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실생활 = real life
멍청이 = stupid person
까닭 = reason
소녀 = little girl
소년 = little boy
회비 = membership fees
크기 = size
서양 = western countries
동양 = eastern countries
문명 = civilization
속도 = speed/velocity
동호회 =club for people with same interest
엽서 = postcard
이메일 = e-mail
선약 = previous engagement
농업 = agriculture
차례 = order
공동 = joint/communal
그치다 = for rain to stop
복수하다 = to revenge
모시다 = to serve, to attend on someone
마주치다 = to bump into, to make eye contact
말리다 = to dry
Adverbs and Other Words:
정성껏 = putting your heart into something
마지못해 = reluctantly
새로 = newly/anew
주요 = major/primary
In this lesson, you will learn a variety of smaller grammatical principles that are similar to grammatical principles you have learned previously. Despite the similarities with its previously taught counterpart, each grammatical principle taught in this lesson is more difficult (and less) common with the one taught earlier. I will use this lesson to introduce you to:
한 and 약 (similar to ~쯤)
~(으)므로 (similar to ~아/어서 or ~기 때문에)
전반에 (not to be confused with 보통 or 일반적으로)
당하다 (similar to passive verbs)
Estimating a Number/Amount with “한” and “약”
In a much earlier lesson, you learned that you can use the connecting particle ~쯤 to make an estimation about something. Attaching this particle to a noun or number translates to “about/approximately _____.” For example:
우리가 내일 2시쯤 도착할 거예요 = We will arrive tomorrow at about two o’clock
어제 가게에 사람 스무 명쯤 왔어요 = Yesterday, about twenty people came to the store
Using ~쯤 is a perfectly acceptable way to express that your sentence is an approximation, and most learners of Korean learn this particle fairly early in their Korean studies.
However, most learners of Korean do not learn about an equally (if not more) common word that can be used to make an approximation. By placing “한” before the part of the sentence that you are approximating, you can create this same meaning. This usage is very common in speech, but not very common in writing (unless it is a quote that is written down). For example:
우리가 내일 한 2시에 도착할 거예요 = We will arrive tomorrow at about two o’clock
어제 가게에 사람 한 스무 명이 왔어요 = Yesterday, about 20 people came to the store
“쯤” can be used in sentences with “한” as well. For example:
우리가 내일 한 2시쯤 도착할 거예요 = We will arrive tomorrow at about two o’clock
어제 가게에 사람 한 스무 명쯤 왔어요 = Yesterday, about 20 people came to the store
몇 개 필요하세요? = How many do you need?
한 열 개… = about ten…
내일 친구가 몇 시 올 거예요? = What time is your friend coming tomorrow?
한 아홉 시… = About nine o’clock
“약” is another word that can be used to have the same meaning and function as “한.” By placing “약” before a number or amount in a sentence, you can indicate that it is an approximation of some sort. However, “약” is significantly less common than “한” or “~쯤.” Nonetheless, it is a word that you should be aware of. Some examples:
캐나다 인구는 약 35,000,000 명이에요 = Canada’s population is about 35 million
캐나다 인구는 한 35,000,000 명이에요 = Canada’s population is about 35 million
캐나다 인구는 35,000,000 명쯤이에요 = Canada’s population is about 35 million
친구가 약 10분 있다가 올 것 같아요 = Our friend will probably come in about 10 minutes
저는 돈이 없어서 그것을 못 사요 = I can’t buy that because I don’t have any money
저는 돈이 없기 때문에 그것을 못 사요 = I can’t buy that because I don’t have any money
저는 돈이 없으니까 그것을 못 사요 = I can’t buy that because I don’t have any money
There are actually many (more than you can imagine) other ways that you can create essentially this same (or a very similar) meaning. You will be introduced to a lot of these alternate forms in later lessons (most are not used often, so there is no need to introduce them now), but I want to introduce you to one specific form right now.
By connecting two clauses with “~(으)므로,” you can create this same meaning of “because” or “therefore.” This grammatical form is more common in formal writing, but I do hear it spoken sometimes. For example:
그 사람이 대통령을 암살했으므로 징역 100년이 선고되었어요 = That person was sentenced to 100 years in prison because he/she assassinated the president
성적이 낮았으므로 그 학생은 좋은 대학교에 못 갔어요 = That student couldn’t go to a good university because of his/her low grades
Notice above that this grammatical form can be added constructions conjugated into the past or present tense, just like ~기 때문에.
As you know, you can use the grammatical principle “아/어서” with the word “그렇다” to form “그래서.”
In the same way, you can use “(으)므로” with “그렇다” to form “그러므로.” The meaning of 그러므로 is very similar (if not identical) to 그래서 – but is used in more formal situations or in print.
In general: 전반
You learned in a very early lesson how to say “generally.” The two words that are used in English that translate to “generally” in Korean are “보통” and “일반적으로.” For example:
저는 보통 월요일에 운동해요 = I generally exercise on Mondays
저는 일반적으로 그 사람을 직장에서 보지 못해요 = I generally don’t see that person at work
Notice that in the examples above, “generally” could be substituted for “usually,” and the sentences would have the same meaning.
While the word “전반” translates to “in general,” its meaning is different than “보통” or “일반적으로.” When using “전반에,” you are indicating that something is done across the board, in a general sense, amongst all things. It is always easier to describe it better with examples. See below:
저는 한국 역사 전반에 관심이 있어요 = I am interested in Korean history in general (I am interested in all parts of Korean history).
Notice the difference between the sentence above and the following sentence:
저는 한국 역사를 보통 좋아해요 = I generally/usually like Korean history
서울시는 영어원어민에 관한 예산 전반을 줄이고 있어요 = The City of Seoul is lowering the budget for native English speakers in general (across the board)
You can also use ‘전반적으로’ as an adverb to mean “generally/across the board”:
미국 통화가 요즘에 비싸지고 있어서 물품 값이 전반적으로 올라가고 있어요 = The price of goods in general (across the board) is increasing because the US dollar is increasing
To Occur/Receive, or an Alternate Passive Sentence Ender: 당하다
The word “당하다” is similar to “생기다” or “받다” (each with their respective meanings, both of which you should know thoroughly by now). However, one uses 당하다 when the thing that occurs/is received has a negative meaning (as if something bad is happening).
The best example to use as an introductory to this grammatical principle is the word “부상.” “부상” translates to some form of injury or wound. For example:
교통사고에서 사람 다섯 명은 부상을 ________
If you wanted to say that one is injured, there are a variety of words that you could use as the verb in the sentence. One word that was taught in a previous lesson is “입다,” which is used in a variety of situations when some sort of damage/injury occurs.
Another word that can be used in that situation is 당하다. The sentence then looks like this:
교통사고에서 사람 다섯 명은 부상을 당했어요 = Five people were injured in the car accident
“당하다” can be used as the verb to act on a variety of nouns, all with the same general meaning. In each case, “당하다” implies that one received something bad, or something bad happened to that person. Other examples:
집에 가는 동안 사고를 당했어요 = I got into an accident on my way home
그 왕따 학생은 다른 학생들한테 괴롭힘을 당했어요 = That outcast was humiliated by other students
In addition to this, 당하다 can be attached to nouns, acting as a substitute to the passive verb ending ~되다 (which you studied extensively in Lesson 14). Specifically, ~당하다 replaces ~되다 in passive verbs in cases where the result of the passive verb is negative. The best example is the word “거절하다.”
“거절하다” is an active verb that means “to reject,” which means you can use it in sentences like the following:
아버지는 자기 아들의 요구를 거절했어요 = The father refused his son’s demand
However, if we want to use “거절하다” in the passive voice (to be rejected), you can use “거절당하다” instead of “거절되다.” For example:
그는 그 여자한테 데이트를 하자고 했는데 거절당했어요 = He asked that girl on a date, but got rejected
However, ~당하다 is typically used when a person is getting the short end of the stick in some situation. In other times, when a non-person is rejected, it would be more appropriate to use the usual “되다” form. For example:
새로운 예산이 사장한테 거절되었어요 = The new budget was rejected by the CEO
There are many words that ~당하다 can be attached to, most of which you do not know yet. Another word that you are familiar with at this point is “공격하다” (to attack)
그녀는 밤에 낯선 남자들한테 공격을 당했어요 = She was attacked by unknown men at night
At this point, it is sufficient to understand how this grammatical principle is used – which will allow you to understand people when they say it (or if you see it written).
That’s is for this Lesson!