Lesson 25: Anybody, Everybody, Somebody, Nobody, etc.

Click here for a workbook to go along with this lesson.
This lesson is also available in Русский.

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Everything/Everywhere/Every time/Everyone

Something/Somewhere/Sometime/Somebody

아무: Any, No

Each (마다)

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use (you probably won’t be able to understand the grammar within the sentences at this point, but it is good to see as you progress through your learning).

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

The following words are kept in the order below because this lesson presents them in that order:

모든 = every

Common Usages:
모든 것 = everything
모든 사람 = every person

Notes: This looks like the dictionary form of this word should be “모드다” and ~ㄴ/은 is added to is to describe an upcoming noun. 모든 is the dictionary form of this word. It is placed before nouns to mean “all/every…”

Examples:
모든 학생들은 하루 종일 잤어 = All students slept all day
모든 학생들은 그 문제를 쉽게 풀었어요 = All the students easily solved that problem
모든 선생님들은 똑똑해요 = Every teacher is smart
우리 선생님은 모든 학생들을 좋아해요 = Our teacher likes all students
모든 한국 사람들이 밥을 먹어요 = All Korean people eat rice
모든 학생들은 감기에 걸렸어요 = All the students have the flu

모든 것 = everything

Examples:
저는 모든 을 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat everything
저는 한국어에 대해 모든 을 배우고 싶어요 = I want to learn everything about Korean

어디나 = everywhere

Example:
저는 한국 어디나 여행하고 싶어요 = I want to travel everywhere in Korea
우리는 동남아시아에 어디나 갈 거예요 = We will go everywhere in South East Asia
밥은 어디나 맛이 똑같아요 = Rice tastes the same everywhere

언제나 = every time

Example:
그녀는 언제나 늦게 와요 = She comes late every time
저는 언제나 똑같은 메뉴를 먹어요 = I always eat the same menu
저는 언제나 똑같은 시간에 일어나요 = I always wake up at the same time

누구나 = everyone

Example:
누구나 그 여자를 알아요 = Everybody knows that girl
누구나 우리 애기를 보고 싶어요 = Everybody wants to see our baby
누구나 한국을 좋아해요 = Everybody likes Korea

뭔가 = something

Notes: The subject and object particles in general can be omitted from any sentence (although I don’t suggest omitting particles until you have a very deep understanding of Korean), but they seem to be more commonly omitted from these types of sentences.

Example:
저는 방금 뭔가(를) 봤어요 = I just saw something a minute ago
등에 뭔가(가) 있나요? = Is there something on my back?
저는 팔에 뭔가(가)느껴져요 = I feel something on my arm
저는 뭔가(를) 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat something
저는 뭔가(를) 말하고 싶어요 = I want to say something

어딘가 = somewhere

Notes: By the nature of the word “somewhere,” you are most likely to use the particles ~에 or ~에서 in these sentences. It would be acceptable to omit the particle ~에 from 어딘가 but less acceptable to omit the particle ~에서.

Example:
저는 열쇠를 어딘가(에) 두었어요 = I left my keys somewhere
전쟁이 아시아 어딘가에서 났어요 = A war broke out somewhere in Asia
피가 어딘가에서 나오고 있어요 = Blood is coming out of somewhere
선생님들이 회의를 어딘가에서 하고 있어요 = The teachers are having a meeting somewhere
저는 휴일에 어딘가에 가고 싶어요 = I want to go somewhere on the holiday
저는 어딘가에서 커피를 마시고 싶어요 = I want to drink a cup of coffee somewhere

언젠가 = sometime, some day

Notes: ~에 is typically not attached to 언젠가. In both English and Korean, it isn’t logical to make sentences with “until somewhere” or “from somewhere.”

Example:
저는 언젠가 선생님이 되고 싶어요 = I want to become a teacher someday
그 날이 언젠가 올 거예요 = The day will come sometime
구름이 언젠가 걷힐 거예요 = The clouds will clear eventually/sometime
저는 언젠가 경찰관이 되고 싶어요 = I want to become a police officer someday
저는 언젠가 중국어도 배우고 싶어요 = I want to learn Chinese as well some day
저는 언젠가 고향에 돌아가고 싶어요 = I want to return (go back) to my hometown some day

누군가 = somebody

Example: 누군가(는) 너를 찾고 있어요 = Somebody is looking for you
저는 누군가의 열쇠를 찾았어요 = I found somebody’s keys
경찰관들은 누군가와 얘기하고 있어요 = The policemen are talking with somebody
누군가가 지갑을 잃어버렸어요 = Somebody lost their wallet

아무나 = anybody

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Examples:
저는 아무나 사귀고 싶어요 = I want to go out with anybody
저는 이 선물을 아무에게나 주고 싶어요 = I want to give this present to anybody
저는 아무하고나 축구를 하고 싶어요 = I want to play soccer with anybody

아무 거나 = anything

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Example:
저는 아무 거나 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat anything
아무 거나
고르세요! = Choose anything!
아무 거나 먹자! = Let’s eat anything!

아무 데나 = anywhere

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Example:
저는 아무 데나 가고 싶어요 = I want to go anywhere (I’d go anywhere)
가방을 아무 데나 두세요 = Put your bag down anywhere

아무 때나 = anytime

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Example:
아무 때나 좋아요 = Anytime is good

아무도 = nobody

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Examples:
아무도 나를 좋아하지 않아 = Nobody likes me
집에 아무도 없어요 = There is nobody at home/There isn’t anybody at home
저는 아무도 못 봤어요 = I didn’t see anybody/I saw nobody
저는 아무도 만나고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to meet anybody/I want to meet nobody
아무도 집에 가지 않았어요 = Nobody went home
저는 그 말을 아무에게도 안 했어요 = I didn’t say that to anybody/I said that to nobody
저는 아무하고도 얘기하고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to talk with anybody/I want to talk with nobody

아무 것도 = nothing

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Examples:
저는 아무 것도 먹고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to eat anything/I want to eat nothing

아무 데도 = nowhere

See the explanation in this lesson about this word.

Examples:
아기는 아무 데도 가지 않았어 = The baby didn’t go anywhere/The baby went nowhere

마다 = each

Notes: Attached to nouns or indications of time to mean “each”

Common Usages:
사람마다 = each person
날마다 = each day
Xㄹ/을 때 마다 = every time X happens
10분마다 = each/every 10 minutes

Example: 이 버스는 10분마다 와요 = This bus comes each/every 10 minutes
학생마다 달라요 = Each student is different
저는 월요일마다 운동해요 = I exercise every Monday

모두 = all

Notes: This word is explained in great detail in the lesson below.

Examples:
선생님들은 모두 똑똑해요 = All teachers are smart
저는 가족 모두를 사랑해요 = I love all of my family
저는 학생 모두를 가르쳤어요 = I taught all of the students
학생 모두가 기숙사로 갔어요 = All of the students went to the dorm
가족 모두가 고향에 갔어요 = All of the/my family went to the/our hometown
선생님 모두가 회의에 갔어요 = All of the teachers went to a meeting
저는 선물을 모두에게 주었어요 = I gave a present to everybody

= all

Notes: This word is explained in great detail in the lesson below.

Examples:
저는 했어요 = I did it all
저는 숙제를 했어요 = I did all of my homework
저는 월급을 이미 썼어요 = I already spent all of my paycheque
저는 라면을 먹었어요 = I ate all the ramen
사람들이 왔어요 = All the people have come
사람들이 죽었어요 = All the people died
부모님은 그래요 = All parents are like that
남자들은 게을러요 = All men are lazy
학생들은 공부하고 있어요 = All of the students are studying
애기들이 낮잠 자고 있어요 = All the babies are taking a nap

= place

Notes: This word is similar to the words 곳 and 장소.
A deeper discussion of 데, specifically distinguishing it from 때 and ~는데 can be found in Lesson 76 and Lesson 77.

Common Usages:
아무 데나 = anywhere (any place)
가고 싶은 데가 있어요? = Do you have a place you want to go?

Examples:
돈이 없어서 갈 수 있는 가 없었어요 = He had nowhere to go because he had no money
우리가 처음에 만난 데에 갔어요 = We went to the place that we met for the first time
그녀가 사는 는 조금 멀어요 = She lives a little bit far (The place that she lives is a little far)

언제든지 = anytime

Notes: ~든지 is introduced as a grammatical principle in Lesson 106.

Example:
언제든지 오세요! = Come anytime!

Nouns:
젓가락 = chopsticks

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “젇까락”

Common Usages:
젓가락을 쓰다 = to use chopsticks
젓가락을 잘 쓰다 = to use chopsticks well

Example:
한국 사람들은 밥을 먹을 때 젓가락을 써요 = Korean people use chopsticks when they eat

= tongue

Common Usages:
혀를 깨물다 = to bite one’s tongue
혀를 내밀다 = to stick out one’s tongue
혀가 짧다 = to have a lisp (literally, to have a short tongue)

Example:
저는 를 그녀한테 내밀었어요 = I stuck my tongue out to her

지갑 = wallet, purse

Common Usages:
지갑을 훔치다 = to steal a purse/wallet
지갑을 챙기다 = to take your purse/wallet when you go somewhere
지갑에서 돈을 꺼내다 = to take out money from a purse/wallet

Example:
저는 지갑을 안 가져왔어요 = I didn’t bring my wallet
저는 저의 지갑을 찾고 있어요 = I am looking for my wallet
지갑
을 가져갈 필요가 없어요 = I/you don’t need to bring a/your purse/wallet

기숙사 = dorm

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “기숙싸 ”

Common Usages:
기숙사 생활 = dormitory life

Example:
저는 기숙사에서 외롭게 느껴졌어요 = I felt lonely at the dorm
저는 처음에 저의 여자친구를 기숙사에서 만났어요 = I met my girlfriend for the first time in the dorm

주소 = address

Common Usages:
이메일 주소 = e-mail address
주소를 바꾸다 = to change an address

Example:
여기에 주소를 써 주세요 = Please write your address here

메뉴 = menu

Notes: In English the word “menu” is only about the physical book where foods are written in a restaurant. In Korean people use the word “메뉴” when talking about the types of food served at a restaurant. Therefore, you will often hear things like “이 식당의 메뉴는 어때요?” (What do you think about the types of food at this restaurant?)

Example:
그 식당은 메뉴를 바꿨어요 = That restaurant changed its menu (changed the types of food that are served)

아시아 = Asia

Common Usages:
아시아 대륙 = the Asian continent
동남아시아 = South East Asia
동아시아 = East Asia
아시아 국가 = Asian countries

Example:
아시아의 경제는 요즘에 좋아지고 있어요 = The Asian economy is getting better these days

동남아시아 = south east Asia

Example:
우리는 동남아시아에 어디나 갈 거예요 = We will go everywhere in South East Asia
저는 6개월 동안 동남아시아에서 돌아다녔어요 = I wandered around South East Asia for 6 months

눈물 = tears

Common Usages:
눈물을 흘리다 = another way to say “to cry”
눈물을 닦다 = to wipe one’s tears
눈물을 참다 = to hold/fight back one’s tears

Notes: Literally, “eye water”

Example:
저는 눈물을 휴지로 닦았어요 = I wiped my tears with a tissue

회의 = meeting, conference

Common Usages:
회의 중 = to be in a meeting
회의를 열다 = to hold a meeting

Notes:
This refers to a meeting at a person’s job, not a meeting amongst family or friends.

Example:
우리는 다음 주에 그 문제에 대한 회의를 열 거예요 = We are going to hold a meeting next week about that problem
간부들은 그 결과를 회의에서 발표했어요 = The executives announced that result at the meeting

고향 = hometown

Common Usages:
고향이 그립다 = to miss one’s hometown

Example:
고향은 어디에요? = Where is your hometown? (Where are you from originally?)

휴일 = holiday

Common Usages:
공휴일 = public holiday

Example:
저는 공휴일을 빼고 매일 일해요 = I work every day except for public holidays

아기/애기 = baby, infant

Common Usages:
애기를 키우다 = to raise a baby
애기를 낳다 = to give birth to a baby
애기가 귀엽다 = for a baby to be cute

Notes: I believe the word was originally “아기” but through constant mispronunciation, the word has now evolved to “애기.”

People often call their boyfriend or girlfriend “애기.” This makes some people sick.

Examples:
우리 애기는 이제 두 살이에요 = Our baby is now two years old
애기들은 과자를 많이 먹어요 = Babies eat a lot of candy
애기 수영장은 깊지 않아요 = Baby swimming pools are not deep
우리 애기는 심한 감기에 걸렸어요 = Our baby caught a severe cold
저는 나쁜 애기였어요 = I was a bad baby
애기가
1분 동안 울고 배를 먹었어요 = The baby cried for 1 minute and then ate a pear
우리 애기는 말을 잘해요 = Our baby speaks well
우리 애기를 위해 그것을 사지 말자 = Let’s not buy that for our baby

Verbs:
산책하다 = to go for a walk

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “산채카다”

Common Usages:
산책할래요? = Shall we go for a walk?

Example:
우리는 공원에서(/을) 산책했어요 = We went for a walk in the park
날씨가 좋아서 산책하는 것은 즐거워요 = It is pleasant go to for a walk because the weather is so nice

사귀다 = to go out with, to date

Examples:
우리는 사귄 지 3개월 되었어요 = We have been going out for 3 months
그 학생은 어떤 여자와 지금 사귀고 있어요 = That student is going out with some girl now
저는 아무나 사귀고 싶어요 = I want to go out with anybody
제가 사귀고 있는 여자는 미국에 갔어요 = The girl who I am going out with went to the US
제가 아내와 결혼하기 전에 우리는 2년 동안 사귀었어요 = Before marrying my wife, we went out/dated for 2 years

Adjectives:
무관심하다 = to be indifferent

Example:
우리 학생들은 영어에 무관심해요 = Our students don’t care about English

심하다 = to be severe, to be extreme

Example:
우리 애기는 심한 감기에 걸렸어요 = Our baby caught a severe cold
사람이 너무 많아서 서울에서는 교통혼잡이 심해요 = The traffic jams in Seoul are severe because there are too many people
일자리가 하나만 있어서 경쟁은 심할 거예요 = The competition will be extreme because there is only one job available

Adverbs and Other Words:
하루 종일 = all day long

Example:
그는 하루 종일 그냥 컴퓨터를 해요 = He just uses the computer all day
모든 학생들은 하루 종일 잤어 = All students slept all day
저의 게으른 남동생은 하루 종일 아무것도 안 해요 = My lazy brother doesn’t do anything all day

예전 = old days, past

Example:
우리 아버지는 예전에 옷을 팔았어요 = Our dad sold clothes in the past

관심이 있다 = to be interested in

Notes: Very common noun that you can use to say “I am interested” in something. “~에” is added to the thing you are interested in, and 관심 is followed by ~이 있다. Translates directly to “I have interest in ____.”

Examples:
저는 한국역사에 관심이 있어요 = I am interested in Korean history
그 학생은 과학에 관심이 별로 없어요 = That student doesn’t really have any interest in science

이때 = at this moment

Example:
학생들은 항상 이때 힘이 없어요 = Students are always without energy at this time

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

Once again, the vocabulary list of this lesson is the lesson. While all slightly similar, these words are very difficult to understand on their own, so I dedicated an entire lesson to making you understand them. Here, you will learn how to say:

Every-
(everybody, every time, everywhere, etc…)

Any-
(anybody, anytime, anywhere, etc…)

Some-
(somebody, sometime, somewhere, etc…)

No-
(nobody, nowhere, nothing)

I left spaces in the vocabulary list between different sets of these words (for no reason other than to make it organized).

 

 

Everything/Everywhere/Every time/Everyone

Everything/All

모든

The most common way to say “every _____” is to place the word ‘모든’ before a noun. 모든 looks, sounds, and acts like an adjective, but it can not be used to predicate a clause or sentence. This means that you won’t see the word “모든” at the end of a sentence, just like in English. For example, you can’t say something like:

He is every…

Even though 모든 ends in ~ㄴ (which is the same as all adjectives when placed immediately before a noun to describe them – 예쁜, 아름다운, 똑똑한), the dictionary form of 모드다 does not exist.

However, as I mentioned, (like an adjective), “모든” can be placed before a noun. If you place “모든” before a noun, it has the meaning of “every _____.” For example:

모든 것 = everything
모든 사람 = all people/every person
모든 과일 = all fruits/every fruit
모든 선생님 = all teachers/every teacher

Those can now go in sentences very easily:

모든 아시아 사람들은 젓가락을 잘 쓴다 = All Asian people use chopsticks well
모든 학생들은 하루 종일 잤어 = All students slept all day

 


 

Another possible word to use in similar situations is 다. 다 is used as an adverb in sentences to indicate that “all” of something is done.

One way this is done is to use it in a sentence with an object to indicate that some action was completed without leaving anything behind. For example:

저는 라면을 다 먹었어요 = I ate all the ramen
저는 숙제를 다 했어요 = I did all of my homework
저는 소설을 다 읽었어요 = I read the whole book – or – I read all the books
저는 월급을 이미 다 썼어요 = I already spent all of my paycheque

In these situations using “모든” and “다” create a slightly different meaning. ‘다’ is more about doing one action to completion and leaving nothing behind. 모든 is indicating that the action was performed on all possible nouns after “모든”. For example, if I say:

저는 라면을 다 먹었어요 = I ate all of the ramen

In this sentence, I am indicating that I have completed the action of “eating ramen” and nothing was left behind. In other words, there is no ramen left in my bowl because I ate it all.

However, in this sentence:

저는 모든 라면을 먹었어요 = I ate every ramen

This sentence is a little bit ambiguous and a little but unnatural because in most situations you wouldn’t say this. However, bear with me as I use it to explain the difference in nuance. In this situation, there might have been many different types of ramen at my house. I would use this sentence to indicate that I ate/tried “every one of them.” It is ambiguous as to whether or not I finished eating them, which means that there could still be some left – either in my bowl or in the cupboard.

If you did actually eat every one of them and finished all of the ramen in your house, it would be more natural to use “저는 라면을 다 먹었어요” because the action was completed and nothing was left behind.

This is why I provided two translations for this sentence:

저는 소설을 다 읽었어요 = I read the whole book
저는 소설을 다 읽었어요 = I read all the books

Depending on the situation, that sentence could be translated to either of those English translations. In the first sentence, the action of ‘reading’ was completed on the subject (one book) without leaving any pages behind within that book. In the second sentence, the action of ‘reading’ was completed on the subject (more than one book) without leaving any pages behind in any of those books.

However, by just saying:

저는 모든 소설을 읽었어요

I am more indicating that I have tried reading every book, but there is no indication on if I have finished reading any of them.

다 can also be used to indicate that all the members/things that represent a subject do some action (or are some adjective). For example:

사람들이 다 왔어요 = All the people have come
사람들이 다 죽었어요 = All the people died
부모님은 다 그래요 = All parents are like that
남자들은 다 게을러요 = All men are lazy
학생들은 다 공부하고 있어요 = All of the students are studying
애기들이 다 낮잠 자고 있어요 = All the babies are taking a nap

In these cases, I have noticed that there is effectively no difference between using 다 or 모든. For example, each of these sentences would have the same meaning:

모든 사람들이 왔어요 = All the people have come
모든 사람들이 죽었어요 = All the people died
모든 부모님은 그래요 = All parents are like that
모든 남자들은 게을러요 = All men are lazy
모든 학생들은 공부하고 있어요 = All of the students are studying
모든 애기들이 낮잠을 자고 있어요 = All the babies are taking a nap

The only difference I can feel is that ‘모든’ is considering the subjects (although groups of people) almost as unique individuals/things within the group, whereas ‘다’ is describing the subjects a groups. At this point, this is not something you need to worry about. Understanding the precise nuance is more about feeling (which you will develop with time).

The similarities in these usages allow them to be used in the same sentence. For example:

모든 사람들이 다 왔어요 = All the people have come
모든 사람들이 다 죽었어요 = All the people died
모든 부모님은 다 그래요 = All parents are like that
모든 남자들은 다 게을러요 = All men are lazy
모든 학생들은 다 공부하고 있어요 = All of the students are studying
모든 애기들이 다 낮잠 자고 있어요 = All the babies are taking a nap

All of these can also be used in negative sentences, for example:

사람들이 다 안 왔어요 = Not all the people have come
저는 라면을 다 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat all of the ramen
저는 숙제를 다 하지 못했어요 = I couldn’t do all of my homework

다 can also be used as a noun. In this form, it is usually placed before 이다 or 아니다 to indicate that something is (or isn’t) “all.” For example:

그게 다야? = Is that all
이게 다가 아니야 = This isn’t all


 

모두

There is also another word that you should be aware of: “모두,” which has the meaning of “all.” It can generally be used in the following ways:

As an adverb
In these cases, 모두 essentially has the same meaning as “다.” For example:

선생님들은 모두 똑똑해요 = All teachers are smart, which could also be written as:
선생님들은 다 똑똑해요 = All teachers are smart, or
모든 선생님들은 똑똑해요 = Every teacher is smart

In this adverb form, 다 can also be placed after 모두 in the same sentence. For example:

선생님들은 모두 다 똑똑해요 = All teachers are smart

In this adverb form, you would not see particles attached to it.

As a (pro)noun
In these cases 모두 typically means “everybody” or “everything.” Particles are usually attached to it. For example:

모두가 이해했어요 = Everybody understood
모두가 산책하고 있어요 = Everybody is going for a walk

Here’s the part that is a bit confusing. Often times when the sentence structure is just Subject – 모두 – Verb, the ~를 is omitted from 모두. For example:

나는 모두를 이해했어 would be better said as:
나는 모두 이해했어 = I understood everything

And

저는 모두를 먹고 싶어요 would be better said as:
저는 모두 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat everything

It took me a long time to come to this conclusion, but my explanation as to why this is done is because in these cases 모두 is acting as an adverb. Therefore, it is not so much that the ~를 is being omitted, but rather that the 모두 is serving a different function (and the sentence ends up having the same meaning anyways).

Just like how you would not see ~를 attached to 다 in the following sentences:

나는 다 이해했어 = I understood everything
저는 다 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat everything

Often times a word that represents a group of people is placed before 모두. In these cases, ~를 is usually attached to 모두. For example:

저는 가족 모두를 사랑해요 = I love all of my family
저는 학생 모두를 가르쳤어요 = I taught all of the students

The same structure works when the group of people is the subject of a sentence. For example:

학생 모두가 기숙사로 갔어요 = All of the students went to the dorm
가족 모두가 고향에 갔어요 = All of the/my family went to the/our hometown
선생님 모두가 회의에 갔어요 = All of the teachers went to a meeting

Other particles can be attached to it as well, for example:
저는 선물을 모두에게 주었어요 = I gave a present to everybody

 

 

Everywhere/Every time/Everyone

~나 can be added to the words ‘where,’ ‘when,’ and ‘who’ to mean ‘everywhere,’ ‘every time,’ and ‘everyone.’ Particles are usually not added to these words. For example:

어디 = where
어디나 = everywhere

나는 한국에서 어디나 여행하고 싶어 = I (would) want to travel everywhere in Korea
우리는 동남아시아에 어디나 갈 거예요 = We will go everywhere in South East Asia
밥은 어디나 맛이 똑같아요 = Rice tastes the same everywhere


 

언제 = when
언제나 = every time/always

그녀는 언제나 늦게 와요 = She comes late every time
저는 언제나 똑같은 메뉴를 먹어요 = I always eat the same menu
저는 언제나 똑같은 시간에 일어나요 = I always wake up at the same time


 

누구 = who
누구나 = everyone

누구나 그 여자를 알아요 = Everybody knows that girl
누구나 우리 애기를 보고 싶어요 = Everybody wants to see our baby
누구나 한국을 좋아해요 = Everybody likes Korea





 

 

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Something/Somewhere/Sometime/Somebody

~ㄴ가 can be added to the words ‘what,’ ‘where,’ ‘when,’ and ‘who’ to mean ‘something,’ ‘somewhere,’ ‘sometime,’ and ‘somebody.’ For example:

뭐 = what
뭔가 = something

The subject and object particles in general can be omitted from any sentence (although I don’t suggest omitting particles until you have a very deep understanding of Korean), but they seem to be more commonly omitted from these types of sentences. Many examples:

나는 방금 뭔가(를) 봤어 = I just saw something a minute ago
등에 뭔가(가) 있어요 = There is something on your back
등에 뭔가(가) 있나요? = Is there something on my back?
저는 팔에 뭔가(가)느껴져요 = I feel something on my arm
저는 뭔가(를) 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat something
저는 뭔가(를) 말하고 싶어요 = I want to say something


 

어디 = where
어딘가 = somewhere

By the nature of the word “somewhere,” you are most likely to use the particles ~에 or ~에서 in these sentences. It would be acceptable to omit the particle ~에 from 어딘가 but less acceptable to omit the particle ~에서. Many examples:

열쇠를 어딘가(에) 뒀어 = I left my keys somewhere
전쟁이 아시아 어딘가에서 났어요 = A war broke out somewhere in Asia
피가 어딘가에서 나오고 있어요 = Blood is coming out of somewhere
저는 그릇을 어딘가(에) 두었어요 = I put the bowl in some place
선생님들이 회의를 어딘가에서 하고 있어요 = The teachers are having a meeting somewhere
저는 휴일에 어딘가에 가고 싶어요 = I want to go somewhere on the holiday
저는 어딘가에서 커피를 마시고 싶어요 = I want to drink a cup of coffee somewhere


 

언제 = when
언젠가 = sometime/someday

~에 is typically not attached to 언젠가. Many examples:

그 날이 언젠가 올 거예요 = The day will come sometime
구름이 언젠가 걷힐 거예요 = The clouds will clear eventually/sometime
저는 언젠가 경찰관이 되고 싶어요 = I want to become a police officer someday
저는 언젠가 중국어도 배우고 싶어요 = I want to learn Chinese as well some day
저는 언젠가 고향에 돌아가고 싶어요 = I want to return (go back) to my hometown some day

When I first learned about this word, I wondered if particles like ~까지 or ~부터 could be attached to it because 언젠가 represents a place. I kept bugging Korean people to try to make me example sentences of these particles attached to 언젠가 and they always came up with nothing. I realized that in both English and Korean, it isn’t logical to make sentences with “until somewhere” or “from somewhere.”


 

누구 = who
누군가 = somebody

누군가(는) 너를 찾고 있어 = Somebody is looking for you
저는 누군가의 열쇠를 찾았어요 = I found somebody’s keys
경찰관들은 누군가와 얘기하고 있어요 = The policemen are talking with somebody
누군가가 지갑을 잃어버렸어요 = Somebody lost their wallet
누군가가 그 파일을 저에게 보냈어요 = Somebody sent that file to me


In Lesson 22, you learned about using 어느 in sentences. Another usage of 어느 is to reference a vague place or point in time. I am including this explanation in this section of the lesson because of the similarities with the sentences above.

You would often see this type of thing in stories, poetry or news reports where the specific location does not need to be given. This would be similar to something like this at a start of a story in English:

A long time ago in a far-away castle, or
A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away

In this usage, 어느 is commonly placed before a broad indication of time or place. For example:

어느 날 = some day (an ambiguous day)
어느 밤 = some night (an ambiguous night)
어느 겨울 = some winter (an ambiguous winter)
어느 여름 = some summer (an ambiguous summer)
어느 마을 = some village (an ambiguous village)
어느 시장 = some market (an ambiguous market)

Here, the person speaking/writing this way because he/she does not need to specifically reference the time. Some example sentence:

어느 겨울 꽃이 다 사라졌다 = Some winter, all the flowers disappeared
어느 마을에서 애기 두 명이 태어났다 = Two babies were born in some village
그 다음 날, 할머니가 어느 시장을 구경하고 있었다 = The next day, the grandmother was browsing around some market

Again, like I said, you would most likely see these types of sentences used in stories, often setting up the scenario or something within a book.


 

It is also possible to use a question word to refer to an ambiguous place, thing or person. This is most commonly done with the following words:

어디
Person 1: 엄마가 집에 있어? = Is mom at home
Person 2: 아니요. 어디 갔어. = No, she went somewhere


우리가 이미 먹었어요 = We already ate something

누구
나는 내일 누구 만날 거야 = Tomorrow I’m going to meet somebody

Using these words like this is quite advanced, and is not something I learned until a few years of exposure with Korean. What makes these usages even more confusing is that you can use these words in sentences when you are asking a question. For example:

뭐 먹었어요? Could mean both:
– What did you eat? or
– Did you eat something?

어디 갔어요? Could mean both:
– Where did you go? or
– Did you go somewhere

누구(를) 만났어요? Could mean both:
– Who did you meet? Or
– Did you meet somebody

Distinguishing them, believe it or not, can be done quite easily if you train your ear correctly. When using “뭐, 어디 or 누구” as the question word in the sentence, the stress of the sentence is on the question word itself. Play close attention to the audio in the following examples:

뭐 먹었어요? = What did you eat?
어디 갔어요? = Where did you go?
누구 만났어요? = Who did you meet?

When using “뭐, 어디 or 누구” to refer to an ambiguous thing, place or person, the stress of the sentence is on the verb. Again, play close attention to the audio in the following examples, and specifically how they differ from the examples above:

뭐 먹었어요? = Did you eat something?
어디 갔어요? = Did you go somewhere?
누구 만났어요? = Did you meet somebody?

As I mentioned however, this is quite advanced. You might not be able to hear the difference at this stage in your learning, but it is good to be aware of as you continue to progress through your studies.

.

.

 

아무
Anybody/Nobody

아무 is a pronoun that refers to “any” person. When using it in a sentence, the speaker is indicating the person he/she is referring to is not a specific “set” person, but could actually be “anybody.”

It is most commonly used with ~나 attached to it. This particle (when attached to other nouns as you will learn in Lesson 58) often indicates the same indifference meaning that “아무” itself has.

When used together, it can almost be seen as one unit that means “anybody.” As ~나 is actually a particle in itself, when used as the subject or object of a sentence, particles ~는 or ~가 are not usually doubled up on top of ~나. For example:

아무나 그 책을 좋아할 거예요 = Anybody will/would like that book
이렇게 좋은 학교에서는 아무나 공부를 잘 할 거예요 = Anybody can study well at this school

However, particles can be added before ~나 if the word being used has other functions within a sentence (other than the subject or object). Because 아무 refers to a person in this case, the most common particles you would see here are particles meaning “to” (~에게/한테) and “with” (~와/하고). For example:

나는 아무와나 사귀고 싶어 = I want to go out with anybody
저는 이 선물을 아무에게나 주고 싶어요 = I want to give this present to anybody
저는 아무하고나 축구를 하고 싶어요 = I want to play soccer with anybody

When ~도 replaces ~나 in these cases, we get the opposite meaning. 아무도 can be used as the subject or object of a sentence to mean “nobody.” Just like 아무나, particles are not usually attached to 아무도 as “~도” is actually the particle being used.

When using 아무도, the sentence must be conjugated in a negative way or end with some negative word like 없다. This is counter intuitive for English speakers – because it makes us think we are saying a double negative. For example, the following sentence:

집에 아무도 있어요 looks like it should mean “there is nobody at home.” However, as I said, a sentence with “아무도” should end in a negative way. Therefore, this is correct:

집에 아무도 없어요 = There is nobody at home/There isn’t anybody at home

Because of the double negative in the Korean version, this creates a confusing translation for the English version. In the English version, we can usually say either “anybody” with a negative conjugation, or “nobody” with a positive conjugation.

For example:
저는 아무도 못 봤어요 = I didn’t see anybody/I saw nobody
저는 아무도 만나고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to meet anybody/I want to meet nobody
아무도 집에 가지 않았어요 = Nobody went home
아무도 나를 좋아하지 않아 = Nobody likes me

Particles can be added before ~도 if the word being used has other functions within a sentence (other than the subject or object). Because 아무 refers to a person in this case, the most common particles you would see here are particles meaning “to” (~에게/한테) and “with” (~와/하고). For example:

저는 그 말을 아무에게도 안 했어요 = I didn’t say that to anybody/I said that to nobody
저는 아무하고도 얘기하고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to talk with anybody/I want to talk with nobody

It is very easy to be confused with these double negatives at first. To make it simple at the beginning, just tell your brain to use “아무나” when you want to say something that ends positively, and to use “아무도” when you want to say something that ends negatively. In theory, 아무나 and 아무도 are the same word in Korean (with different particles attached). One just happens to be used with positive sentences, and the other happens to be used in negative sentences.

 

아무 Used Before Other Nouns

Another function that 아무 has is to be placed before a thing/place/time to describe it. The most common nouns you will see after 아무 are:

거 = short form of 것, meaning “thing”
데 = meaning “place”
때 = meaning “time”

When ~나 is attached to these nouns, the speaker is indicating that the thing/place/time is not a specific “thing/place/time,” but could actually be “anything,” “anywhere” or “anytime.” For example:

저는 아무 거나 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat anything (I’d eat anything)
아무 때나 좋아요 = Anytime is good
저는 아무 데나 가고 싶어요 = I want to go anywhere (I’d go anywhere)

In the example above, you can see that “데” is used to refer to a place. When the verb being used requires “~에” to be attached to that place, “~에” is omitted. However, when the verb being used requires “~에서” to be attached to that place “~에서” should be added before ~나.

For example, even though the same place is being used in both sentences below, because of the nature of the verbs 가다 and 먹다, ~에 should be used in one case, and ~에서 should be used in the other.

저는 공원에 가고 싶어요 = I want to go to the park
저는 밥을 공원에서 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat in the park

The difference between these two sentences is the same as the difference between these two sentences:

저는 아무 데나 가고 싶어요 = I want to go anywhere
저는 아무 데서나 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat (at) anywhere

~도 can replace ~나 in these cases to have the meaning of “nothing” “nowhere.” For example:

저는 아무 것도 먹고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to eat anything/I want to eat nothing
아기는 아무 데도 가지 않았어 = The baby didn’t go anywhere/The baby went nowhere
아무 때도” means “no time?” This doesn’t make sense. Instead, the word 전혀 (introduced in Lesson 34) should be used.

It is possible to use other nouns after 아무. For example:

저는 아무 버스나 타고 갈 거예요 = I’m going to take any bus and leave
저는 아무 말도 하지 않았어요 = I didn’t say anything/I said nothing
저는 엄마랑 아무 관계도 없어요 = I don’t have any relationship with my mother/I have no relationship with my mother

However, by far the most common three things to use after 아무 are 거, 데 and 때.

I would love to provide way more examples, but many of the examples I want to make with 아무 (and the words it can create) use grammatical principles that you haven’t been introduced to you yet. The two most common grammatical principles that you haven’t learned yet that would be used in these situations are:

Making a command (introduced in Lesson 40), and
One can/cannot do (Introduced in Lesson 45)

Here are some quick examples using those two principles. The only reason I am showing you these is because I think it is likely you have learned about these either by looking ahead or by using some other resource.

Making a command
가방을 아무 데나 두세요 = Put your bag down anywhere
아무 거나 고르세요! = Choose anything!
아무 거나 먹자! = Let’s eat anything!

One can/cannot do
아무나 그것을 할 수 있어요 = Anybody can do that

It also might be helpful to take a peek at Lesson 58 to see how ~나 can be used when not used in these specific cases of 아무나, 아무 거나, 아무 때나, etc. In theory, I should have presented these words after I taught you about ~나, but in my opinion the use ~나 as it is used in this lesson is more common (and therefore more important) than the general use of ~나 introduced later.

 

 

 

 

Each (마다)

마다 means “each” and is attached directly to the end of a noun:

날마다 = each day
학생마다 = each student
금요일마다 = each/every Friday
30분마다 = each/every 30 minutes

When I first learned about this, I asked the following question to my grammar teacher:

“What is the difference between ‘모든 학생’, and 학생마다?”

The answer is so subtle, but there is a difference. The only way I can explain it is by saying the following:
If you can explain the difference between “every student” and “each student” in English, then you fully understand the difference between “모든 학생” and “학생마다.”

But really, can you explain the difference between “every student” and “each student?” There is a difference. I know there is a difference. “Each” has something to do with ‘each individual student,’ whereas “every” has something to do with ‘all students.’… huh?

I don’t know. I always think I can explain the difference between “each” and “every” in English, but it’s too confusing.

Just remember that 마다 means “each” and “모든” means “every.” That is more than enough.

그 버스는 10분마다 와요 = That bus comes each/every 10 minutes
학생마다 달라요 = Each student is different

 

… and with that, you have finished Unit 1! You have come a really long way from our first lessons. When you first started learning through our website, you were learning sentences like: “나는 선생님이다.”

 

Hopefully you enjoyed our first unit, and hopefully you didn’t get too confused – because in Unit 2 you will start learning Korean grammar concepts that will not only make your sentences much more complex, but also make your head explode.

If you are confident in what you learned in Lessons 17 – 25, why not checking your knowledge on our Lessons 17 – 25 Mini-Test.

Or you can go directly to our Unit 1 test, which will test you on everything you learned in Unit 1.

If you are not into taking the tests, you could always head directly to Unit 2 and check out our first lesson (Lesson 26).

If you have any questions or comments, feel free to make a post on our Forum!