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Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.
A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.
책자 = booklet, leaflet, pamphlet, brochure
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “책짜”
이 회사에서 주로 하는 일은 책자를 만드는 거예요
= The main work at this company is the making of pamphlets.
더 자세한 내용을 읽고 싶으면 이 책자에서 찾으면 돼요
= If you want more specific material/information, you can find it in this brochure
고객들이 그 정보를 쉽게 알아볼 수 있게 그 정보를 책자에 넣을 거예요
= In order for customers to easily find (find out) that information, we will put it (the information) on a pamphlet
바퀴 = wheel
바퀴를 갈다 = to change a wheel/tire
바퀴가 터지다 = for a tire to pop
바퀴에 바람을 넣다 = to put air into a tire
바퀴에 바람이 빠지다 = for air to get out of a tire
비행기 바퀴가 땅에 닿자마자 승객들이 자리에서 일어났어요
= As soon as the plane’s wheels hit the ground, the passengers got out of their seats (stood up)
운전을 하다 보면 바퀴가 터질 수도 있으니 꼭 여분의 바퀴를 가지고 다니세요
= When you drive, it’s possible for a tire to pop, so you should always carry a spare tire with you
기운 = energy, vitality, vigor
기운이 없다 = to have no energy
기운을 내다 = to exert energy
기운이 떨어졌다 = for one’s energy to drop
요즘에 기운이 너무 없어요 = These days, I have way too little energy
오늘 아침에 시간이 없어서 커피를 못 마셔서 기운이 없어요
= I don’t have any energy because I was out of time this morning, and couldn’t drink coffee
무리 = group
몇몇 동물들은 무리 지어 생활을 해요
= Some animals live in groups (make groups, and then live like that)
밤 늦게 집에 가는 길에 한 무리의 학생들이 있어서 일부러 다른 길로 갔어요
= On my way home late at night, there was a group of students so I deliberately went a different way
정체 = identity
그 사람이 정체를 드러내고 싶지 않아요 = That person does not want to reveal his/her identity
죽은 그 사람의 정체를 알 길이 없어요 = There is no way of knowing that dead person’s identity
교원 = teacher
교원자격증 = teacher certification
교원 모두에게 메시지를 보낼게요 = I will send a message to all of the teachers
저는 교원자격증을 따기 위해 매일 열심히 준비를 하고 있어요 = In order to get my teacher certification, I am preparing (studying) hard every day
살인 = murder
살인자 = murderer
살인범 = murderer
그 남자가 살인 혐의로 체포되었어요
= That man was arrested on suspicion of murder
살인범이 그 사람을 죽인 데로 돌아왔어요
= The murderer returned to the place that he killed that person
살인범이 탈출하자마자 경찰관이 그를 찾아서 체포했어요
= As soon as the murderer escaped, the police caught him and arrested him
이 남자는 살인을 저지른 죄수로 곧 감옥에 수감될 예정입니다.
= This prisoner who committed murder will soon be locked up in a prison
경찰은 이 지역의 살인사건의 단서를 찾기 위해 지역주민들에게 협조를 구했다
= In order to find clues concerning the locality’s murder incident, police sought cooperation from local residents
살인자 = murderer
Notes: 살인자 and 살인범 can both be used to refer to a murderer.
~자 (者) is often used after the noun form of a verb to denote a person who performs that action.
~범 (犯) is often used after the noun form of a verb to denote a person who commits that particular crime.
이 교도소는 많은 살인자가 있는 곳으로 유명해요
= This prison is famous for having a lot of murders
살인자 박씨는 재판 후에 50년형을 선고 받고 감옥에 갔어요
= After the trial, the murderer, Mr. Park, received a 50-year sentence and went to prison
선착순 = first come first served
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “선착쑨”
It is common to see 선착순 used on promotional flyers where a certain thing will be given to “the first X number of people” who apply for something. For example, you might see a flyer saying that they will give a 10,000 won coupon – but with the condition “선착순 50명” written on it.
우리가 선착순 50명에게만 상품권을 줄 거예요
= We will give the gift certificate to only the first fifty people
내일 선착순으로 학교에서 도시락을 나눠 줄 예정이에요
= The plan is to pass out lunch boxes at school tomorrow on a first-come-first served basis
초과하다 = to exceed
The noun form of this word (“초과”) translates to “an excess.”
초과근무 = overtime work
정원초과 = to have more people than the limit
부치는 짐이 20kg를 초과하면 추가요금을 내야 해요
= If the baggage you are sending exceeds 20 kg, you will have to pay an additional fee
울리다 = to make somebody cry
가끔씩 아기의 우는 모습이 귀여워서 일부러 아기를 울릴 때가 있어요
= Sometimes the look of a baby crying is so cute that there are times where I purposely make the baby cry
초등학교 남자아이들은 좋아하는 여자아이가 있으면 꼭 그 아이를 울려요
= If an elementary school boy has a girl that he likes, they always make them cry
결재하다 = to approve
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “결째하다”
The noun form of this word (“결재”) translates to “an approval.”
Notes: It is very common (even for Korean people) to confuse the spelling of the words 결제하다 and 결재하다. 결재하다 is used to indicate that one approves of something. It is most commonly used in working environments where something needs to be “approved” before it is done. For example, you could say:
어제 올린 것이 결재되었어요? = Did the thing we uploaded yesterday get approved?
이 서류는 부장님이 확인 후 오늘 결재했어요 = After checking it, the boss approved this document
결제하다 is used when one pays for something. For example, if you are at a restaurant with your friends and you want to pay this time, you could say:
이번에는 제가 결제할게요 = I will pay this time
퇴근하다 = to leave work
퇴근시간 = the time one (or everybody) goes home from work
출퇴근하다 = to commute
퇴근을 언제 하세요? = When do you leave work?
그는 직장에서 일찍 퇴근했어요 = He left work early
퇴근시간이라서 길이 막힐 텐데 = The roads will probably be jammed because it is rush hour
일을 다 못 끝낸 채 퇴근을 했어요 = I went home (left work) without being able to finish my work
흘러나오다 = to trickle out of
흘러나오는 물을 막아 줄까? = Shall I block the water that is flowing out for you?
집주인이 물이 흘러나올까 봐 지붕을 수리했어요 = The landlord was worried that water would flow out, so he fixed up (repaired) the roof
주고받다 = to exchange
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “주고받따”
인사를 주고받다 = to exchange greetings
제 생일에는 특별히 가족들과 선물을 주고받아요
= On my birthday, I exchange presents with my family (which is something particularly special/different)
친구가 멀리 이사를 가서 매주 편지를 주고받아요
= My friend moved far away, so I exchange letters with him every week
고용하다 = to hire
The noun form of this word (“고용”) translates to “a hiring.”
그 회사는 저를 고용했어요 = That company hired me
총리를 보조하는 사람이 없으니까 두 명 정도 고용해야 될 것 같아요
= There are no people to help the prime minister, so we probably need to hire about two people
공고하다 = to announce
The noun form of this word (“공고”) translates to “an announcement.”
이 서류를 복도에 일주일 동안 공고해 주세요
= Please put (which would allow the information to be announced to the public) this document in the hallway for one week
지원자를 모집한다고 공고했지만 아무도 지원하지 않았어요
= I announced that we would be recruiting applicants, but nobody applied
연기하다 = to act
The noun form of this word (“연기”) translates to “acting.”
저는 사람들 앞에서 연기하는 게 꿈이에요
= My dream is acting in-front of people
저는 가끔씩 남자친구를 놀리기 위해 연기를 해요
= Sometimes I act/pretend with my boyfriend to play/mess with him
이루다 = to achieve or accomplish what one hoped for, to make, to merge
Notes: 이루다 has many meanings. It can be used to indicate that one “achieves” or “accomplishes” something. When used like this, it typically acts on nouns like “꿈” (dream), “목표” (goal) or other similar words. For example:
저는 열심히 공부해서 목표를 이뤘어요 = I studied hard and achieved my goal
그 사람은 10년 동안의 노력 끝에 꿈을 이뤘어요 = After ten years of efforts, that person achieved his dreams
In theory, it can also be used to indicate that something is made. For example:
저는 팀을 여자 세 명과 남자 세 명으로 이뤘어요
(I composed a team of three women and three men)
However, this type of sentence is more naturally said using the passive verb 이루어지다 instead of 이루다. Active sentences are usually more natural than passive ones, but not here. For example, this is more natural:
이 팀은 여자 세 명과 남자 세 명으로 이루어졌어요
= This team is comprised of three women and three men
이루어지다 = to be comprised of
Notes: 이루어지다 is the passive form of 이루다 as shown above. As above, it can be used to indicate that some achievement or accomplishment “came to be.” For example:
하느님, 제발 제 소원이 이루어지게 도와주세요!
= God, please make it so that my wish comes true
As noted in the discussion of 이루다, 이루어지다 is commonly used to indicate what something is “comprised of.” For example:
물은 산소랑 수소로 이루어진다
= Water is made up of oxygen and hydrogen
이 팀은 여자 세 명과 남자 세 명으로 이루어졌어요
= This team is comprised of three women and three men
부서지다 = to be smashed into pieces
Notes: Much like the difference between 떨어지다 and 떨어뜨리다, 부서지다 is used when something is smashed. 부서뜨리다 is used when one actively smashes something. For more information, see Lesson 105. For example:
내 핸드폰이 부서졌어 = My phone is/was smashed
나는 내 핸드폰을 부서뜨렸어 = I smashed my phone
부서진 집을 같이 지을까요? = Shall we build the shattered house again?
집주인이 부서진 거울을 찾아낼까 봐 걱정돼요
= I’m worried that the landlord will find the shattered mirror
부러지다 = to be broken in half
Notes: Much like the difference between 떨어지다 and 떨어뜨리다, 부러지다 is used when something is broken in half. 부러뜨리다 is used when one actively breaks something in half. For more information, see Lesson 105.
부러진 조각상을 고칠 길이 없어요
= There is no way of fixing that broken statue
나이가 많을수록 넘어질 경우 뼈가 부러질 가능성이 커요
= As you get older, the possibility of falling and breaking a bone is high
위태롭다 = to be risky, to be critical
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “위태롭따”
그 사람을 볼 때마다 위태로워 보여요
= Every time I look at that person, he looks to me like he is in need of help
그때 제 목숨은 심장수술로 인해 위태로웠어요
= At that time, my life was in a critical situation because of the heart surgery
부유하다 = to be rich
몇몇 사람들은 태어날 때부터 부유해요
= Some people are rich from when they are born
저는 복권에 당첨돼서 부유하게 살고 싶어요
= I want to win the lottery and live rich
번거롭다 = to be cumbersome
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “번거롭따”
그 일이 쉽지만 아주 번거로워서 하기 싫어요
= That work/job/task is easy, but it is very tedious so I don’t like doing it
버스를 탈 때마다 버스카드를 챙기는 게 번거로워요
= It is cumbersome to bring your bus card every time you take the bus
Adverbs and Other Words:
모금 = a counter for a “sip,” “breath,” or “drag”
저는 평생 동안 담배를 한 모금도 안 피웠어요
= In my whole life, I haven’t even had one puff/drag of a cigarette
그 남자가 맥주 한 병을 한 모금에 다 마셨어요
= That man drank a whole beer bottle in one sip/gulp
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This lesson, along with Lesson 64 and Lesson 65 will focus on the use of ~ㄹ/을까. Originally, I wanted to introduce all of the usages of ~ㄹ/을까 in one lesson, but there is simply too much content. Therefore, I have separated the general usages and will introduce them to you over the next three lessons. The usages will be generally divided into the following:
~ㄹ/을까 can have a variety of meanings depending on the context, and my goal for the upcoming lessons is to explain the context in which they are typically used.
In this lesson, you will learn about how ~ㄹ/을까 can be used to ask a question. The topics in this lesson will further be divided into separate sections:
- ~ㄹ/을까 being used to ask a question to oneself
- ~ㄹ/을까 being used to ask a question to a listener
Asking a Question to Oneself
The first (and simplest) way you will hear ~ㄹ/을까 being used is at the end of a sentence where the speaker is directing a question towards himself. This would happen when somebody is wondering something and just expressing their thoughts out loud and not directing their speech at any person in particular.
When ~ㄹ/을까 is added to a verb or adjective where the subject of the sentence is the speaker, this type of question has a nuance that does not exist in the “regular form” of that question. For example:
(내가) 밥을 먹을 거야? = Will I eat rice? (This is illogical if directed to yourself)
(내가) 밥을 먹을까? = Should I eat rice?
Because the speaker is directing the question to himself, the translation of “Will I eat rice?” is illogical and would not describe the subtle nuance of this sentence. It is illogical because the speaker is asking himself about his own free will – something that nobody knows except for himself. Rather, the speaker is asking himself if he should go (or not). Therefore, a better translation would be “Should I eat rice?”
(내가) 이렇게 할 거야? = Will I do it like this? (This is illogical if directed to yourself)
(내가) 이렇게 할까? = Should I do it like this?
Again, because the speaker is directing the question to himself, the translation of “Will I do it like this?” is illogical because the speaker is asking himself about his own free will. Rather, the speaker is asking himself if he should do it like that (or not). Therefore, a better translation would be “Should I do it like this?”
You can see this same nuance when a question word is used as well. For example:
(내가) 뭐 먹을 거야? = What will I eat? (This is illogical if directed to yourself)
(내가) 뭐 먹을까? = What should I eat?
(내가) 언제 갈 거야? = When will I go? (This is illogical if directed to yourself)
(내가) 언제 갈까? = When should I go?
Here are many more examples of ~ㄹ/을까 being used by the speaker to ask a question to himself:
친구를 만날까? = Should I meet my friend?
공연을 보러 갈까? = Should I go to see the performance?
어디 갈까? = Where should I go?
책자를 그냥 두고 갈까? = Should I just put the pamphlet down and leave?
지금 퇴근할까? = Should I leave work now?
바퀴를 어떻게 갈까? = How should/can I change the wheel?
When you look at these sentences by themselves, there is really no way to know if the speaker is talking to himself or speaking to another person. However, real-life conversation has context and only through this context can the specific usage of these sentences be clear.
In all of the examples above, you can see that the speaker is not only asking a question to himself, but also about himself. In all of the examples above, the speaker is the acting agent of the sentence. It is possible to ask a question to oneself about another person, but I will talk about that usage later in the lesson when I talk about ~ㄹ/을까 being used to ask about possibility.
In Lesson 93, you will learn another common ending that can be used to ask questions to yourself.
Asking a Question to a Listener
Shall we/Should we…
In the previous section, you learned that ~ㄹ/을까 can be added to ask a question to oneself, about oneself. For example:
This same idea and structure can be used to ask a question to another person about you and the listener. Here, both the speaker (you) and the listener (the person you are talking to) are the acting agents of the sentences.
We see a very similar translation as the sentences above, for example:
The typical English translation for sentences like this is “Shall…” For example:
In Lesson 44, you learned about ~ㄹ/을래(요) and how it can be used to have this meaning as well. For example:
Below are many more examples of ~ㄹ/을까 being used to have this meaning.
Note that ~요 can be added to ~ㄹ/을까 in these cases and anytime a sentence ends with ~까 to make it more formal. I didn’t introduce this at the beginning of the lesson because ~요 would not be added if the question is directed at the speaker himself:
지금 갈까요? = Shall we go now?
영화를 볼까요? = Shall we watch a movie?
지금 주문할까? = Shall we order now?
버스를 탈까요? = Shall we take the bus?
부서진 집을 같이 지을까요? = Shall we build the shattered house again?
어디 갈까요? = Where shall we go?
전화번호를 주고받을까요? = Shall we exchange phone numbers?
그 사람을 고용할까요? = Shall we hire that person?
한 모금 더 마실까요? = Shall we drink one more sip?
너무 번거로워서 지금 그만할까요? = It’s so cumbersome, so shall we stop now?
기회를 사람들에게 선착순으로 줄까요? = Shall we give the opportunity to people on a first-come first-served basis?
In Lesson 23, you learned that the meaning of the word ‘그렇다’ is close to the meaning of ‘like that.’ By attaching this usage of ~ㄹ/을까 to 그렇다 you can create “그럴까?” It is commonly said after another person suggests something to do – at which point, the listener in effect agrees and repeats the question back to the original speaker. As with most grammatical principles that attach to 그렇다, a perfect translation is hard to create. Look at the following example:
In the above example sentences, the speaker is asking for the listener’s opinion about something they (the speaker and the listener) will both do.
This same idea and structure can be used to ask a question to another person about what you (the speaker) will do. Here, only the speaker (you) is the acting agent of the sentence, and the speaker is asking for the listener’s opinion.
This form is most commonly used immediately before giving/offering something to somebody. In a way, the speaker is asking “if it is okay” if he/she gives/offers something to the listener. For example:
밥을 줄까? = Shall I give you rice?
Though this often translates in English to “Shall…” it is more a statement of what you will be doing in the very near future, and you are slightly asking for permission to do that action. For example, both of these could be acceptable:
It is also possible to use the honorific 드리다 or combine a verb with 주다 (which you learned about in Lesson 41). Below are many examples:
문을 열어 줄까? = Shall I open the door for you?
불을 켜 드릴까요? = Shall I turn on the light for you?
내 상황을 자세히 설명해 줄까? = Shall I explain my situation in detail?
공고를 붙여 줄까? = Shall I post the announcement for you?
흘러나오는 물을 막아 줄까? = Shall I block the water that is flowing out for you?
책을 읽어 줄까요? = Shall I read you a book?
~ㄹ/을까(요) vs. ~ㄹ/을게(요)
By using ~ㄹ/을까 as introduced in the section immediately above, you can create sentences where the speaker is asking permission to help/service the listener. If you use ~ㄹ/을까 as in the examples above, the sentence is in the form of a question.
A very similar grammatical principle is ~ㄹ/을게(요). Despite having a very similar meaning and usage, sentences ending in ~ㄹ/을게(요) are not questions. Rather, they are statements of what the speaker will be doing unless the listener objects/interjects in some way. Aside from one being a question and the other one not being a question, their translations and meanings are essentially the same. For example:
In a way, using ~ㄹ/을게(요) is very similar to a regular future tense conjugation. The difference is that a regular future tense conjugation (for example, ~ㄹ/을 것이다) is more blunt and direct but using ~ㄹ/을게(요) softens the sentence a little bit. When using ~ㄹ/을게(요), you are checking with the listener before you perform the action. For example:
문을 열 거야 = I will open the door
문을 열게 = I will open the door (if that is okay with you)
The usage of ~ㄹ/을까(요) to ask for “permission” (as described earlier) is typically used when giving something or doing something for the listener. As such, it is more common to find ~ㄹ/을까(요) used with 주다, 드리다 or in other situations where the speaker is servicing or giving something to the listener.
On the other hand, the usage of ~ㄹ/을게(요) is more broad and the speaker does not need to be directly giving something to (or doing something for) the listener. Rather, any action can be used as long as the speaker is the acting agent of the sentence.
Below are many examples:
지금 밥을 먹을게요 = I will eat now (if that is okay with you)
에어컨을 틀게 = I will turn on the air conditioner (if that is okay with you)
먼저 갈게요 = I will go now (if that is okay with you)
밥을 줄게요 = I will give you rice/food (if that is okay with you)
지금 주문할게요 = I will order now (if that is okay with you)
교원 모두에게 메시지를 보낼게요 = I will send a message to all of the teachers (if that is okay with you)
~ㄹ/을게(요) is also often added to 그렇다. By attaching ~ㄹ/을게(요) to 그렇다 you can create “그럴게(요).” It is commonly used when somebody tells you what to do – at which point you can use “그렇게(요)” to say “okay, I will do it (that way) if that is what you want.” For example:
Asking about possibility
When speaking to a listener, you can also use ~ㄹ/을까(요) to ask about the possibility of something. Below are some simple examples:
Notice in the examples above that the acting agent in each sentence is not the speaker. The sentences above could be said either to oneself (as I mentioned earlier) or said to a listener. The context makes it clear if the speaker is speaking to himself or to a listener. If these types of sentences are said to a listener, I often prefer the following translations:
Here are some more examples:
I wrote these sentences and their translations to be appropriate for the context of a dialogue between a speaker and a listener. The following questions could be asked to oneself if the context allowed for it. Note that this would result in a slightly different English translation.
그 여자가 예쁠까? = Do you think that girl will be pretty?
이 셔츠가 비쌀까? = Do you think this shirt will be expensive?
결재를 받을까요? = Do you think it will get approval?
그 사람이 연기를 잘 할까요? = Do you think that person will be able to act well?
그 사람이 정체를 드러낼까요? = Do you think that person will reveal his/her identity?
술을 마시면 기운이 날까? = If I drink alcohol, do you think I will get energy?
살인범이 그 장소에 돌아올까요? = Do you think that the murderer will return to that place?
그 꿈이 이루어질 수 있을까요? = Do you think that dream will come true?
I would like to take a moment to describe the difference in meaning between two similar sounding (English) sentences:
Look at the following two sentences:
There is a subtle difference between the two sentences, even though they appear similar in Korean and English.
When you say the first sentence, the feeling is that the girl is there, and you can see what she looks like. However, in the second sentence, the speaker and listener have probably never met the girl – and the speaker is wondering if the listener thinks it is possible that the girl is pretty. Therefore, when you say the second sentence, you are not asking about whether or not the girl is pretty. Rather, you are asking if it is possible that she will be pretty whenever you meet her, or see her for the first time, or whatever.
Questions words are often used in this form as well. When using a question word, the meaning is quite similar to the example sentences above, but notice how the translation changes slightly:
Again, I wrote these sentences and their translations to be appropriate for the context of a dialogue between a speaker and a listener. The following questions could be asked to oneself if the context allowed for it. Note that this would result in a slightly different English translation.
그 사람이 누구일까? = Who do you think that person could be? (Who could he be?)
이게 무엇일까? = What do you think this could be? (What could it be?)
아빠가 언제 올까? = When do you think dad will come? (When could dad be coming?)
아빠가 어디 가고 있을까? = Where do you think dad is going? (Where could dad be going?)
You can ask about possibility in past situations by conjugating the verb/adjective into the past before attaching ~을까요. For example:
그 친구가 늦게 왔을까요? = Do you think our friend came late?
아빠가 돈을 냈을까요? = Do you think dad paid?
그 학생이 숙제를 벌써 다 했을까요? = Do you think the student finished all his homework already?
그 학생은 시험을 잘 볼 수 있을까요? = Do you think that student will do well on the exam?
The speaker could also be asking about possibility about himself or the listener (instead of a third person), but these types of sentences usually reference one’s ability (or some other variable) to do something. For example:
내가 할 수 있을까?
If asked to oneself: Would I be able to do it?
If asked to a listener: Do you think I could do it?
내가 해도 될까?
If asked to oneself: Would I be allowed to do it?
If asked to a listener: Do you think I would be allowed to do it?
Adding ~ㄹ/을까 to 어떻다
In Lesson 22, you learned that 어떻다 can change to 어때(요) and is used to ask about somebody’s opinion about something. For example:
어때(요) can also be used to ask about somebody’s opinion about an event that hasn’t happened yet. In order to do this, you can describe some event in the future and then turn the clause into a noun. The word “어때(요)” can then be placed after the clause. For example:
Those are perfect. However, “것이” can (and often is) shortened to “게.” Those two sentences above would be more likely heard/seen as:
In these situations, it is acceptable to replace 어때(요) with 어떻다 + ㄹ/을까(요). For example:
As you can see, the meaning that is created is very similar (if not identical) to simply using ~ㄹ/을까(요) at the end of a sentence to mean “shall.” For example:
That’s it for this lesson!
Although you have learned a lot about how ~ㄹ/을까(요) can be used, there are still more usages that you need to study. We will continue this discussion in the next two lessons.
There are 1200 example sentences in Unit 3.
All entries are linked to an audio file. You can download all of these files in one package here.