 돼요?
교과서를 갖고 도서관에서 독학했어요
저는 카메라를 갖고 산 정상에 올라갔어요

갖다 is an abbreviated form of 가지다. Because of this, it actually follows some strange rules that aren’t followed by other words, aside from a few other abbreviated words.

Notice how the last vowel in the stem of 가지다 is ㅣ, which means that when adding ~아/어 to it, one must add ~어 because the last vowel in the stem is not ㅏ or ㅗ. This is consistent with the rules taught all the way back in Lesson 5.

Notice that in the abbreviated form 갖다, the last vowel in the stem is ㅏ. So… when adding ~아/어, what should we add to it? ~아 or ~어?

갖아 makes sense, because the final vowel in the stem is ㅏ, and
갖어 makes sense, because the final vowel in the stem of the actual word 가지다 is ㅣ

We’ve got a bit of a conundrum here.

To add to the confusion, the stem of 가지다 ends in a vowel, whereas the stem of 갖다 ends in a consonant. Therefore, when adding grammatical principles that change based on whether the stem of a word ends in a vowel or consonant – what should we do?

For example, if we were to add ~(으)면 to 갖다:

갖으면 makes sense, because the final letter in the stem is ㅈ, and
갖면 makes sense, because the final letter in the stem of the actual word 가지다 is a vowel

This conundrum has led to a fairly strange rule.

It is incorrect to add any grammatical principle starting with a vowel, or with the option of adding a vowel, to 갖다.

For example, while any of these would be correct:

가지다 + ~아/어 = 가져
가지다 + ~았다/었다 = 가졌다
가지다 + ~(으)면 = 가지면
가지다 + ~ㄴ/은 = 가진

None of the above could be added to 갖다.

Notice that the reason this rule is in place is because people wouldn’t know which form to add – one that corresponds to rules of 가지다 or one that corresponds to rules 갖다.

However, it is acceptable to add grammatical principles that apply to both 가지다 and 갖다 in the same way.

For example, any of these would be correct:

가지다 + ~고 = 가지고
가지다 + ~는 = 가지는
가지다 + ~지~ = 가지지~

And any of these would also be correct:

갖다 + ~고 = 갖고
갖다 + ~는~ = 갖는
갖다 + ~지~ = 갖지~

As you can see, adding grammatical principles to 갖다 is only acceptable if there would be no change to the grammatical principle if it were attached to 가지다. I actually find this rule quite interesting, and if you do too, it is safe to say that you are now a Korean grammar nerd! Let’s see some of this nerdiness in actual sentences:

용기를 갖고 힘내세요!
용기를 가지고 힘내세요!
= Get some courage, and good luck!

It is very hard to translate 힘내다 to English. It is usually combined with an imperative ending, and used essentially to say “Cheer up!” or “Good Luck!” or something similar.

이 문법 현상에 관심을 갖는 사람이 없어요
이 문법 현상에 관심을 가지는 사람이 없어요
= There is nobody interested in this grammatical phenomenon

저는 지난 주에 읽던 책을 마침내 갖고 왔어요
저는 지난 주에 읽던 책을 마침내 가지고 왔어요
= I finally brought the book that I was reading last week

최종적으로 아무도 그녀에게 관심을 갖지 않았어요
최종적으로 아무도 그녀에게 관심을 가지지 않았어요
= In the end, nobody had any interest in her

옆집에 사는 이웃사람이 엄마에게 준 컴퓨터를 제가 갖는다고 했어요
옆집에 사는 이웃사람이 엄마에게 준 컴퓨터를 제가 가진다고 했어요
= I said that I am going to keep the computer that the neighbor living next door gave to mom

지금까지 아주 끔찍한 시간인 것을 알고 있지만 조금 더 힘내고 자신감을 갖고 다시 나가 보세요
지금까지 아주 끔찍한 시간인 것을 알고 있지만 조금 더 힘내고 자신감을 가지고 다시 나가 보세요
= I know it has been a very terrible time so far, but try to cheer up a bit, get some confidence and go outside again

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In Lesson 88, you learned how to use ~다(가). This is commonly added to 갖다 to indicate that one possesses an object and then does something with it. For example:

휴지를 갖다 주세요
= Give me a tissue, please (Please get a tissue, and then give it to me)

펜을 갖다 주세요
= Give me a pen, please (Please get a pen, and then give it to me)

쓰레기를 갖다 버리세요
= Throw out the garbage (Please take the garbage, and then throw is out)

커피를 갖다 드릴까요?
= Would you like some coffee? (Would you like it if I got a coffee and gave it to you?)

영수증을 갖다 줄게요
= I am going to go and get your receipt (Would you like it if I got a receipt and gave it to you?)

The pronunciation of 갖다 can often be confused with 갔다, where ~았 + ~다(가) is attached to 가다 (also taught in Lesson 88). You should use 갔다 to indicate that one goes somewhere and comes back. You should use 갖다 to indicate that one possesses something and does an action with it. For example:

지금 갔다 올게요 = I will go and come back (if that is okay with you)
지금 갖다 줄게요 = I will get it and give it to you (if that is okay with you)

 

 

Because: ~아/어 가지고

As we are already discussing 갖다 and 가지다, I would like to take this time to introduce you to another meaning of 가지다. 가지다 can also be used as a grammatical principle to mean “because”. In order to do this, ~아/어 가지다 is added to the end of one clause that indicates the reason for the next clause. The word in the first clause can be a verb, adjective or 이다. For example:

어제 늦게 끝나 가지고 집에 못 갔어요
= Because I finished late yesterday, I couldn’t go home

우리가 너무 일찍 와 가지고 오랫동안 기다렸어요
= Because we came so early, we had to wait for a long time

오늘 날씨가 너무 더워 가지고 약속을 취소했어요
= Because the weather is so hot today, I cancelled my plans

공기가 좋지 않은 도심 중심에 살고 있어 가지고 항상 목이 아파요
= Because I live in the middle of a city with bad air, my throat is always sore

너무 높은 곳에 올라가 있어 가지고 무서워서 밑을 내려다보지 못했어요
= Because I went up to a really high place and was scared I couldn’t look down

제일 일이 바쁜 시기에 엄마가 가게 일을 도와 달라 해 가지고 난처했어요
= In the time that I am the busiest with work, mom asked me to help her with some of her store work, so I was a little taken aback

그 사람이 저녁식사를 같이 했을 때 고기를 먹지 않아 가지고 채식주의자라고 추측했어요
= When I had dinner with that person, he didn’t eat meat, so I guessed that he is a vegetarian

그 소문이 마을 전체에 점점 알려져 가지고 결국 그 소문의 주인공은 마을을 떠났어요
= That rumor slowly got more and more known around the whole town, so in the end the person left town

Using ~아/어 가지고 is very colloquial, and therefore, quite common in speech. However, it is not common in written Korean.

It is common for Korean people to pronounce “가지고” as “가주고” or even “가주구.” This is technically an accent that you would here in the south (of South Korea), but I hear 가주구 very commonly, even in Seoul. For example:

오늘 날씨가 너무 더워 가주구 약속을 취소했어요
= Because the weather is so hot today, I cancelled my plans

머무르다 (머물다), 서두르다 (서둘다) and 서투르다 (서툴다)

So far in this lesson, you have learned about the strange rules that apply to 가지다 and 갖다 when grammatical principles are attached to them. Another word that follows a similar rule is 머무르다. Just like 가지다, there is a shortened version of 머무르다 which is 머물다.

머무르다 can be used in any way and with any grammatical principle, but must be used in accordance with the 르 irregular. For example:

우리는 부산 중심에 있는 호텔에서 머물렀어요
= We stayed in a hotel in the center of Busan

부산에서 3일 동안 머무르고 서울로 가는 게 어때요?
= What do you think about staying in Busan for three days and then going to Seoul?

그 나라의 국민들이 한국에서 1900년대에 머물렀어요
= That country’s people stayed in Korean during the 1900’s

한국에서 온 교환학생이 우리 집에서 1년 동안 머물렀어요
= A Korean exchange student stayed at our house for a year

While 머무르다 can be used with any grammatical principle, 머물다 cannot.

Any grammatical principle that starts with a consonant (and there is no option other than that one consonant), can be added to 머물다. For example:

머물다 + ~자 = 머물자 = okay
머물다 + ~고 = 머물고 = okay
머물다 + 겠다 = 머물겠다 = okay
머물다 + ~지 않다 = 머물지 않다 = okay

Any grammatical principle where there is a choice of whether a vowel or consonant needs to be added, then it is also acceptable:

머물다 + ~(으)면 = 머물면 = okay
머물다 + ~(으)면서 = 머물면서 = okay

머물다 acts just like any other verb/adjective where the final consonant is “ㄹ”. All of the grammatical principles above are added to 팔다 (to sell) in the exact same way that they are added to 머물다. For example:

팔자
팔고
팔겠다
팔면
팔면서

Because the last letter in the stem of 머물다 (and 팔다) is ㄹ, a lot of these additions require the application of the ㄹ irregular. For example:

머물다 + ~ㄹ/을 = 머물
머물다 + ~ㄹ/을래 = 머물래
머물다 + ~(으)시다 = 머무시다
머물다 + ~(으)세요 = 머무세요

Again, all of the above are the same as they would be when adding them to 팔다 or any other verb with ㄹ as the final consonant. For example:


팔래
파시다
파세요

Everything so far seems normal about 머물다, but it differs from most verbs in the following way: if a grammatical principle that is added to 머물다 is a vowel – and there is no other option other than a vowel – then that grammatical principle cannot be added to 머물다. The two most common grammatical principles where this occurs is when conjugating in the past or present tenses. For examples:

머물다 + ~아/어(요) = 머물어(요) – this is incorrect
머물다 + ~았/었어(요) = 머물었어(요) – this is incorrect

This same rule also applies to:

서둘다 (a shortened version of 서두르다 – to rush ), and
서툴다 (a shortened version of 서투르다 – to not be good at something)

Okay, I think that’s it for this lesson!

Click here for a Workbook to go along with this lesson.
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Okay, take me to the next lesson!

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