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Lesson 78: According to, Due to: ~에 의하다, ~(으)로 인하다

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Vocabulary
Introduction

According to/Due to: ~에 의하다
Due to: ~(으)로 인하다

 

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
인상 = impression

Common Usages:
첫인상 = first impression
인상적 = impressive
인상을 남기다 = to leave an impression
좋은 인상을 주다 = to give off a good impression

Examples:
그 선생님은 우리에 좋은 인상을 남겼어요 = That teacher left a good impression on us
그 가수는 첫 무대에서 강렬한 인상을 남기고 떠났다 = That singer left a strong impression in her debut and then never came back

첫인상 = first impression

Examples:
첫인상에 어떤 향수를 뿌리는지는 많은 영향을 미쳐요
= The type of perfume that you use (spray) has a big impact on a first impression

처음 만나는 사람을 첫인상으로 평가해서는 안 됩니다
= You shouldn’t judge somebody you meet for the first time on their first impression

제가 느꼈던 대로 그 사람의 첫인상은 제 예상과 맞아요
= As I felt, the (my) first impression of that person met my expectations

면접을 자주 하는 사람들에 의하면 면접을 볼 때 첫인상은 제일 중요하다고요
= According to people to do (give) interviews, when you get interviews, they say the
most important thing is the first impression

거리 = distance

Common Usages:
단거리 = short distance
장거리 = long distance
거리계 = some sort of distance measurer
주행거리 = mileage on a car
거리두기 = social distancing

Examples:
장거리 운전을 하면 엉덩이가 아파요 = When/if you drive long distances, your bum will be sore
주행 거리계가 백만 킬로를 넘었어요 = The odometer just went over 1,000,000 km
먼 거리에 의해 저는 저의 여자 친구를 자주 못 만나요 = I can’t meet my girlfriend often due to the long distance
장거리 연애는 서로를 자주 못 보기 때문에 단거리 연애보다 더 힘들어요
= In a long distance relationship, you can’t see each other often so it is more difficult than a “short” distance (regular) relationship

잇몸 = the gums of teeth

This word contains a 사이시옷. For more information on this, check out Lesson 131.

Common Usages:
잇몸질환 = gum disease

Examples:
치과 의사에 의하면 입에 잇몸 병이 생겼어요
= According to the dentist, a gum-diseased sprung up in my mouth

그 할아버지가 양치를 안 해서 잇몸이 많이 부었어요
= That grandpa doesn’t brush his teeth so his gums are really swollen

= field

Common Usages:
표밭 = in politics, this is used to refer to a specific location where one gets a lot of votes from
밭일 = farm work, field work
풀밭 = grass field (of much longer, wilder grass)
잔디밭 = grass field (of much more maintained grass)

Examples:
농부가 밭에 옥수수를 심었어요 = The farmer planted the corn on the field
잔디밭에 담요를 펴고 모여 앉았어요 = We unfolded a blanket on the grass and all sat on it

옥수수 = corn

Common Usages:
찰옥수수 = glutinous, waxy corn
옥수수빵 = corn bread
옥수수통조림 = canned corn
옥수수를 찌다 = to steam corn

Examples:
호우에 의해 올해 농부들은 밭에 옥수수를 심지 못했어
= Farmers couldn’t plant corn this years due to the heavy rain

사람들이 자꾸 잔디밭을 밟아서 안내문을 붙여놓아야 되겠다
= People keep stepping on the grass, so I better put up a sign

나물 = herbs

Notes: My Korean mother-in-law loves 나물. There are a wide variety of side-dishes that fall under the category of food that she would call 나물. Side dishes made up of things like spinach and other vegetables I’ve never heard of before. “Herbs” is probably the best word to describe them, but it is not exactly what I think of when I hear the word “herb” in English.

Common Usages:
나물을 무치다 = to mix/season herbs
그 나물에 그 밥 = An idiom/saying to say “of course that is true.”

Examples:
한국 사람에 의하면 이 나물을 먹으면 힘이 생겨요
= According to Korean people, if you eat this plant/herb, you will get energy

비빔밥을 만들 때 여러 가지 나물을 넣어야 맛있어요
= When you make bibimbap, only if you put many herbs into it will it be delicious

오이 = cucumber

Common Usages:
오이소박이 = a type of cucumber side dish

Examples:
안개에 의해 오이가 다 상했어요
= All of the cucumbers spoiled due to the fog

오이로 여러 가지 반찬을 만들 수 있어요
= You can make a lot of different types of side dishes with cucumbers

오이는 거의 90 퍼센트가 물로 구성되어 있어요
= Cucumbers are composed of 90 percent water

호박 = pumpkin

Common Usages:
호박잎 = pumpkin leaf
단호박 = sweet pumpkin
애호박 = zucchini

Examples:
핼러윈에 의해 호박 가격이 올랐어요 = The price of pumpkins rose due to Halloween
제가 들은 대로 이 지역 호박은 진짜 맛있어요 = As I heard, the pumpkins in this area are very delicious

석양 = sunset

Notes: It is also common to refer to the sunset as 해질녘.

Examples:
구름에 의해 저는 석양을 잘 못 봤어요 = I couldn’t see the sunset due to the clouds
보라카이는 석양이 아름다운 것으로 유명해요 = Boracay is known for its beautiful sunsets

일출 = sunrise

Notes: Having trouble memorizing this word? The Hanja characters for 일출 are two of the most common and easy Hanja characters to remember! 日(일) refers to a day, 出(출) refers to departure. In other words, the day is departing!

It is also common to refer to the sunrise as 해돋이.

성산일출봉, at the top of a mountain on the east coast of Jeju is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Korea. Tourists often climb to the top of the mountain before dawn to see the sunrise.

Examples:
한국에서 아름다운 일출로 유명한 곳은 정동진이에요
= A popular place in Korea to see a beautiful sunrise is Jeongdonjin

새해에 일출을 보기 위해 아침 일찍 산 정상에 올랐어요
= In order to see the (first) sunrise of the new year, I went to the top of the mountain early in the morning

차별 = discrimination

Common Usages:
성차별 = sexual discrimination
인종차별 = racial discrimination
차별금지 = don’t discriminate, no discrimination
차별화하다 = differentiate

Examples:
매년 인종 차별에 의한 사망자가 늘고 있어요
= Every year, the number of deaths due to racism (racial discrimination) is increasing

제가 본 대로 인종 차별은 그 나라에서 큰 문제예요
= As I saw, racism (discrimination based on race) is a big problem in that country

성차별 = sexual discrimination

Examples:
사회 곳곳에 우리도 모르게 성차별이 만연해요
= We don’t know it, but there is sexual discrimination rampant in our society

성차별에 의해 여자들이 회사에서 승진하는 게 힘들어요
= It is difficult for women to be promoted in the workplace due to sexual discrimination

인종 = race

Common Usages:
백인종 = white race
흑인종 = black race
황인종 = East Asian race
인종차별 = racism

Examples:
인종차별을 세계에서 뿌리 뽑아야 할 사회 문제 중 하나예요
= One of the problems of society is getting rid of the roots of racism around the world

인종은 피부의 색깔에 따라 나뉘기도 하지만 모든 사람은 사람이죠
= Race is divided by the color of one’s skin, but all people are people

호우 = torrential downpour

Common Usages:
집중호우 = rain concentrated in one area (localized rain)
호우주의보 = torrential downpour warning

Examples:
그 지역에서 호우로 인한 홍수가 많이 생겨요 = In this region/area, there are a lot of floods that are caused by heavy rain
호우에 의해 올해 농부들은 밭에 옥수수를 심지 못했어 = Farmers couldn’t plant corn this years due to the heavy rain

사망 = death

Common Usages:
사망자 = dead person, death toll
사망률 = death rate

Examples:
담배에 의한 사망은 증가하고 있어요 = Deaths due to smoking are increasing
신문에 의하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요 = According to the newspaper, the death rate for heart disease is very high

사망자 = dead people (death toll)

Examples:
지진으로 인한 사망자가 10,000명을 넘어섰어요
= The death toll due to the earthquake is over 10,000 people

코로나 바이러스로 인한 사망자가 점점 늘고 있어요
= The death toll due to COVID-19 is slowly increasing

사망률 = death rate

Common Usages:
This probably won’t the most common word to see before 2020, but now you see it at the top of lots of tables showing the death rate for many countries because of COVID-19.

Examples:
코로나바이러스로 인한 사망률은 나라별로 달라요
= The death rate due to COVID-19 is different depending on the country

독감보다 코로나바이러스로 인한 사망률이 더 높아요
= The death rate due to COVID-19 is higher than that of the flu

악기 = instrument

Common Usages:
타악기 = percussion instrument
관악기 = wind instrument
현악기 = string instrument
악기를 연주하다 = to perform an instrument

Examples:
악기 중에 어떤 악기를 배우고 싶어요? = Of all instruments, which one do you want to learn how to play?
가야금은 한국 대표적인 전통 악기예요 = The Gayageum is a traditional instrument that represents Korea
북은 한국에서 자주 사용되는 악기 중 하나예요 = The drum is one of the common instruments used in Korea

야외 = outdoor

Common Usages:
야외수업 = outdoor lesson
야외공연 = outdoor performance
야외운동장 = outdoor exercise area
야외수영장 = outdoor swimming pool

Examples:
저는 야외모임을 비 때문에 취소했어요 = I cancelled the outdoor meeting due to rain
농구를 체육관이나 야외농구장에서 할래요? = Shall we play basketball in the gymnasium or on the outdoor court?

날씨가 추웠는데도 우리는 야외공원을 보러 갔어요
= Despite the cold weather, we went to see an outdoor performance

하필 그날 비가 많이 오는 바람에 야외 연주회가 취소되었어
= Of all days, it rained a lot on that day so the outdoor recital was cancelled

Verbs:
심판하다 = to judge

The noun form of this word (심판) can translate to “judgement” or a “referee” or “umpire” of a match.

Notes: 심판하다 can be used to indicate that one judges some sort of situation, or to indicate that some kind of referee or umpire “judges” a match of some kind.

Examples:
신문에 의하면 심판은 선수를 퇴장시켰어요
= According to the newspaper, the referee kicked out/disqualified/removed the player from the game

그 사람은 판사의 심판에 따라 징역 5년을 받았어요
= That person, in accordance to the judgment of the judge received five years in prison

자퇴하다 = to drop out of school

The noun form of this word (자퇴) translates to “dropping out of school.”

Common Usages:
학교를 자퇴하다
대학교를 자퇴하다

Examples:
소문에 의하면 그 학생은 학교를 자퇴했어요 = According to rumors, that student dropped out of school
제가 어렸을 때 학교를 자퇴하고 일찍 사업을 했어요 = When I was young, I dropped out of school and started a business early

뒷정리하다 = to clean up after one is done

The noun form of this word (뒷정리) translates to “cleaning up after one is done.”

Examples:
알람 소리에 의해 저는 뒷정리를 못했어요 = I couldn’t clean up due to the alarm going off
주로 와이프가 요리를 하고 제가 뒷정리를 해요 = Usually my wife does the cooking and I clean up after

연주하다 = to perform an instrument

The noun form of this word (연주) translates to “performance.”

Common Usages:
연주자 = performer
연주회 = recital, concert
음악을 연주하다 = to play music (with an instrument)

Examples:
그 학생은 음악을 연주할 때 다른 사람으로 변해요
= That student changes into a different person when he plays music

이번 주말에 열리는 연주회에서 제가 제일 좋아하는 피아노 연주자가 나와요
= My favorite pianist will play in the recital happening this weekend

어기다 = to violate, to break a rule

Common Usages:
법을 어기다 = to break a law
규칙을 어기다 = to break a rule
규정을 어기다 = to break a rule
약속을 어기다 = to break a promise

Examples:
심판에 의하면 저는 규칙을 어겼어요
= According to the referee, I broke the rules

가끔씩은 규칙을 어기는 것이 괜찮아요
= Sometimes it is okay to break the rules

몇몇 나라에서는 법이 매우 엄격하게 시행되기 때문에 법을 어겨서는 안됩니다
= In some countries, laws are very strictly enforced, so the law must not be broken

승진하다 = to promote (a position at work)

The noun form of this word (승진) translates to “promotion.”

Examples:
그 회사원이 승진을 해서 동료들한테 인기를 얻었어요
= That worker was promoted and gained popularity with his coworkers

성차별에 의해 여자들이 회사에서 승진하는 게 힘들어요
= It is difficult for women to be promoted in the workplace due to sexual discrimination

신입사원으로 입사해서 힘들었지만 잘 버텨서 어제 승진했어요
= I entered the company as a new worker so it was very difficult, but I endured it well and was promoted yesterday

그 사람이 지난 1 년 동안 아주 열심히 일해서 그가 승진되는 게 당연한 거예요
= That person worked very hard during the last year, so it is obvious that he is getting promoted

보통 친구들이 좋은 일이 생기면 질투가 날 수도 있는데 친 자매 같이 생각하는 소희가
승진을 한다고 하니 나도 기분이 너무 좋다
= Usually when something good happens to a friend, some people get jealous, but I think of So-hee as a close sister, so when she said that she is getting promoted, I am also very happy.

소희는 현재 한 직장에서 2 년 째 근무 중인데 이제 곧 승진을 한다고 했다. 고등학교
때부터 모든 지 열심히 했는데, 직장에서도 항상 열심히 일을 해서 좋은 결실을 맺었다.
= Currently, So-hee is at a workplace where she has been for two years, and she said that she will be promoted soon. Since high school, she has been working hard, and even at work she is working hard, so she reaped the rewards (of working hard).

오해하다 = to misunderstand

The noun form of this word (오해) translates to “misunderstanding.”

Examples:
서로에 대한 오해로 인한 인종차별이 많아요
= There is a lot of racial discrimination due to (people) misunderstanding (each other)

모르는 사람과 같은 집에서 살면 오해에 의한 싸움이 자주 생겨요
= If you live with a person you don’t know, fights due to misunderstandings often occur

Adverbs and Other Words:
나란히 = side by side

Common Usages:
나란히 걷다 = to walk side by side

Examples:
유치원생들은 나란히 줄을 서서 선생님을 따라 갔어요
= The kindergarten kids all walked side by side and followed the teacher

저는 남자 친구와 손을 잡고 나란히 걷는 것을 좋아해요
= I like walking side by side with my boyfriend while holding his hand

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In the previous two lessons, you were subject to the confusing explanations of ~는데 and ~는 데. Now that those two difficult/confusing lessons are finished, I can go easy on you and describe some grammatical principles that aren’t as difficult to understand. In this lesson, you will learn about ~에 의하다 and ~(으)로 인하다 which look similar but sometimes create different meanings. Let’s get started.

 

According to/Due to: ~에 의하다

Attaching ~에 의하다 to a noun in a sentence is usually done in one of two ways.

The first usage requires you to attach ~(으)면 to ~에 의하다 to create ~에 의하면. The whole construction attaches to a noun and creates the meaning of “according to (that noun).” For example:

신문에 의하면… = according to the newspaper…
소문에 의하면… = according to rumors…
그 사람의 말에 의하면… = according to what that person says…

These constructions can now be placed in sentences where appropriate:

신문에 의하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요
= According to the newspaper, the death rate for heart disease is very high

소문에 의하면 그 학생은 학교에서 자퇴했어요
= According to rumors, that student dropped out of school

그 사람의 말에 의하면 옥수수 밭은 저 쪽이에요
= According to what that person says, the corn field is that way

More examples:

심판에 의하면 저는 규칙을 어겼어요
= According to the referee, I broke the rules

치과 의사에 의하면 입에 잇몸 병이 생겼어요
= According to the dentist, a gum-diseased sprung up in my mouth

한국 사람에 의하면 이 나물을 먹으면 힘이 생겨요
= According to Korean people, if you eat this plant/herb, you will get energy

면접을 자주 하는 사람들에 의하면 면접을 볼 때 첫인상은 제일 중요하다 했어요
= According to people who do (give) interviews, when you get interviews, they say the most important thing is the first impression

—————————————

The second usage of ~에 의하다 is a little bit more complicated, but still nothing to worry about.

By attaching ~아/어 to ~에 의하다, you can create “~에 의해.” This is attached to nouns to create the meaning of “due to…” You were first introduced to  “~에 의해” way back in Lesson 14.

As you learned in that lesson, you can attach ~에 or ~에 의해 to nouns in passive sentences.
Remember that a passive verb cannot act on an object. This means that you can never attach the particle ~을/를 to a noun that is predicted by a passive verb. For example:

밥은 제공된다 = Food is provided
집은 청소되었다 = The house was cleaned
음식은 요리됐다 = The food was cooked

Though there can never be an object in a passive sentence, other nouns can be in the sentence to provide more information. In English we use words like “by” in passive sentences to provide additional information. For example:

Food is provided by the school
The house was cleaned by my father
The food was cooked by the chef

In Korean, when something is done by a non-person, you can attach ~에 의해 to that word. For example:

밥은 제공된다 = Food is provided
밥은 학교에 의해 제공된다 = Food is provided by the school

Also remember that ~에게 is the particle that has the same role of ~에 의해 in these cases, but is used when the passive act is done by a person. For example:

집은 청소되었다 = the house was cleaned
집은 아버지에게 청소되었다 = The house was cleaned by my dad
집은 청소기에 의해 청소되었다 = The house was cleaned by the vacuum cleaner

Although acceptable and understandable, remember that Korean sentences are usually not natural when said in the passive voice. However, it is important to know because you will come across it from time to time.

—————————————

~에 의해 can also be used in active sentences. When used in active sentences, the most common translation for “에 의해” is “due to.” For example:

사고에 의해 = Due to the accident

고속도로에서 발생한 사고에 의해 사람들이 지나가지 못했어요
= Due to the accident (that occurred) on the highway, people couldn’t pass

Because of the translation, the use of ~에 의해 in active sentences appears to be completely different than its use in passive sentences. When you think about it, however, they essentially have the same role in their respective sentences. In English, we might use different words, so it sounds like they are different, but Korean people would use “~에 의해” in both of these situations:

Passive – The door was opened _____ the wind
Active – People couldn’t pass ______ the accident

If I told you to fill in the blanks in those two sentences, what would you write? Assume I also told you to not use the word “because of” – because we have already talked about how to say that in Korean.

The most natural way to say those two (in my mind) would be:

Passive – The door was opened by the wind
Active – People couldn’t pass due to the accident

In both sentences the words “by” and “due to” have the same role. In both situations, we have a noun that is causing the predicating verb to occur; regardless of if it is active or passive.

Even more so, in some situations the words “by” or “due to” could be interchanged in the English translation without sounding awkward. For example:

공사에 의해 이 길은 막혔습니다 = Due to the construction, this road is blocked
공사에 의해 이 길은 막혔습니다 = This road is blocked by the construction

문이 바람에 의해 열렸어요 = The door was opened by the wind
문이 바람에 의해 열렸어요 = The door was opened due to the wind

Below are many more examples of ~에 의해 being used in active sentences:

안개에 의해 비행기가 못 떴어요 = The plane couldn’t take off due to the fog
안개에 의해 오이가 다 상했어요 = All of the cucumbers spoiled due to the fog
핼러윈에 의해 호박 가격이 올랐어요 = The price of pumpkins rose due to Halloween
구름에 의해 저는 석양을 잘 못 봤어요 = I couldn’t see the sunset due to the clouds
알람 소리에 의해 저는 뒷정리를 못했어요 = I couldn’t clean up due to the alarm going off

먼 거리에 의해 저는 저의 여자 친구를 자주 못 만나요
= I can’t meet my girlfriend often due to the long distance

성차별에 의해 여자들이 회사에서 승진하는 게 힘들어요
= It is difficult for women to be promoted in the workplace due to sexual discrimination

As I mentioned earlier in my description, in each situation what we have is a noun that is causing the predicating verb to occur. You might be wondering what difference would be created if “때문에” were used in these situations instead?

For example, look at the following two sentences:

안개 때문에 비행기가 못 떴어요 = The plane couldn’t take off because of the fog
공사 때문에 이 길은 막혔습니다 = The road is blocked because of the construction

Which one would sound more natural?

The plane couldn’t take off due to the fog, or
The plane couldn’t take off because of the fog

And,

The road is blocked due to the construction, or
The road is blocked because of the construction

In my mind, their differences don’t need to be distinguished. In English, and in Korean, there can be more than one way to express the same idea. In speech, (both in English and in Korean), I would be more inclined to use “because” and “때문에.” That doesn’t mean that using “due to” and “~에 의해” never happens, though. Specifically, in print (newspapers or signs on the road, for example), you might see “due to” or “~에 의해” more often.

Also note that ~ㄴ can be added to ~에 의하다 to allow it to describe an upcoming noun. We saw this being done with words of similar function like 대하다, 관하다 and 관련하다 in Lesson 34. For example:

환경에 대해 = About the environment
환경에 대한 것 = A thing about the environment

환경에 관해 = About/regarding the environment
환경에 관한 것 = A thing about/regarding the environment

환경에 관련해 = About/regarding the environment
환경에 관련한 것 = A thing about/regarding the environment

~에 의하다 can also be used in this same way. That is, you can use ~에 의하다 to describe an upcoming noun. For example:

담배에 의한 사망은 증가하고 있어요
= Deaths due to smoking are increasing

매년 인종차별에 의한 사망자가 늘고 있어요
= Every year, the number of deaths due to racism (racial discrimination) is increasing

날씨에 의한 피해는 예방할 수 없는 문제예요
= Damage due to weather is a problem that we can’t prevent

모르는 사람과 같은 집에서 살면 오해에 의한 싸움이 자주 생겨요
= If you live with a person you don’t know, fights due to misunderstandings often occur

That is all you need to know about ~에 의하다, but I would like to also introduce you to another similar grammatical principle before this lesson finishes.

 

 

Due to: ~()인하다

As you learned in the previous section, ~에 의해 can be used to indicate the noun that is causing a predicating verb to occur. When used like this, it can be replaced by ~(으)로 인해 with little (or no) difference in meaning. Korean people say that the following sentences are identical to the sentences in the previous section where ~에 의해 is used:

안개로 인해 비행기가 못 떴어요
안개로 인해 오이가 다 상했어요
핼러윈으로 인해 호박 가격이 올랐어요
구름으로 인해 저는 석양을 잘 못 봤어요
알람 소리로 인해 저는 뒷정리를 못했어요
먼 거리로 인해 저는 저의 여자 친구를 자주 못 만나요
성차별로 인해 여자들이 회사에서 승진하는 게 힘들어요

However, you can’t replace ~에 의하다 with ~(으)로 인하다 when ~(으)면 is attached to create the meaning “according to.” For example, the following wouldn’t be used in Korean:

신문으로 인하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요

Like “~에 의하다,” the typical translation for “~(으)로 인하다” is “due to.” If you are pressed to find a different English translation to distinguish them, you could use “as a result of.” Below are some new examples:

그 사람은 사고로 인해 목숨을 잃었어요
= That person died from (due to/as a result of) a car accident

야외결혼식이 비로 인해 취소되었어요
= The outdoor wedding was cancelled due to/as a result of the rain

날씨로 인해 콘서트가 취소되었습니다
= The concert was cancelled due to/as a result of the weather

Like ~에 의하다, ~(으)로 인하다 can also be used to describe an upcoming noun. For example:

담배로 인한 사망 = deaths due to smoking
호우로 인한 홍수 = a flood due to heavy rain
지진으로 인한 피해 = damage due to an earthquake

These described nouns can then go into sentences where appropriate. For example:

담배로 인한 사망은 증가하고 있어요
= Deaths due to smoking are increasing

그 지역에서 호우로 인한 홍수가 많이 생겨요
= In this region/area, there are a lot of floods that are caused by heavy rain

이번에 다행히 지진으로 인한 피해가 없었어요
= Thankfully, there was no damage due to the earthquake this time

That’s it for this lesson!

Click here for a Workbook to go along with this lesson.
Click here for Korean Short Stories specifically tailored to learners at this level.

Okay, got it! Take me to the next lesson!