Lesson 32: ~(으)려고, ~(으)러 and ~아/어 보다 (with 적)

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Vocabulary
Introduction

With the intention of doing…: ~(으)려고
~(으)려고 노력하다
To Come/Go for the purpose of: ~(으)러

~아/어 보다
The Noun of Experience: 적

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. You might not be able to understand all of the grammar within the example sentences, but most of the grammar used will be introduced by the end of Unit 2. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
기적 = miracle

Common Usages:
기적적으로 = miraculously
기적을 바라다 = to wish for/hope for a miracle
기적을 행하다 = to perform miracles

Examples:
그 가족은 기적이 필요해요 = That family needs a miracle
우리를 유일하게 살릴 수 있는 것은 기적밖에 없어요 = The only thing that can save us is a miracle

차량 = vehicle

Notes: 차량 refers to any vehicle on the road – not just a car, but any type of vehicle.

Common Usages:
차량금지 = no vehicles

Examples:
장애인 차량 외 주차금지 = No parking except for handicapped vehicles
(this is not a sentence, but you will see stuff like this written on signs)

일반차량 추자시 즉시 과태료가 부과됩니다
= If you park a regular vehicle here, a fine will be imposed immediately

관객 = audience

Common Usages:
관객을 사로잡다 = to captivate an audience

Examples:
코메디언이 관객에게 소리를 질렀어요 = The comedian screamed at the audience
관객은 대통령이 하는 말을 믿지 않았어요 = The audience didn’t believe what the president said

치과 의사 = dentist

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “치꽈 의사”

Notes: This literally translates to “tooth area/field doctor.”
As this is actually two words, there should be a space between them. However, Korean people often omit the space.

Examples:
치과 의사는 저의 이를 두 개 뺐어요 = The dentist took out two of my teeth
치과 의사가 환자에게 고통을 참을 수 있냐고 물어봤어요 = The dentist asked if I could endure the pain
치과 의사가 저의 이가 아주 약하다고 했어요 = The dentist said my teeth are very weak

정신과 의사 = psychiatrist

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “정신꽈 의사”

Notes: This literally translates to “mind area/field doctor.”
As this is actually two words, there should be a space between them. However, Korean people often omit the space.

Common Usages:
정신과 의사와 상담하다 = to have a consultation with a psychiatrist

Examples:
저는 정신과 의사가 되려고 열심히 공부하고 있어요 = I am studying hard to become a psychiatrist
정신과 의사가 여자에게 남편이 때렸냐고 물어봤어요 = The psychiatrist asked the lady if her husband hit her

공연 = performance, show, concert

Common Usages:
공연이 취소되다 = for a performance/concert to be cancelled
공연이 연기되다 = for a performance to be postponed
공연을 하다 = to perform

Examples:
서울에 있는 공연에 보러 갈래요? = Shall we go to the show in Seoul?
그가 공연에 가고 싶지 않은 것처럼 보여 = He looks like he doesn’t want to go to the performance
그 공연을 보러 여기에 왔어요 = I came here to see that performance
공연을 보러 그 행사에 가고 있어요 = I am going to the event to see that performance

업무 = administrative work

Notes: Many Korean words translate to “work.” 업무 is usually used to refer to administrative work that one does. For more information on the various words that translate to “work” see our Hanja Lesson 22.

Common Usages:
업무량 = workload

Examples:
그 업무를 처음으로 해 봤어요 = I tried that work for the first time
이런 업무를 한 적이 없어요 = I have never done this type of work before
업무가 많나서 야근했어요 = I worked overnight because I had a lot of work to do

탈의실 = change room

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “타리실”

Examples:
옷을 갈아입으러 탈의실에 갔어요 = I went to the change-room to change my clothes
그 셔츠를 탈의실에서 입어 봤어요 = I tried on that shirt in the change room

= ticket

Notes: 표 has two meanings. This one refers to a ticket or some other paper that shows proof of something. For example: 비행기표 = plane ticket. You can see the other meaning in the next entry.

Common Usages:
표를 예매하다 = to reserve a ticket in advance
표가 매진되다 = for tickets to be sold out
표를 구매하다 = to purchase/buy tickets
표를 팔다 = to sell tickets

Examples:
표를 예매하러 극장에 가고 있어요
= I am going to the theater to buy the tickets (in advance)

우선 여행을 가기 전에 비행기 표와 숙소를 예약했다
= First, before going traveling, I needed to reserve/book my plane ticket and place to stay

= graph, table

Notes: 표 has two meanings. This one refers to some sort of graph or table. For example, if you make a table in Microsoft Word, that would be called a “표.”

Common Usages:
시간표 = schedule (time table)
가격표 = price tag
표를 만들다 = to make a table/graph
표를 그리다 = to draw a table/graph

Examples:
자료를 표에 넣고 분석했어요 = I put the data into a table and analyzed it
그 수업은 저의 시간표에 없어요 = That class isn’t on my schedule/time table

간장 = soy sauce

Common Usages:
간장에 찍다 = to dip something in soy sauce

Examples:
만두를 간장에 찍으면 더 맛있어요 = If you dip dumplings into soy sauce it is more delicious
중국 사람들은 소금을 쓰는 것 대신에 음식에 간장을 뿌려요 = Instead of using salt, Chinese people put soy sauce on their food

고생 = some sort of hard time or hardship

Notes: This word is commonly used after somebody completes some sort of difficult task. It is a way that Korean people express their sympathy when somebody does something difficult.  The “difficult task” can be something trivial as well, like driving a car for an hour. Either way, once this task is completed, somebody might say to you “고생했어요!” For example, if you took the subway to your mother’s house for about an hour, upon arrival she might say:

왔어? 아이고~ 고생했어… = You came? Ahh… it must have been hard

“아이고” isn’t a word, but it is muttered by Korean people everywhere. It is commonly said when something difficult is/was/will be done. For example, if an old lady is walking up the stairs, she’ll say “아이고” to herself.

Examples:
집을 구하느라 고생을 많이 했어요 = It was hard and stressful finding a new house
이렇게 많은 내용을 학생들에게 가르치려고 고생을 많이 했어요 = I worked hard/suffered in order to teach that much content to the students

휴대폰 = cell phone

Notes: The word 핸드폰 (literally “hand phone” is often used as well)

Examples:
그 휴대폰을 사러 여기에 왔어요 = I came here to buy this cell phone
이 휴대폰에 여러 가지의 앱을 설치할 수 있어요 = You can install various types of apps on this cell phone

= meaning

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “뜯”

Common Usages:
뜻밖에 = unexpectedly

Examples:
그 단어의 뜻이 기억이 안 나요 = I don’t remember what that word means
뜻을 이해하려고 책을 두 번 읽었어요 = In order to understand meaning, I read the book twice

세일 = sale

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “쎄일”
Notes: 세일 refers to selling merchandise at a discounted price. For example, if you go to a store and they are having a “sale.” It is not usually used to be the noun form of the word “to sell.”

Common Usages:
세일 기간 = the period that a sale is going on for
깜짝 세일 = a surprise sale
정기 세일 = season/regular sale
폭탄 세일 = a crazy/big sale (“explosion sale”)

Examples:
이거 세일 안 해요? = Are you not doing a sale on this?
세일 언제 해요? = When will you have a sale?
오늘 그 서점은 50% 세일을 하고 있어요 = Today that bookstore is running a 50% sale

이력서 = resume, curriculum vitae

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “이력써”

Common Usages:
이력서를 쓰다 = to write a resume
이력서를 내다 = to submit a resume

Examples:
이력서를 만들어 본 적이 없어요 = I have never tried making a resume before

저는 일을 구하려고 그 회사에 이력서를 냈어요
= I submitted my resume to that company with the intention of applying for that job

이력서를 회사에서 일하는 비서에게 줘 봤어요
= I tried giving my resume to the secretary who works at that office

요즘에는 회사에 취직하려면 이력서를 인터넷으로 회사에 제출해야 돼요
= These days, if you want to get hired by a company, you need to submit your resume online

비서 = secretary

Examples:
그 여자의 남편이 비서랑 바람을 피운다는 소문이 있어요
= There is a rumor that that woman’s husband is having an affair with his secretary

이력서를 회사에서 일하는 비서에게 줘 봤어요
= I tried giving my resume to the secretary who works at that office

연예인 = celebrity

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “여녜인”

Examples:
저의 여자친구는 연예인 같이 보여요 = My girlfriend looks like a celebrity
그 연예인을 보러 행사에 갔어요 = I went to the event to see that celebrity
연예인을 만난 적이 없어요 = I have never met anybody famous

행사 = event, function

Common Usages:
행사를 열다 = to hold an event
행사를 참여하다 = to attend an event
행사를 취소하다 = to cancel an event
행사를 연기하다 = to postpone an event
행사를 진행하다 = to run an event

Examples: 그 연예인을 보러 행사에 갔어요 = I went to the event to see that celebrity
비 때문에 행사가 내일로 연기 되었습니다 = The event was postponed until tomorrow because of the rain
아버지의 생신을 축하 드리기 위해 특별한 행사를 준비했어요 = I prepared a special event for my father’s birthday

일자리 = job position

Notes: 일자리 often translates to “job,” but the word “job” in English is very versatile and can mean many things. As it contains the word “일” (work) and “자리” (position/place), 일자리 refers to the actual position. For example “일자리가 없다” would be said to indicate that there are no jobs (positions) available.

Common Usages:
일자리를 구하다 = to search for, to get a job

Examples:
일자리에 지원하러 왔어요 = I came to apply for that job
그 일자리에 지원하는 것을 생각할 수도 없어요 = I can’t even think about applying for that job
일자리가 하나만 있어서 경쟁은 심할 거예요 = The competition will be extreme because there is only one job available

슬기가 2개월 동안 일자리를 구하려고 노력하더니 결국 좋은 일자리를 구했어요
= I personally saw/experienced Seulgi trying to get a good job for two months, and she eventually got a job

Person 1: 우리 학교에서 많은 학생들이 대학교에 진학해요
= Many students from our school enter university
Person 2: 그리고 몇몇 학생들은 바로 일자리를 구하기도 해요
And/also, some students get jobs right away

Verbs:
명령하다 = to order, to command

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “명녕하다”
The noun form of this word (“명령”) translates to “an order” or “a command”

Common Usages:
명령법 = the imperative voice (sentences where a command is made)
명령하는 대로 = as I command
명령을 따르다 = to follow a command

Examples:
대통령은 군인들을 이동하도록 명령했어요 = The president ordered the soldiers to move
죽은 군인을 찾으라는 명령을 받았어요 = We received orders to find the fallen soldier

빼다 = to pull out, to extract

Notes: 빼다 is commonly used to mean “except for…”. For example:
그것을 빼고 일을 다 했어요 = I have done all the work except for that one
In these types of sentences, the noun before “빼고” is removed from whatever situation is mentioned later in the sentence.

It is also commonly used to tell somebody serving you what you don’t want. For example:
우유(를) 빼고(요) = hold the milk… (please don’t put milk in it)
치즈(를) 빼고(요) = hold the cheese… (please don’t put cheese in it)
Technically these are not complete sentences, but you can add “~요” in formal situations.

Common Usages:
빼기 = subtraction (in math)
이를 빼다 = to get a tooth pulled
살을 빼다 = to lose weight
바람을 빼다 = to deflate a tire

Examples:
불을 빼 주세요 = Please take out the fire (common in a BBQ restaurant)
살을 빼고 싶으면 매일 운동해야 돼요 = If you want to lose weight, you have to exercise everyday
저는 공휴일을 빼고 매일 일해요 = I work every day except for public holidays

지원하다 = to apply for

Common Usages:
대학교에 지원하다 = to apply for a university
일자리에 지원하다 = to apply for a job
군대에 지원하다 = to apply to the army

Examples:
일자리에 지원하러 왔어요 = I came to apply for that job

저는 그 일에 지원하려고 그 회사에 이력서를 냈어요
= I submitted my resume to that company with the intention of applying for that job

신다 = to put on shoes or socks

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “신따”
When putting shoes on another person, the word “신기다” should be used.

Common Usages:
신발을 신다 = to put on shoes
양말을 신다 = to put on socks

Examples:
그 신발을 신어 봤어요 = I tried on those shoes
오늘 날씨가 쌀쌀하니까 따뜻한 신발을 신었어요 = I put on warm shoes because the weather today was chilly

신기다 = to put shoes or socks on somebody

Common Usages:
신발을 신기다 = to put shoes on another person
양말을 신기다 = to put socks on another person

Examples:
신발을 신겨 주세요 = Please put these shoes on for me
나가기 전에 애기의 신발을 신겨야 돼요 = Before we go outside, I need to put the baby’s shoes on

따르다 = to pour

따르다 is the only verb stem that ends in “르” that does not follow the 르 irregular

Common Usages:
컵에 물을 따르다 = to pour water into a cup

Examples:
물을 이 컵에 따라 주세요 = Please pour water into this cup
한국 사람들은 자신을 위해 술을 안 따라요 = Korean people don’t pour alcohol for themselves

채우다 = to fill

Notes: This is the active version of the word “차다” (to be filled). 차다 is introduced in Lesson 60.

Particles can be used in two different ways to make a logical sentence using 채우다. Notice how the particles are being used in the examples below:

병을 물로 채우다 = to fill a bottle with water
병에 물을 채우다 = to fill a bottle with water

Examples:
그들은 집을 이상한 가구로 채웠어요 = They filled their house with weird furniture

비우다 = to empty

Notes: This is the active version of the word “비다 (to be empty)

Common Usages:
집을 비우다 = to move out
방을 비우다 = to check out of a room
자리를 비우다 = for somebody to be “out” (to not be present)
마음을 비우다 = to empty one’s mind (for example, if you are about to give a presentation, you can clear your mind of thoughts to help you relax)

Examples:
쓰레기통을 비워 주세요 = Please empty the garbage can
집을 언제까지 다 비울 수 있어요? = When can you remove everything from the house by?

끊다 = to cut off, to quit something

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “끈타”
The passive form of this word is 끊기다 (cut off)

Common Usages:
연락을 끊다 = to stop contacting somebody
전화를 끊다 = to hang up a phone
술을 끊다 = to give up alcohol
담대를 끊다 = to quit smoking
끊임없이 = constantly, continuously

Examples:
전화를 왜 그렇게 빨리 끊었어요 = Why did you hang up so fast?
저는 이웃사람들과 관계를 완전히 끊었어요 = I completely cut off any relationship with neighbors

지금 담배를 끊더라도 당신은 폐암에 이미 걸렸어요
= Even if you quit smoking now, you already have lung cancer

지금 담배를 끊는다면 폐가 1년 후에 건강해질 수 있어요
= If you quit smoking now, your lungs can be healthy in a year

헤어지다 = to break up with a person

Common Usages:
여자/남자 친구와 헤어지다 = to break up with one’s boy/girlfriend

Examples:
저의 여자 친구는 저랑 헤어졌어요 = My girlfriend broke up with me
남자친구랑 내일 헤어져야겠다 = I guess I should break up with my boyfriend tomorrow
너를 좋아하지 않았으니까 헤어졌어 = I broke up with you because I didn’t like you

살리다 = to save (a life)

Common Usages:
목숨을 살리다 = to save a life
경제를 살리다 = to save/revive the economy

Examples:
살려 주세요! = Please save me!
저는 그 사람을 살리려고 경찰관을 불렀어요 = I called the policeman in order to save that person

썰다 = to chop, to slice

Common Usages:
야채를 썰다 = to chop up vegetables

Examples:
당근을 다 썰었어요 = I chopped all of the carrots
양파를 작은 조각으로 썰고 재료를 다 섞으세요 = Chop the onions into small pieces and mix all the ingredients

예매하다 = to purchase in advance

The noun form of this word (“예매”) translates to “the sale of tickets in advance”

Notes: Actually, “매” in Korean has two meanings depending on the Hanja character that is being used. 매 (買) and 매 (賣) mean “buy” and “sell” respectively. The word “賣買” (매매) in Hanja means “to buy and sell.” Therefore, 예매하다 could mean either “to purchase in advance” or “to sell in advance,” depending on what Hanja character is used. That being said, 예매하다 is usually used when one purchases a ticket in advance.

Common Usages:
표를 예매하다 = to purchase a ticket in advance

Examples:
표를 예매하러 극장에 가고 있어요 = I am going to the theater to buy the tickets (in advance)
예매를 안 하면 행사 당일에 표가 없을 거예요 = If you don’t purchase the tickets in advance, there won’t be any tickets on the day of the event

판단하다 = to judge

The noun form of this word (“판단”) translates to “judgement”

Common Usages:
상황을 판단하다 = to judge a situation
잘못 판단하다 = to misjudge

Examples:
그 상황을 판단하는 게 어려워요 = It is difficult to judge that situation
다른 사람의 외모로만 판단하지 마세요 = Don’t judge other people just by their looks

해결하다 = to solve, to resolve

The noun form of this word (“해결”) translates to “resolution”

Common Usages:
문제를 해결하다 = to resolve a problem
갈등을 해결하다 = to resolve a conflict

Examples:
우리는 그 문제를 아직 해결하지 않았어요 =  We still haven’t resolved that problem
그 문제를 해결하려고 우리는 잠깐 만났어요 = In order to solve that problem, we met for a little bit

구하다 = to search for a worker, to search for a job

Notes: This word is used when a person is looking to find a job, or when a company is looking to find a worker. It is also used when a person is looking to find a house.

Common Usages:
직업을 구하다 = to look for a job
점원을 구하다 = to look for a worker
아르바이트를 구하다 = to look for a part time job/part time worker
집을 구하다 = to look for a house

Examples:
집을 구했어요? = Did you find a house?
직업을 아직 안 구했어요 = I still haven’t found a job
저는 일을 구하려고 그 회사에 이력서를 냈어요 = I submitted my resume to that company with the intention of applying for that job

통제하다 = to control

The noun form of this word (“통제”) translates to “regulation”

Common Usages:
언론을 통제하다 = to control the media/press
상황을 통제하다 = to control a situation

Examples:
경찰관은 상황을 통제하지 못했어요 = The police officer couldn’t control the situation
연예인을 만나면 자기 자신을 통제해야 돼요 = When you meet a celebrity, you need to control yourself
한국에서는 정부가 국립학교를 통제해요 = In Korea, the government controls the public schools

북한 경제가 발전하려면 정부는 국민들을 더 이상 통제하면 안 돼요
= If North Korea wants to improve their economy, the government shouldn’t control its citizens anymore

연락하다 = to contact

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “열라카다”

Common Usages:
연락처 = one’s contact information
연락이 안 오다 = to not receive contact

Examples:
혹시 오시면 연락해주세요 = If you come, let me know
핸드폰이 없었기 때문에 연락하지 못했어요 = Because I didn’t have my phone, I couldn’t contact you

커피를 다 마시고 오랜만에 친구한테 연락을 했다. 취업을 하기 전에 친구들한테 연락하는 게 쉽지 않았다. 연락을 하고 싶었지만 나에 대한 자신감이 없었다
= After drinking all the coffee, I contacted a friend that I hadn’t seen in a while. Before getting a job, it was difficult to contact friends. I wanted to contact them, but I didn’t have any confidence/self-esteem.

“소희야! 진짜 오랜만이다! 잘 지냈어? 내가 요즘 연락을 너무 못해서 미안해.”
= “So-hee! Really long time no see! How have you been? I’m sorry I haven’t been able to contact you these days.”

예약하다 = to reserve

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “예야카다”
The noun form of this word (“예약”) translates to “reservation”

Common Usages:
예약금 = a deposit for the reservation
예약석 = a reserved seat

Examples:
이미 예약했어요? = Have you made a reservation yet?
어제 그 식당에 예약을 했어요 = I made a reservation for that restaurant yesterday

우선 여행을 가기 전에 비행기 표와 숙소를 예약했다
= First, before going traveling, I needed to reserve/book my plane ticket and place to stay

네, 안녕하세요.. 제가 비행기표를 예약하고 싶은데 어떻게 해요?
= Yes, hi. I’d like to reserve a flight ticket, how can I do that?

평가하다 = to evaluate

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “평까하다”
The noun form of this word (“평가”) translates to “evaluation”

Common Usages:
비평가 = critic
수행평가 = A form of evaluation in Korean schools. Essentially, any evaluation other than exams.

Examples:
사람을 겉모습으로 평가해선 안 돼요 = You shouldn’t judge somebody on their looks
저는 올바른 평가를 받지 않았어요 = I didn’t receive the proper evaluation
학생들을 평가하려고 내일 시험을 볼 거예요 = In order to evaluate the students, they will do an exam tomorrow

Passive Verbs:
끊기다 = to be cut off

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “끈키다”
The active form of this word is 끊다 (to break, to cut off)

Common Usages:
연락이 끊기다 = for contact to be cut off
가스/전기가 끊기다 = for the gas/electricity to be cut off
전화가 끊기다 = for the phone to cut out

Examples:
전화가 자꾸 끊겨요! = The phone keeps cutting out
그 학생이 질문을 많이 해서 수업 흐름이 계속 끊겨요 = That student keeps asking questions, so the flow of the class keeps getting disrupted

막히다 = to be congested

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “마키다”
The active form of this word is 막다 (to block)

Common Usages:
길이 막히다 = for a road to be congested (for there to be a lot of traffic)
변기가 막히다 = for the toilet to be clogged
말문이 막히다 = for one’s words to be clogged (to not know what to say)

Examples:
불이 나고 문이 막혀 있어서 창문을 통해 빠져나갔어요
= A fire started, and because the door was blocked, I escaped through the window

오늘 아침에 애기가 아플 뿐만 아니라 길이 막혀서 오늘 회사에 조금 늦게 오게 되었습니다
In the morning, not only was my baby sick, but there was a lot of traffic, so I got to work a little bit late

Adjectives:
약하다 = to be weak

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “야카다”

Common Usages:
불이 약하다 = for a flame to be low
몸이 약하다 = for one’s body to be weak
신호가 약하다 = for a signal (ex. cell-phone signal) to be weak

Examples:
피부가 너무 약해서 겨울에도 로션을 발라야 돼요
= I even need to out on lotion in the winter because my skin is weak

그 여자 몸이 아주 약해서 계단을 올라갈 수 없어요
= That girl can’t go upstairs because her body is so week

자세하다 = to be detailed

Common Usages:
자세히 = in a detailed way

Examples:
내 상황을 자세히 설명해 줄까? = Shall I explain my situation in detail?
저는 더 자세한 설명을 부탁했어요 = I asked for a more clear explanation.
저는 그에게 더 자세히 설명해 달라고 부탁했어요 = I asked him to explain it more clearly
캐나다와 미국은 비슷한데 자세히 보면 차이가 나요= Canada and America are similar, but if you look closely, there are differences

취하다 = to be drunk

Common Usages:
술에 취하다 = to be drunk
분위기에 취하다 = to be drunk by the atmosphere of something

Examples:
술에 취했지? = You’re drunk, aren’t you?
매일 술에 취한 사람들은 점점 주변 사람들과 멀어져요 = People who get drunk every day gradually get further away from people close to them

심심하다 = to be bored

Notes: 심심하다 is used to describe the feeling of being bored. To describe something that makes you bored (and thus, is boring), you should use 지루하다.

Examples:
심심해서 저는 영화를 보러 나가고 싶어요
= I want to go out and see a movie because I’m bored

일을 하면 너무 심심해서 다른 분야로 옮길 수밖에 없어요
= I have no choice but to move/switch fields because I am so bored when I work

Adverbs and Other Words:
평일 = a weekday

Examples: 저는 여자 친구를 평일에만 만나요 = I meet my girlfriend only on weekdays
이런 공연을 평일에 본 적이 없어요 = I have never seen a performance like this on a weekday

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn about how to use ~려고 and ~러 in sentences to have the meaning of “for the purpose of/in order to.” You will also learn how to add ~어/아 보다 to verbs to have the meaning of “attempt/try to,” which is often used with the noun ‘적’. Let’s get started.

 

With the intention of doing…: ~(으)려고

Adding ~(으)려고 to the stem of the verb gives it the meaning of “with the intention of” or “in order to.” ~려고 gets added to stems ending in a vowel and ~으려고 gets added to stems ending in a consonant. For example:

밖에 나가려고… With the intention of going outside/in order to go outside…
그 사람을 살리려고… With the intention of saving that person/in order to save that person…

The constructions we have created above are not full sentences – they are just clauses that we can put into sentences. We can create full sentences by adding a clause to the end of them. For example:

밖에 일찍 나가려고 숙제를 빨리 했어요 = I did my homework fast in order to go out early
저는 신발을 신으려고 잠깐 앉았어요 = I sat down for a minute in order to put on my shoe

The translation of “to”, “so that”, or “with the intention” are also usually appropriate, as they all describe the same thing. For example:

밖에 일찍 나가려고 숙제를 빨리 했어요 = I did my homework fast so that I could go out early
밖에 일찍 나가려고 숙제를 빨리 했어요 = I did my homework fast to go out early
밖에 일찍 나가려고 숙제를 빨리 했어요 = I did my homework fast with the intention of going out early

Here are many more examples:
저는 그 사람을 살리려고 경찰관을 불렀어요 = I called the police officer in order to save that person
저는 정신과의사가 되려고 열심히 공부하고 있어요 = I am studying hard to become a psychiatrist
그 문제를 해결하려고 우리는 잠깐 만났어요 = In order to solve that problem, we met for a little bit
그 뜻을 이해하려고 책을 두 번 읽었어요 = In order to understand that meaning, I read the book twice
학생들을 평가하려고 내일 시험을 볼 거예요 = In order to evaluate the students, they will do an exam tomorrow

이렇게 많은 내용을 학생들에게 가르치려고 고생을 많이 했어요
= I worked hard/suffered in order to teach that much content to the students

저는 일을 구하려고 그 회사에 이력서를 냈어요
= I submitted my resume to that company with the intention of applying for that job

저는 그 일에 지원하려고 그 회사에 이력서를 냈어요
= I submitted my resume to that company with the intention of applying for that job

You can specifically use ~(으)려고 at the end of a sentence when the remainder of that sentence can be assumed. When used like this, it typically indicates what the speaker is just about to do. It is usually used in response to a question. For example:

마트에 갔어요?  = Have you gone to the store?/Did you go to the store?
아니요~ 지금 가려고요 = No, but I’m going right now/I’m just about to go

일을 다 했어? = Have you finished the work/Did you finish the work?
지금 하려고 = I’m doing it right now/I’m just about to do it/finish it

Notice that these constructions look like incomplete sentences because ~(으)려고 is usually used between clauses (as you can see in the examples provided earlier in the lesson), and not to end a sentence. However, the language has evolved to allow the above constructions to be correct. Also notice that you can add the honorific “요” to “(으)려고” when used at the end of a sentence to make the sentence more formal. You will learn many other grammatical principles throughout your Korean studies that typically connect two clauses, but can be used at the end of a sentence like this if the context allows for it. In most of these cases, it is acceptable to attach “요” to make it polite, even though it is not an actual conjugated word.

The clauses that you can add after ~(으)려고 are, for all intents and purposes, endless as long as the situation makes sense. However, one verb that is very commonly used after ~(으)려고 is “노력하다”, which means “to put effort into”. We will talk about this next.

 

.

 

To try to: ~려고 노력하다

If you want to say “I try to ___” you can use the verb 노력하다 after ~(으)려고. For example:

그 친구를 매 주말 만나려고 노력해요 = I try to meet that friend every weekend
한국어를 배우려고 노력하고 있어요 = I am trying to learn Korean

노력하다 itself means to try/put effort into something. So literally, the sentences means

“In order to meet that friend every weekend, I try”, and
“In order to learn Korean, I am trying”

But neither of those sentences (in English) sound natural. It is more natural to just say “I try…”

You could also add this to a long line of other words. It’s hard to explain, and you would never really need to say something like this, but understanding it will help you with grammar (a little bit). When I first started learning things like this, I always asked how I would say “I think I want to start to try to learn Korean.” Perfect sentence, but nobody would ever really say anything that ridiculous. You know everything in that sentence except “I think,” so with what you learned today, you should know how to say “I want to start to try to learn Korean:”

한국어를 배운다 = I learn Korean
한국어를 배우려고 노력한다 = I try to learn Korean
한국어를 배우려고 노력하기 시작한다 = I start to try to learn Korean
한국어를 배우려고 노력하기 시작하고 싶다 = I want to start to try to learn Korean

… Heh, like I said – saying something that complex is unnecessary, but understanding it is always good grammar practice.

 

 

 

 

 

To Come/Go to… ~(으)러

The clause connector ~(으)러 is very similar to ~(으)려고, but is specifically used when one is “going to” or “coming from” a place in order to do something. To distinguish it from the sentences earlier, these two would not be appropriate:

밖에 일찍 나가러 숙제를 빨리 했어요 = I did my homework fast in order to go out early
저는 신발을 신으러 잠깐 앉았어요 = I sat down for a minute in order to put on my shoe

Instead, ~(으)러 should be used when one is going to or coming from a place in order to do something. This usually means that the predicating verb of the whole sentence should be either 가다 or 오다, but other variations of those verbs are also acceptable (for example: 내려가다, to go down; 내려오다, to come down; 들어가다, to go in; 들어오다, to come in). Here are some examples:

친구를 만나러 왔어 = I came (here) to meet my friend
공부하러 학교에 가고 있어 = I’m going to school to study
표를 예매하러 극장에 가고 있어요 = I am going to the theater to buy the tickets (in advance)
그 연예인을 보러 행사에 갔어요 = I went to the event to see that celebrity
일자리에 지원하러 왔어요 = I came to apply for that job
옷을 갈아입으러 탈의실에 갔어요 = He went to the change-room to change his clothes
저는 영화를 보러 나가고 싶어요 = I want to go out to see a movie

As you saw before, you cannot use ~(으)러 instead of ~(으)려고. That is, while this sentence is okay:
밖에 일찍 나가려고 숙제를 빨리 했어요

The following sentence is not correct because it does not use 가다, 오다, or a similar “come/go” verb:
밖에 일찍 나가러 숙제를 빨리 했어요

However, the opposite can be done. That is, ~(으)려고 can be used instead of ~(으)러. For example, all of the sentences below are okay:

표를 예매하려고 극장에 가고 있어요
그 연예인을 보려고 행사에 갔어요
일자리에 지원하려고 왔어요
옷을 갈아입으려고 탈의실에 갔어요
심심해서 저는 영화를 보려고 나가고 싶어요

In Lesson 13, you learned about adding ~을/를 위해 to nouns to have the meaning “for.” For example:

나는 나의 여자 친구를 위해(서) 꽃을 샀어 = I bought flowers for my girlfriend

You can also use “위해” to say that you do something “for (the purpose of)” a verb. To do this, you attach ~기 위해 to a verb, just like you did with ~(으)러 or ~(으)려고. For example:

친구를 만나기 위해 여기로 왔어 = I came here to meet a friend
친구를 만나러 여기로 왔어 = I came here to meet a friend
친구를 만나려고 여기로 왔어 = I came here to meet a friend

공부하기 위해 학교에 가고 있어 = I’m going to school to study
공부하러 학교에 가고 있어 = I’m going to school to study
공부하려고 학교에 가고 있어 = I’m going to school to study

It is important to notice that in all of these cases the tense is indicated in the final clause of the sentence. That is – no indication of tense is to be made before ~기 위해/~(으)러/~(으)려고. For example, notice how the tense is indicated in the final clause of the following sentences:

친구를 만나러 학교에 갔어요 = I went to school to meet a friend
친구를 만나러 학교에 가고 있어요 = I am going to school to meet a friend
친구를 만나러 학교에 갈 거예요 = I will go to school to meet a friend

공연을 보러 행사에 갔어요 = I went to the event to see the performance
공연을 보러 행사에 가고 있어요 = I am going to the event to see the performance
공연을 보러 행사에 갈 거예요 = I will go to the event to see the performance

Before we finish this lesson, let’s look at another grammatical principal that is often translated similarly to the ones above.

 

 



To attempt: ~아/어 보다

Adding ~아/어 보다 to the stem of a verb gives it the meaning of “to attempt/try.” The translations to English are very similar – if not identical to ~(으)려고/~(으)러/~기 위해 but the meanings are very different. Notice the similarities in the English translations of the following sentences:

나는 밥을 먹으려고 노력했다 = I tried to eat rice
나는 밥을 먹어 봤다 = I tried to eat (the) rice

I would like to describe the meaning of ~아/어 보다 by distinguishing it from the use of “try” in the translation of ~(으)려고/(으)러/기 위해.

나는 밥을 먹으려고 노력했다
Means that you tried to eat rice in the sense that you put effort into eating. A less ambiguous (but less natural) translation would be “I put effort into eating the rice.”

나는 밥을 먹어 봤어
Means that you tried rice, similar to the meaning that you “tried something out.” This meaning is not related to the effort of eating the rice, but instead the experience of the “test” or “trial” or “attempt” of trying the rice. Another good way to translate that sentence would be to say “I gave the rice a try.”

It is a little bit confusing at first because the best translations of both sentences above is to use “try,” which can be very ambiguous. In my examples below, I prefer to use the simple translation of “try” when using “~아/어 보다” because it is usually the most natural way to express that meaning. When reading the English translations below, keep in mind that the usage of “try” is not related to effort, but instead related to a “trial/test/attempt.” Let’s look at some examples:

엄마가 요리한 음식을 먹어 봤어? = Did you try the food mom cooked?
결혼하기 위해 남자들을 만나 봤어 = In order to get married, I tried meeting a lot of men
그 신발을 신어 봤어요 = I tried on the shoes
옛날 친구를 연락해 봤어요 = I tried contacting an old friend
그 셔츠를 탈의실에서 입어 봤어요 = I tried on that shirt in the change room
비상출구를 찾아 볼 거예요 = I will look for the emergency exit
그 업무를 처음으로 해 봤어요 = I tried that work for the first time
그 회사에 지원해 볼 거예요 = I am going to try to apply to that company
이력서를 회사에서 일하는 비서에게 줘 봤어요 = I tried giving my resume to the secretary who works at that office

One of the most common usages of ~아/어 보다 is when you are telling somebody to do something. In essence, telling somebody to “try/attempt” something. I have yet to teach you about the imperative mood (this will be discussed in Lesson 40), so you won’t understand these example sentences completely. Regardless, examine the following example sentences to try to understand how ~아/어 보다 is being used.

그것을 확인해 봐!! = Check that! (Try checking that!)
이것을 먹어 봐! = Eat this! (Try eating this!)
여기 와 보세요 = Come here (Try coming here)
지금 앉아 봐 = Sit down (Try sitting down)
문을 열어 봐 = Open the door (Try opening the door)
먼저 가 봐 = Go first (Try going first)
이거를 봐 봐 = Look at this (Try looking at this)
이것을 드셔 보세요 = Eat this (Try eating this)
이 차를 마셔 보세요 = Drink this tea (Try drinking this tea)

Another common usage of the ~아/어 보다 grammatical form is used in conjunction with the pseudo-noun 적, which we will talk about next.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Noun of Experience: 적

In Lesson 30, you learned about the pseudo-noun ‘지.’ For example:

밥을 먹은 지 5분 됐다 = I have been eating for 5 minutes

In that lesson, you learned that 지 is one of a handful of nouns that have no meaning when used on their own. However, when used in connection with a describing verb or adjective, they have a special meaning.

“적” is another one of these nouns which cannot be used on its own. However, if you add ~ㄴ/은 to a verb stem and place 적 after ~ㄴ/은, “적” has the meaning of “experience.” Notice that ~ㄴ/은 is the same addition that is added to verbs when the past-tense form of ~는 것 is added.

So, let’s go through this step by step. First, you need a verb: 먹다

  • Add ~ㄴ/은 to the verb stem. ~은 gets added to words ending in a consonant, ~ㄴ gets added directly to words ending in a vowel: So we get: 먹은
  • Add 적: 먹은 적

If I were to say:

김치를 먹은 적

It would mean “the experience of eating kimchi.” Remember that ‘적’ is a noun that means ‘experience’ when used this way.

But, you can’t end sentences with nouns, so you need to finish the sentence with 있다 or 없다 to mean “to have the experience of eating kimchi” or “to not have the experience of eating kimchi.”

For example:
김치를 먹은 적이 없어요 = I don’t have the experience of eating kimchi…
… which is translated naturally to “I have never eaten kimchi”

Here are many more examples:

거기에 간 적이 없어요 = I have never gone/been there/I haven’t been there
그 여자를 만난 적이 없어요 = I have never met that girl/I haven’t met that girl
연예인을 만난 적이 없어요 = I have never met anybody famous
이런 업무를 한 적이 없어요 = I have never done this type of work before
이런 공연을 평일에 본 적이 없어요 = I have never seen a performance like this on a weekday
그 영화를 본 적이 있어요? = Have you seen that movie?

Because 적 refers to an experience, it is common to attach ~아/어 보다 to the preceding verb to indicate that the particular experience was “tried/attempted.”

거기에 가 본 적이 없어요 = I have never been there (tried going there)
그 여자를 만나 본 적이 없어요 = I have never met that girl (tried meeting her)
저는 치과에 가 본 적이 없어요 = I have never (tried going to) been to the dentist
이력서를 만들어 본 적이 없어요 = I have never tried making a resume before
그 영화를 봐 본 적이 있어요? = Have you tried seeing that that movie?

Notice that even in the final example, the word 보다 (to see/watch) is not the same as the 보다 in the ~아/어 보다 grammatical principle. Therefore, it is not unnatural to say 보다 twice in a row.

That’s it!

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