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Lesson 105: Small Grammar Points!

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~아/어지다 vs. ~아/어뜨리다
~ification: 화 (化)
Adding 이 to Names
Adding ~아/어 하다 to Adjectives
Formal Subject Marker ~께서(는)




Note: You may have learned some of those words already:

무너지다 = to be collapsed
무너뜨리다 = to collapse something
헝클어지다 = to be tangled
헝클어뜨리다 = to tangle something
부서지다 = to be smashed/crushed
부서뜨리다 = to smash/crush
부러지다 = to be broken/fractured
부러뜨리다 = to break/fracture
흐트러지다 = to be messy/untidy
흐트러뜨리다 = to make messy/untidy
구부러지다 = to be bent
구부러뜨리다 = to bend
누그러지다 = for one’s heart to melt
누그러뜨리다 = to melt somebody’s heart
터지다 = to explode
터뜨리다 = to make explode
늘어지다 = to be drooping, hanging
늘어뜨리다 = let something hang/droop

서구 = western
서구화 = westernization
현대 = modern
현대화 = modernization
일반 = general
일반화 = generalization
합리 = rationality
합리화 = rationalization
대중 = mass/popular
대중화 = popularization
평준 = standard
평준화 = standardization
다양 = diversity
다양화 = diversification
산업 =  industry
산업화 = industrialization
상업 = commerce
상업화 = commercialization
가속 = acceleration
가속화 = acceleration
차별 = differentiation
차별화하다 = differentiate
간소 = simplicity
간소화 = simplification
활성 = vitality
활성화 = vitalization






The title of this lesson is: Grammatical principles that I can’t believe I haven’t taught you yet – and I better teach them to you now before we get too deep into more difficult grammatical principles in Unit 5. In this lesson, you will learn a variety of smaller grammatical principles that you absolutely need to know to be able to speak/read/understand Korean.

In the summer of 2014, I had a few weeks off from work and set a goal for myself to read a Korean novel in a week. I did this for two reasons. One, I wanted to challenge myself and benefit from the vocabulary increase and reading practice I would get from reading the book. Two, I wanted to see if, in that entire book, there were any grammatical principles that I hadn’t introduced in my lessons yet. From start to finish, there were only a handful of grammatical principles that I haven’t introduced by this lesson. All of the grammatical principles that I haven’t introduced yet will be in upcoming lessons.

However, there were some small things that, when reading them, I realized I hadn’t spent a large amount of time describing. I would like to take the opportunity in this lesson to teach you some grammatical principles that you probably should have learned before (by this point you may have already learned them somewhere else), but I never got around to teaching them to you.

Enough of that – let’s get started.



~아/어지다 vs. ~아/어뜨리다

Okay, this one I actually have introduced. In Lesson 38 I taught you the words 떨어지다 and 떨어뜨리다. Though I mentioned those two words in the notes of that vocabulary list, I felt like I should formally introduce the difference between words ending in ~아/어지다 compared to words ending in ~아/어 뜨리다. As I mentioned in that lesson, words ending in ~아/어지다 are often passive words that have an active ~아/어뜨리다 equivalent. (Note that this is not the grammatical principle ~아/어지다 that gets added to adjectives – for example: 나쁘다 + ~아/어지다 = 나빠지다).

Words ending in ~아/어지다, just like any passive verb cannot act on an object. Rather, it describes that something occurs – usually without indicating who/what caused the action to occur. For example:

병이 탁자에서 떨어졌다 = The bottle fell from the table

However, words ending in ~아/어뜨리다 have a subject (which is usually a human, but not always) that cause something to happen to an object/person. For example:

나는 병을 떨어뜨렸다 = I dropped the bottle

I specifically wanted to introduce this here because a lot of the words I wanted to teach you in upcoming lessons had this ~아/어지다/뜨리다 form. Instead of introducing those words randomly throughout the next 20 lessons or so, I thought it would be better to introduce them all in one lesson and provide an explanation about them as well.

Now, here is a host of other words that I would like to introduce you to that follow this same pattern:

무너지다 = for something to collapse
무너뜨리다 = to collapse something

헝클어지다 = for something to be tangled
헝클어뜨리다 = to tangle something

(부서지다 = to be smashed/crushed – already introduced in Lesson 63)
부서뜨리다 = to smash/crush something

(부러지다 = to be broken/fractured – already introduced in Lesson 63)
부러뜨리다 = to break/fracture something

흐트러지다 = to be messy/untidy/scattered
흐트러뜨리다 = to make something messy/scatter things around

구부러지다 = to be bent
구부러뜨리다 = to bend something

누그러지다 = for somebody’s heard to soften/melt
누그러뜨리다 = to soften/melt somebody’s heart

(터지다 = to explode – already introduced in Lesson 36)
터뜨리다 = to explode something

늘어지다 = to droop/sag down/hung down
늘어뜨리다 = to droop something

Here are some example sentences of those words being used in sentences:

옷걸이가 완전히 구부러져 있어요 = The clothes hanger is completely bent
저는 옷걸이를 완전히 구부러뜨렸어요 = I completely bent the clothes hanger
내 핸드폰이 부서졌어 = My phone is/was smashed
나는 내 핸드폰을 부서뜨렸어 = I smashed my phone
건물이 무너졌다 = The building collapsed
그 폭발은 건물을 무너뜨렸다 = That explosion collapsed the building
건물이 쓰러졌다 = The building was knocked down
바람은 건물을 쓰러뜨렸다 = The wind knocked down the building

(Just as a quick note – years ago I was confused with the difference 쓰러지다 and 무너지다, as the essentially mean the same thing. A Korean friend of mine told me that 쓰러지다 is if something were to fall over, like a tree getting blown down. However, 무너지다 is when something collapses within itself and doesn’t topple over, like when somebody purposely implodes a building to collapse on itself to prevent debris from hitting the next building. The end result is the same – that both structures have been leveled to the ground, but the process of them falling is slightly different).




~ification: 화 (化)

“화” is a Hanja character that is found in many Korean words to mean “change”. Some very common examples are:

변화 = change
화장실 = bathroom/restroom
화학 = chemistry

If you have been keeping up with your Hanja studies, you should know the character for 화 is 化.

화 is often placed after the noun form of a –하다 verb in Korean to indicate that the noun is now a noun of change. The most common way that this changes the translation of the noun is by the addition of ~ification to the English word. For example:

국제 = international/global
국제화 = changing into being international/global… which is better translated to:
국제화 = internationalization/globalization

Other examples that you have already learned, and some that you haven’t yet (I’m going to include the Hanja characters that I have introduced in here as well for those that are practicing. If you haven’t started studying Hanja, I suggest that you take a look at the first 100 characters that I have introduced).

서구 = western (西球)
서구화 = westernization (西球化)

현대 = modern (現代)
현대화 = modernization (現代化)

일반 = general (一반)
일반화 = generalization (一반化)

합리 = rationality (合리)
합리화 = rationalization (合리化)

대중 = mass/popular (大중)
대중화 = popularization (大중化)

평준 = standard
평준화 = standardization

다양 = diversity
다양화 = diversification

산업 = industry
산업화 = industrialization

상업 = commerce
상업화 = commercialization

가속 = acceleration
가속화 = acceleration

차별 = differentiation
차별화하다 = differentiate

간소 = simplicity
간소화 = simplification

활성 = vitality
활성화 = vitalization

What’s interesting is now you can add “하다” to both the words with and without 하다. Just some examples:

산업화하다 = industrialize
상업화하다 = commercialize
서구화하다 = westernize
평준화하다 = standardize
다양화하다 = diversify
현대화하다 = modernize
일반화하다 = generalize
합리화하다 = rationalize

Here are some example sentences of those words being used in sentences:

우리 웹사이트의 목표는 한국문법을 간소화해서 쉽게 가르치는 것이에요 = The purpose of our website is to simplify grammar and teach it easily

그 상황을 일반화하는 것은 어려워요 = It is hard to generalize that situation

한국고등학생의 성적을 표준화하는 것은 학생들의 입학에 도움이 된다 = The standardization of student grades in Korean high schools will help the students enter University

요즘에 그 회사가 브랜드를 더 더욱 국제화하려고 하고 있다 = That company is trying more and more to globalize its brand



Adding 이 to Names

If a Korean name ends with a 받침, you will commonly see “이” added between the name and the particles ~는/은, ~이/가 and ~를/을. From what I understand, this is entirely related to pronunciation. For example, if I say “희연은”, this actually sounds closer to “희여는”, which causes ambiguity as to what the person’s name actually is. Is her name 희여 or 희연?

This would be the same with all names that end in a 받침. You should also know that even though there are a lot of letters in the Korean alphabet, you will probably only ever see the following used as the 받침 on the final syllable: ㄱ, ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, ㄹ, ㅂ.

It’s pretty simple, but something that you may not have come across yet. Remember that this is not done with names that end in a vowel. Just some quick examples:

기범이는 희영이를 만나러 어제 학교에 갔어요 = 기범 went to school yesterday to meet 희영
은혁이가 시험준비를 하고 있어요 = 은혁 is preparing for the exam

In all cases, it’s not absolutely necessary to include this “이”. For example, if you said:

기범은 희영을 만나러 어제 학교에 갔어요 = 기범 went to school yesterday to meet 희영

Everybody would still understand what you want to say. Korean people just say “ahh, it sounds ‘느끼해’”. “느끼해” is usually the word Korean people use to describe when they eat too much pasta, bread, or something greasy, although it is also used to describe the feeling one gets when they hear something so lovey-dovey that it is corny. It’s hard even for me to completely understand this feeling of “느끼해”, and even if I did understand it, it would be hard to explain in words. You’re better off just using the rule of adding “이” to names ending in a받침 to be safe, unless you are writing a romance novel and want to sound “느끼해”.



Adding ~아/어 하다 to Adjectives

You have probably come across these sets of words before;





… and other adjectives that have ~아/어하다 attached to them.

What is going on here? What is the difference between these two forms?

These adjectives above (and others like them) with ~아/어하다 attached are used in sentences when the speaker is talking, but the subject of the sentence is another person about another person. For example:

그는 너무 부끄러워했어요 = He was very shy

Notice the adjectives that I listed above. What is common among all of those adjectives? They’re specifically describing a feeling that is elicited in somebody. If you are the speaker, and are describing somebody else, how can you know what they are feeling? In these cases, where the adjective being used is describing another person’s feelings, it is more natural to add ~아/어하다 to the adjective. Your sentence would still be understood if you didn’t attach this, but it sounds more natural with the addition.

That is not to say, however, that you will never see a sentence like this:

그는 너무 부끄러웠어요 = He was very shy

It would be weird to say the sentence above, but you might be able to find a sentence like that in a novel. In novels, authors need to describe the characters in a book, who most of the time are just figments of their own imagination. Therefore, in this case, it would be acceptable to just use “부끄러워” or “부러워” because the author knows for certain the emotion that is being elicited by the other person.

In the case of adjectives that are not descriptions of one’s feelings, but instead descriptions based on the opinions/facts of somebody/something else, adding ~아/어하다 is not necessary. For example:

그녀는 예뻐하다 would sound weird, and it would be more natural to say:
그녀는 예쁘다

You also may have noticed that ~아/어하다 is added to 싶다 (from ~고 싶다 – which, you should know, acts as an adjective) to form ~고 싶어하다. For example, instead of saying:

희영이는 밥을 먹고 싶어해 = Heeyoung wants to eat

Remember that ~싶다 in these cases is an adjective. You can also see here that it fits in with all the other adjectives above – that it is describing the feeling within somebody.

In all of the examples above, I indicated that adjective+~아/어하다 can be used when the speaker is not the subject of the sentence, and is specifically used with words that describe a feeling that one experiences. Therefore, these would (typically) be incorrect by themselves:

제가 너무 부끄러워했어요
제가 너무 기뻐했어요
제가 너무 슬퍼했어요
제가 너무 부러워했어요

In the examples above, if I changed the subject to another person, the sentences would be correct.

However, it is acceptable to use the ~아/어하다 form of an adjective when the speaker is the subject of the sentence if there is an object in the sentence. For example, all of these are correct:

제가 가난을 너무 부끄러워했어요 = I am shy about/of my poorness (the fact that I’m poor)
제가 친구의 성공을 너무 기뻐했어요 = I am very happy/glad about/of my friend’s success
제가 친구의 죽음을 너무 슬퍼했어요 = I am sad about/of my friend’s death
제가 남의 성공을 너무 부러워했어요 = I am envious about/of others success

It is actually possible to remove the objects in the sentences above, but only if the object can be immediately assumed from the context. This is essentially the same as changing 좋다 to 좋아하다 and 싫다 to 싫어하다. You couldn’t just walk into a room and say”

“나는 좋아해”

Instead, you need an object to specify what it is specifically that you like. For example:
“나는 과자를 좋아해”

However, if your friends were all talking about 과자, and were going around the room one by one and saying if they liked it or not, you could respond with just “나는 좋아해”.

In that same respect, you couldn’t just say the examples above unless there was some sort of immediate understanding of what object was being referred to.




Formal Subject Marker ~께서(는)

In addition to the subject marking particles ~는/은 and ~이/가 that you have known forever – the particle “~께서” can also be used to indicate the subject of a sentence. The difference here is that ~께서 is an honorific subject marker, which means it is added to people who deserve a high amount of respect. For example:

아버님께서 밥을 드셨습니다 = The father ate
우리 부장님께서 오늘 오후에 출발할 예정이십니다 = Our boss is scheduled to depart this afternoon
지금 교장선생님께서 잠깐 말씀을 하시겠습니다 = Now, the principal will speak for a moment
이 잡채는 장모님께서 만드신 것이에요 = This 잡채 was made by my mother in law
할아버지께서 옛날에 런던에서 사셨어요 = Our grandfather lived in London a long time ago

This can be done any time somebody deserves a lot of respect, but it isn’t completely necessary. Failing to use the honorific ~요 or ~ㅂ/습니다 forms when speaking to somebody who deserves respect would most likely get you thrown out of a room.

However, very few people would use the subject marker “~께서” on a daily basis. It’s usually reserves for very formal situations.It’s also quite common to see “~는” added to ~께서. It could have no function at all, or it could have one of the many subtle functions that ~는 carries with it. In all cases, it totally depends on the context of the conversation. Nonetheless, all the example sentences above could have “~는” added to “께서” for example:

아버님께서 밥을 드셨습니다 = The father ate
아버님께서는 밥을 드셨습니다 = The father ate (but somebody else, maybe the mother, didn’t)

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