Lesson 43: When/if: ~(으)면, ~ㄴ/는다면

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Vocabulary
Introduction

When/If… ~(으)면
Usage 1
Usage 2
Usage 3

만약
그러면/그렇다면
Irregulars

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. You might not be able to understand all of the grammar within the example sentences, but most of the grammar used will be introduced by the end of Unit 2. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
장거리 = long distance

Common Usages:
장거리연애 = a long distance relationship
장거리경주 = a long distance race
장거리 마라톤 = long distance marathon

Examples:
장거리 운전을 하면 엉덩이가 아파요
= When/if you drive long distances, your bum will be sore

장거리 연애는 서로를 자주 못 보기 때문에 단거리 연애보다 더 힘들어요
= In a long distance relationship, you can’t see each other often so it is more difficult that a “short” distance (regular) relationship

콜라 = Cola

Common Usages:
콜라를 마시다 = to drink Cola

Examples:
피자를 먹으면 저는 콜라를 마셔요 = When/If I eat pizza, I usually drink cola
진정하지 않으면 콜라를 주지 않을 거예요 = If you don’t calm down, I won’t give you a cola
저는 영화를 보며 콜라를 마셨어요 = I drank cola while watching a movie
콜라를 매일 마시면 건강이 나빠져요 = When/if you drink cola every day, your health deteriorates/drops

과학자 = scientist

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “과학짜”

Examples:
과학자가 되면 돈을 많이 벌 거예요 = If you become a scientist, you will earn a lot of money

과학자가 되면 피부에 습도의 영향을 연구하고 싶어요
= When/if I become a scientist, I want to study the effects of humidity on the skin

발명품을 완성하자마자 그 과학자는 특허를 냈어요
= As soon as the scientist completed his invention, he/she got it patented

신호 = signal

Common Usages:
신호등 = a traffic light
신호에 걸리다 = to get stopped at a traffic light
적신호 = a red light, warning sign

Examples:
신호를 보면 저에게 말을 바로 해 주세요
= When/if you see the signal, let me know immediately please

길을 건너지 말라는 신호를 무시하고 달리다가 그 남자는 심하게 다쳤어요
= That man really hurt himself after he ignored the signal telling him not to walk (and then walked)

날개 = wing

Notes: 날개 is also used when referring to the wing of a chicken when eating “chicken wings.”

Common Usages:
날개 없는 천사 = an angel without wings (a really nice person)

Examples:
날개가 위로 움직이면 비행기가 떨어져요
= When/if the wings go up, the plane falls downwards

가지 = eggplant

Common Usages:
가지볶음 = stir fried eggplant

Examples:
제가 제일 좋아하는 반찬은 가지볶음 반찬이에요
= My favorite Korean side dish is stir fried eggplant

몇몇 사람들은 가지의 특유의 향기 때문에 가지를 못 먹어요
= Some people can’t eat eggplants because of the unique smell it has

고추 = hot pepper

Notes: 고추is also a cute way to refer to a “penis”

Common Usages:
고춧가루 = red pepper powder
고추장 = red pepper paste

Examples:
김치에 고추가 들어가 있어요 = There is red peppers in 김치

내일 아침에 이슬이 있으면 고추가 다 죽어 버릴 거예요
= If there is dew tomorrow morning, all of the hot pepper (plants) will die

고추를 안 넣었으면 맵지 않았을 거예요
= If you didn’t put the hot pepper in it, it wouldn’t have been spicy

신부 = bride

Common Usages:
신부입장 = the entrance of a bride
신부화장 = the makeup of a bride
신부측하객 = guests of the bride

Examples:
예쁜 신부는 계단에서 내려왔어요 = The beautiful bride came down the stairs
슬기는 오늘 세상에서 제일 아름다운 신부예요 = Today, Seulgi is the most beautiful bride
신랑이 신부를 보면 그녀가 얼마나 예쁜지 깨달을 거예요 = The groom will realize how pretty the bride is when he sees her

신랑 = groom

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “실랑”

Common Usages:
신랑측하객 = guests of the bride

Examples:
신랑이 신부를 보면 그녀가 얼마나 예쁜지 깨달을 거예요
= The groom will realize how pretty the bride is when he sees her

신랑은 신부에게 반지를 끼어주며 사랑한다고 속삭였어요
= The groom put the ring on the bride’s finger and whispered “I love you”

교훈 = moral, lesson

Common Usages:
교훈을 주다 = to teach a lesson (note that this is not a lesson that is taught as a class)

Examples:
실수를 하면 그 실수를 통해 교훈을 배우는 것이 중요해요
= It is important to learn the lesson/moral from mistakes when you make them

버릇 = habit

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “버륻”

Common Usages:
버릇이 나쁘다 = to be impolite
버릇이 없다 = to be impolite
입버릇처럼 = to say something many times
손버릇이 나쁘다 = somebody that likes to steal things

Examples:
이 남자는 손버릇이 어렸을 때부터 나빠서 감옥에 자주 갔어요
= That man has gone to prison many times because he has been stealing things since he was young

제가 어렸을 때 자꾸 손가락을 빠는 버릇이 있어서 엄마에게 많이 혼났어요
= When I was young, I had the habit of sucking my thumb so my mom was mad at me a lot

햇살 = the rays of the sun

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “핻쌀”

Common Usages:
햇살이 좋은 날 = a bright day

Examples:
오후가 되면 햇살이 강해져요 = When/if it becomes afternoon, the sun gets stronger
햇살이 그렇게 강하지 않았으면 밖에 나갔을 거예요 = If the sunlight wasn’t so strong, I would have gone outside

빨래 = laundry

Common Usages:
손빨래 = hand wash
빨래를 돌리다 = to do the laundry (literally, to turn the laundry [in the washing machine])
빨래를 널다 = to hang the laundry

Examples:
집에 도착하면 빨래를 할 거예요 = When I arrive at home, I will do laundry
빨래를 다 했으니 지금 자도 돼요 = (Because) I have finished the laundry, so I can go to bed now
저는 빨래를 해야 하기도 하고 집을 청소해야 하기도 해요 = I need to do the laundry and also clean the house too

이슬 = dew

Common Usages:
이슬비 = drizzle
이슬이 맺히다 = for dew to form

Examples:
내일 아침에 이슬이 있으면 고추가 다 죽어 버릴 거예요
= If there is dew tomorrow morning, all of the hot pepper (plants) will die

새벽에 일어나서 밖에 나가면 나무에는 이슬이 맺혀 있어요
= I woke up at dawn and went outside, and dew had formed on the trees

비바람 = rainstorm

Common Usages:
비바람이 치다 = for there to be a rainstorm
비바람이 몰아치다 = to be raining very hard

Examples:
만약 내일 비바람이 오면 경기가 취소될 거예요 = If it rains tomorrow, the match/game will be cancelled
어제 심하게 비바람이 몰아쳐서 이 지역의 많은 건물이 무너졌어요 = Many buildings collapsed in this area yesterday because of the severe rainstorm

습도 = humidity

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “습또”

Notes: 습도 more accurately refers to the “level of humidity”
습하다 is an adjective that translates to “to be humid.”

Common Usages:
습도가 높다 = for the level of humidity to be high

Examples:
과학자가 되면 피부에 습도의 영향을 연구하고 싶어요
= When/if I become a scientist, I want to study the effects of humidity on the skin

습도가 높으면 몸이 쉽게 끈적끈적 해져서 샤워를 자주 해야 해요
= If it is humid, your body gets sticky easily so you need to shower often

Verbs:
기초하다 = to be based on

The noun form of this word (“기초”) translates to “basics” or “a foundation.”

Notes: When used as a verb, 기초하다 typically translates to “to be based on.” For example:
이 영화는 소설에 기초해서 만들어진 영화예요 = This movie was made based on a book
이 건물은 유명한 건축가의 건축설계도에 기초해서 지어졌어요 = This building was built based on the blueprints of a famous architect

When used as a noun, 기초 typically translates to “basics.” For example:
우리는 기초부터 다 배워야 돼요 = We need to learn everything from the basics

Common Usages:
기초를 다지다 = to work on basic things a lot so you have a strong base in something
기초훈련 = basic training
기초공사 = foundation construction

보존하다 = to preserve, to conserve

The noun form of this word (“보존”) translates to “preservation.”

Examples:
지금 환경을 보존하지 않으면 미래에 더 큰 문제가 생길 것 같아요
= If we don’t preserve the environment, there will probably be bigger problems in the future

이곳은 중요한 유적이 묻혀 있어서 보존해야 해요
= This place has buried treasures so we need to preserve it

이 생태계를 그대로 보전하기 위해서는 모두의 노력이 필요해요
= We need the help of everybody to preserve this ecosystem the way it is

기도하다 = to pray

The noun form of this word (“기도”) translates to “a prayer.”

Examples:
제가 경기를 보면 우리 팀이 이기기를 기도해요
= Whenever I watch a game, I pray for my team to win

일요일이면 그 가족이 기도하러 교회에 가요
= Whenever it is Sunday, that family goes to church to pray

종교를 믿는 사람들은 보통 식사를 하기 전에 기도를 해요
= Usually people who believe in a religion pray before having a meal

대접하다 = to serve, to treat

The noun form of this word (“대접”) translates to “treatment.”
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “대저파다”

Common Usages:
식사를 대접하다 = to treat somebody for a meal

Examples:
손님이 오면 맛있는 음식을 대접할 거예요
= When the guests come, I will treat them with delicious food

오늘은 회사에 중요한 손님이 방문을 해서 맛있는 식사를 대접해야 해요
= Today an important guest will visit the office so we need to provide (him) with a delicious meal

진정하다 = to calm down

Common Usages:
진정하세요! = Calm down!

Examples:
진정하지 않으면 콜라를 주지 않을 거예요
= If you don’t calm down, I won’t give you a cola

가슴이 떨릴 때는 심호흡을 깊게 하면 진정이 돼요
= When you are nervous, if you breathe deeply you can be calmed down

Adjectives:
부자연스럽다 = to be unnatural

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “부자연스럽따”

Examples:
오늘 화장이 부자연스러워서 외출을 하기가 싫어요
= Today my makeup is unnatural so I don’t want to go outside

거짓말을 잘 못하는 사람들은 거짓말을 할 때 부자연스러워서 쉽게 드러나요
= When people who don’t lie well lie, it looks unnatural so it shows easily

균등하다 = to be even

Common Usages:
균등하게 나눠 주다 = to distribute/hand out evenly

Examples:
시간은 누구에게나 균등해요
= Time is the same for everybody

학생들이 균등한 기회를 받으면 미래가 밝아져요
= When/if students receive an equal opportunity, the future becomes brighter

음식이 충분했으면 사람들에게 균등하게 줬을 거예요
= If there was enough, I would have given the food out to people evenly

어색하다 = to be awkward

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “어새카다”

Examples:
10 초 동안 조금 어색했어요 = It was awkward for 10 seconds

누구나 자기 전 여자 친구를 만나면 분위기가 어색해요
= When/if anybody meets their ex-girlfriend, the atmosphere is awkward

그 사람이랑 얘기를 할 때마다 대화가 이상하기도 하고 어색하기도 해요
Whenever I talk with that person, the conversation is weird and also awkward too

낯설다 = to be unfamiliar

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “낟썰다”

Common Usages:
낯선 사람 = an unfamiliar person

Examples:
오늘 그 사람을 만나면 낯선 사람으로 대할 거예요
= If I meet that person today, I’m going to treat him like a stranger

낯선 사람이랑 좁은 데에서 산다면 갈등을 피할 길이 없어요
= There is no way of avoiding conflict if you live in a small space with somebody you don’t know well

그녀는 밤에 낯선 남자들한테 공격을 당했어요
= She was attacked by unknown men at night

수상하다 = to be suspicious

Examples:
그 남자가 너무 수상하지 않았으면 그를 믿었을 거예요
= If that man wasn’t so suspicious, I would have believed him

길을 가다가 우연히 본 남자가 수상해서 경찰에 신고했어요
= While walking down the street, the man I saw was suspicious so I reported him to the police

Adverbs and Other Words:
만약 = put in sentences with 'if'

Translation: put in sentences with “if”
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “마냑”

Notes: There are a handful of Korean adverbs that have no real translation to English because they don’t really have any meaning. These words are often used in sentences for feeling and to help the listener expect what the speaker will say. 만약 is used in sentences when the result of a sentence can’t be certain. Due to the nature of sentences where the second clause is a supposition or assumption, it is common to see “만약” used in sentences with ~(으)면. For example:

만약 내가 공부했으면 시험을 합격했을 것이다 = If I studied, I would have passed the test
만약 내가 밥을 먹었으면 배고프지 않았을 것이다 = If I ate, I wouldn’t have been hungry
만약 내일 비바람이 오면 경기가 취소될 거예요 = If it rains tomorrow, the match/game will be cancelled
만약 지금 환경을 보존하지 않으면 미래에 더 큰 문제가 생길 것 같아요 = If we don’t preserve the environment, there will probably be bigger problems in the future

양쪽 = both directions

Examples:
그 연예인이 방에 들어가면 양쪽에서 사람들이 그에게 다가가요
= Whenever that celebrity goes into a room, people approach him/her from both/all directions

어떤 일이 생기더라도 양쪽 말을 들어봐야 사실을 알 수 있어요
= Whatever happens, you should listen to both sides if you want to know the truth

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In the previous lesson, you learned how to add ~ㄹ/을 때 to words to have the meaning of “when.” In this lesson, you will learn about adding ~(으)면 to words to have a similar meaning. Let’s get started.

 

 

When/If… ~()

To create the meaning of “when” or “if,” you can add ~(으)면to the stem of a verb or adjective. If we look at the meaning of ~(으)면 more deeply, it can be separated into three main usages.

 

Usage 1
To indicate that one action occurs “when/if” another action (that hasn’t happened yet) occurs

For example:
집에 도착하면 빨래를 할 거예요 = When I arrive at home, I will do laundry

Notice in this usage that the action in the second clause is a supposition/assumption of what would happen when the first clause occurs. Both actions haven’t happened yet and the speaker is merely assuming what will take place. Keep this in mind for later because it will come up again.

Here the event of “arriving at home” hasn’t happened yet. Therefore, the speaker is indicating that he/she will “do laundry” when this event occurs. In this example, the event of “arriving at home” seems inevitable and certain. Because it is certain that this action will occur, the translation of “when” is often used.

If there is uncertainty in whether the first event occurs or not, the translation of “if” is often used to express this uncertainty. Notice what happens if you use “if” in the sentence above:

“If I arrive at home, I will do laundry.”

In most situations, I can’t imagine this being a natural sentence. Of course you are eventually going to arrive at home sometime – so the event isn’t really uncertain. Therefore, the translation of “if” is a little bit unnatural. However, if you changed the sentence a little and added a condition that would make the event uncertain, the translation of “if” would be more appropriate. For example:

집에 일찍 도착하면 빨래를 할 거예요 = If I arrive home early, I will do laundry

Either way, I don’t want you to get hung up on the English translation of a sentence. I would rather you understand the meaning of the Korean sentence than to worry about whether “when” or “if” is more appropriate. Often times it isn’t even clear if the sentence is uncertain or not. For example:

학교에 가면 알려 주세요 = When/if you go to school, let me know

Depending on the situation and context, “When you go to school, let me know” or “If you go to school, let me know” could both be appropriate. In these cases, you need to use the context to distinguish specifically what meaning is being implied.

Below are many examples showing this usage:

신호를 보면 저에게 말을 바로 해 주세요
= When/if you see the signal, let me know immediately please

과학자가 되면 피부에 습도의 영향을 연구하고 싶어요
= When/if I become a scientist, I want to study the effects of humidity on the skin

내일 비바람이 오면 경기가 취소될 거예요
= If it rains tomorrow, the match/game will be cancelled

지금 환경을 보존하지 않으면 미래에 더 큰 문제가 생길 것 같아요
= If we don’t preserve the environment, there will probably be bigger problems in the future

오늘 그 사람을 만나면 낯선 사람으로 대할 거예요
= If I meet that person today, I’m going to treat him like a stranger

손님이 오면 맛있는 음식을 대접할 거예요
= When the guests come, I will treat them with delicious food

진정하지 않으면 콜라를 주지 않을 거예요
= If you don’t calm down, I won’t give you a cola

내일 아침에 이슬이 있으면 고추가 다 죽어 버릴 거예요
= If there is dew tomorrow morning, all of the hot pepper (plants) will die

내일 분위기가 어색하면 이 게임을 한 번 해 보세요
= If the atmosphere is awkward tomorrow, try playing this game

신랑이 신부를 보면 그녀가 얼마나 예쁜지 깨달을 거예요
= The groom will realize how pretty the bride is when he sees her

——————-

In all of the examples so far, the second clause is an assumption of what will happen if/when some action occurs. It is also possible to conjugate the clause attached to ~(으)면 to the past tense to assume/suppose what would have happened if something had occurred. In order to do this, ~았/었 is added to the stem of the word followed by ~으면. For example:

내가 공부했으면… = If I studied…
내가 먹었으면… = If I ate…
내가 갔으면… = If I went…

Much like the present tense, the action in the second clause is a supposition/assumption of what would have happened if the first clause had occurred.

Usually when the verb/adjective after “if” is conjugated to the past tense, the later clause ends in “would have…” For example:

If I studied, I would have passed the test
If I ate, I would have not been hungry
If I met my friend, it would have been fun

Expressing this meaning of “would have” in Korean is done by adding ~았/었/을 것이다 to the final word of the sentence. For example:

내가 공부했으면 시험을 합격했을 것이다 = If I studied, I would have passed the test
내가 밥을 먹었으면 배고프지 않았을 것이다 = If I ate, I wouldn’t have been hungry
친구를 만났으면 재미있었을 것이다 = If I met my friend, it would have been fun

Notice that the translation of “if” is more appropriate when using ~(으)면 in the past tense. The use of “when” makes it seem like the action actually did happen – when actually it did not.

Many more examples:

돈을 다 쓰지 않았으면 그것을 샀을 거예요
= If I didn’t/hadn’t spent all of my money, I would have bought that

내가 사과를 다 안 먹었으면 너에게 한 개를 줬을 거야
= If I didn’t/hadn’t eaten all of my apples, I would have given you one

햇살이 그렇게 강하지 않았으면 밖에 나갔을 거예요
= If the sunlight wasn’t so strong, I would have gone outside

음식이 충분했으면 사람들에게 균등하게 줬을 거예요
= If there was enough, I would have given the food out to people evenly

그 남자가 너무 수상하지 않았으면 그를 믿었을 거예요
= If that man wasn’t so suspicious, I would have believed him

고추를 안 넣었으면 맵지 않았을 거예요
= If you didn’t put the hot pepper in it, it wouldn’t have been spicy

Using ~(으)면 in the past tense is a common way that you hope or wish for something. Explaining this is beyond the scope of this lesson, but you will continue to learn about this usage in Lesson 61.

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In all of the examples above – in both the present and past tenses – the second clause is an assumption of what will happen (or would have happened). When indicating an assumption like this, it is also possible to conjugate the verb prior to ~면 first. The words need to be conjugated using the plain/diary form before ~면 can be added on.

Make sure you remember your plain/diary form conjugations, introduced in Lesson 5.

For example:

For verbs in the present tense:
가다 = 간다면
먹다 = 먹는다면

For adjectives in the present tense:
행복하다 = 행복하다면
길다 = 길다면

For verbs in the past tense:
가다 = 갔다면
먹다 = 먹었다면

For adjectives in the past tense:
행복하다 = 행복했다면
길다 = 길었다면

For 이다 and 아니다
이다 = 이라면 (present tense)
이다 = 이었다면 (past tense)
아니라면 (present tense)
아니었다면 (past tense)

I usually refer to this addition as ~ㄴ/는다면 because it shows that the word before ~면 must be conjugated.

All of the examples shown to this point could also be expressed using ~ㄴ/는다면. When used like this, there is a little bit more of an emphasis of the fact that the action is a supposition/assumption than when ~(으)면 is used. Therefore, the translation of “if” is more commonly used with ~ㄴ/는다면. Nonetheless, all of the examples below have the same meaning as their earlier counterparts – just that there is more of an emphasis that the clause before ~ㄴ/는다면 might or might not happen:

집에 도착한다면 빨래를 할 거예요
집에 일찍 도착한다면 빨래를 할 거예요
학교에 간다면 알려 주세요
신호를 본다면 저에게 말을 바로 해 주세요
과학자가 된다면 피부에 습도의 영향을 연구하고 싶어요
내일 비바람이 온다면 경기가 취소될 거예요
지금 환경을 보존하지 않는다면 미래에 더 큰 문제가 생길 것 같아요
오늘 그 사람을 만난다면 낯선 사람으로 대할 거예요
손님이 온다면 맛있는 음식을 대접할 거예요
진정하지 않는다면 콜라를 주지 않을 거예요
내일 아침에 이슬이 있는다면 고추가 다 죽어 버릴 거예요
내일 분위기가 어색하다면 이 게임을 한 번 해 보세요
신랑이 신부를 본다면 그녀가 얼마나 예쁜지 깨달을 거예요
내가 공부했다면 시험을 합격했을 것이다
내가 밥을 먹었다면 배고프지 않았을 것이다
친구를 만났다면 재미있었을 것이다
돈을 다 쓰지 않았다면 그것을 샀을 거예요
내가 사과를 다 안 먹었다면 너에게 한 개를 줬을 거야
햇살이 그렇게 강하지 않았다면 밖에 나갔을 거예요
음식이 충분했다면 사람들에게 균등하게 줬을 거예요
그 남자가 너무 수상하지 않았다면 그를 믿었을 거예요
고추를 안 넣었다면 맵지 않았을 거예요

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It is also possible to attach ~았/었더라면 to the tenses above in the past tense, for example:

내가 공부했더라면 시험을 합격했을 것이다
내가 밥을 먹었더라면 배고프지 않았을 것이다
친구를 만났더라면 재미있었을 것이다
돈을 다 쓰지 않았더라면 그것을 샀을 거예요
내가 사과를 다 안 먹었더라면 너에게 한 개를 줬을 거야
햇살이 그렇게 강하지 않았더라면 밖에 나갔을 거예요
음식이 충분했더라면 사람들에게 균등하게 줬을 거예요
그 남자가 너무 수상하지 않았더라면 그를 믿었을 거예요
고추를 안 넣었더라면 맵지 않았을 거예요

You can think of ~았/었더라면 as one unit, but it might be helpful for you to see the purpose of adding ~더~ to other constructions. I discuss some of the usages of ~더~ in Lessons 117, 118 and 119.

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It is common to end these “assumption” sentences with ~ㄹ/을 텐데, which I discuss in Lesson 100.

I know it is tempting, but I actually hope you didn’t look ahead to those future lessons. We still have more to discuss in this lesson. Let’s move on and talk about another usage of ~(으)면.

 

 

Usage 2
To generally indicate that when one action occurs, another action occurs

In this usage, the first clause indicates the requirement/basis that is needed to make the event in the second clause occur. This cause-and-effect between the first and second clause is typically common knowledge that usually a fact anybody would know. For example:

비가 오면 날씨가 추워져요 = When/if it rains, the weather gets colder

Notice in this usage that the events being described are not assumptions but are general facts

As these sentences are describing a general cause-and-effect – and not some event that happened in the past or will happen in the future, the final clause is typically conjugated in the present tense.

Again, not that I want you to focus on the English translations, but notice that the usage of “when” or “if” is arbitrary. Both words are appropriate for this situation. Below are many more examples:

잠을 못 자면 다음 날에 몸이 피곤해져요
= When/if you don’t sleep well, the next day you will be tired

장거리 운전을 하면 엉덩이가 아파요
= When/if you drive long distances, your bum will be sore

콜라를 매일 마시면 건강이 나빠져요
= When/if you drink cola every day, your health deteriorates/drops

누구나 캐나다에 가면 좋아해요
= When/if anybody goes to Canada, they like it

누구나 자기 전 여자 친구를 만나면 분위기가 어색해요
= When/if anybody meets their ex-girlfriend, the atmosphere is awkward

오후가 되면 햇살이 강해져요
= When/if it becomes afternoon, the sun gets stronger

날개가 위로 움직이면 비행기가 떨어져요
= When/if the wings go up, the plane falls downwards

학생들이 균등한 기회를 받으면 미래가 밝아져요
= When/if students receive an equal opportunity, the future becomes brighter

Let’s move on and talk about another usage of ~(으)면.

 

 

Usage 3
To indicate that an action occurs whenever another action is repeated

In this usage, every time the first clause occurs, the second clause occurs. For this usage to work, the actions need to be things that are repeated frequently. For example:

피자를 먹으면 저는 콜라를 마셔요 = When/If I eat pizza, I usually drink cola

Notice in this usage that the events being described are not assumptions but are general facts

Again, as with the previous usage of ~(으)면, these sentences are not describing some event that happened in the past or will happen in the future. Rather, the actions are events that are repeated frequently. Therefore, the final clause of these sentences is typically conjugated in the present tense.

The typical translation for this usage is “whenever…”. This usage of ~(으)면 is almost identical to adding ~마다 to “때,” which you learned about in the previous lesson. In any language, there are often many ways to say the same thing. For example, “whenever” and “every time” can both be used to have the same meaning. For example:

피자를 먹으면 저는 콜라를 마셔요 = Whenever I eat pizza, I usually drink cola
피자를 먹으면 저는 콜라를 마셔요 = Every time I eat pizza, I usually drink cola

Below are many more examples of this usage:

그 연예인이 방에 들어가면 양쪽에서 사람들이 그에게 다가가요
= Whenever that celebrity goes into a room, people approach him from both/all directions

아버지가 운전하면 습관으로 담배를 피워요
= Whenever my dad drives, he smokes cigarettes out of habit

제가 경기를 보면 우리 팀이 이기기를 기도해요
= Whenever I watch a game, I pray for my team to win

일요일이면 그 가족이 기도하러 교회에 가요
= Whenever it is Sunday, that family goes to church to pray

내가 공부를 하면 엄마는 TV를 끈다
= Whenever I study, my mother turns off the TV

내가 TV를 보면 엄마는 싫어한다
= Whenever I watch TV, my mother doesn’t like it

내가 행복하면 숙제를 잘 해
= Whenever I am happy, I do my homework well

 

 

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만약

There are a handful of Korean adverbs that have no real translation to English because they don’t really have any meaning. These words are often used in sentences for feeling and to help the listener expect what the speaker will say. Probably the most common of all of these words is “만약.”

만약 is used in sentences when the result of a sentence can’t be certain. Due to the nature of sentences where the second clause is a supposition or assumption, it is common to see “만약” used in sentences that follows the first usage of ~(으)면 described in this lesson. For example:

만약 내가 공부했으면 시험을 합격했을 것이다 = If I studied, I would have passed the test
만약 내가 밥을 먹었으면 배고프지 않았을 것이다 = If I ate, I wouldn’t have been hungry

만약 내일 비바람이 오면 경기가 취소될 거예요
= If it rains tomorrow, the match/game will be cancelled

만약 지금 환경을 보존하지 않으면 미래에 더 큰 문제가 생길 것 같아요
= If we don’t preserve the environment now, there will probably be bigger problems in the future

 

 

그러면/그렇다면

In Lesson 23, you learned that the meaning of the word ‘그렇다’ is close to the meaning of ‘like that.’

By adding ~(으)면 to 그렇다 you can create “그러면.”
By adding ~ㄴ/는다면 to 그렇다 you can create “그렇다면”
(Remember that 그렇다 is an adjective and therefore 그렇는다면 would be incorrect)

When some situation is being talked about, you can use “그러면/그렇다면” to say “If (that situation)…”. The common translation of these two is simply “if so.” For example:

Person 1: 내일 비가 올 것 같아요 = It will probably rain tomorrow
Person 2: 그러면/그렇다면 공원에 안 갈 거예요 = If so, I’m not going to the park

Person 1: 나는 오늘 집에 안 갈 거야 = I’m not going home today
Person 2: 그러면/그렇다면 나도 안 갈 거야 = If so, I’m not going either

 

If not: 아니면

In Lesson 8 (and applied in Lesson 9), you learned about 아니다 and how it can be used to mean “to not be.” By combining 아니다 with ~면, we get “아니면” which literally means “if not.” We can often see 아니면 used at the beginning of a sentence referring to the previous sentence. For example:

저는 밥을 먹고 싶어요. 아니면 죽을 것 같아요 = I want to eat rice. If not, I will probably die
저는 공부해야 돼요. 아니면 시험을 잘 못 볼 거예요 = I need to study. If not, I won’t be able to do well on the exam

It is also possible to see 아니면 used within a clause, often between two nouns. When used like this, 아니면 indicates “if not this (noun), then that (noun).” This is most commonly translated to “or” in English. For example:

저는 밥 아니면 사과를 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat rice, if not, (I want to eat) apples
(which could be translated as “I want to eat rice or apples.”)

아니면 can be used to have this meaning of “or,” but another way to create this meaning is to use ~이나 or 거나, which is discussed in Lesson 58.

 

 

Irregulars

It’s worth looking at a table that shows how the addition of ~(으)면 effects Korean irregulars. Note that these same rules would apply to other additions where you need to either add “~(으)ㅁ…” (that is, when you have to decide whether to add “으” or something that starts with “ㅁ”.) Other examples of grammatical principles that start with “~(으)ㅁ..” are ~(으)면서 and ~(으)며, which you will learn about in Lesson 62. These irregular rules below will apply to those grammatical principles as well.

Irregular Verb + ~(으)면
짓다 (to build) 지으면
걷다 (to walk) 걸으면
듣다 (to listen) 들으면
잠그다 (to lock) 잠그면
고르다 (to choose) 고르면
만들다 (to make) 만들면
열다 (to open) 열면
팔다 (to sell) 팔면
눕다 (to lie down) 누우면

Notice that “~면” is added directly to stems ending in ㄹ and “~으” is not added between them. Don’t be confused with “걸으면,” as this example incorporates the ㄷ irregular as well.

That’s it for this lesson!

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