Lesson 78: According to, Due to: ~에 의하다, ~(으)로 인하다

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According to/Due to: ~에 의하다
Due to: ~(으)로 인하다




인상 = impression
첫인상 = first impression
거리 = distance
잇몸 = the gums of teeth
심판 = referee
= field
옥수수 = corn
나물 = herbs
오이 = cucumber
호박 = pumpkin
석양 = sunset
일출 = sunrise
차별 = discrimination
성차별 = sexual discrimination
인종 = race
호우 = torrential downpour
사망 = death
사망자 = dead people (death toll)
사망률 = death rate
악기 = instrument

심판하다 = to judge
자퇴하다 = to drop out of school
뒷정리하다 = to clean up after one is done
연주하다 = to perform an instrument
어기다 = to violate, to break the rules
승진하다 = to promote (a position at work)
오해하다 = to misunderstand

Adverbs and Other Words:
나란히 = side by side

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.



In the previous two lessons, you were subject to the confusing explanations of ~는데 and ~는 데. Now that those two difficult/confusing lessons are finished, I can go easy on you and describe some grammatical principles that aren’t as difficult to understand. In this lesson, you will learn about ~에 의하다 and ~(으)로 인하다 which look similar but sometimes create different meanings. Let’s get started.


According to/Due to: ~에 의하다

Attaching ~에 의하다 to a noun in a sentence is usually done in one of two ways.

The first usage requires you to attach ~(으)면 to ~에 의하다 to create ~에 의하면. The whole construction attaches to a noun and creates the meaning of “according to (that noun).” For example:

신문에 의하면… = according to the newspaper…
소문에 의하면… = according to rumors…
그 사람의 말에 의하면… = according to what that person says…

These constructions can now be placed in sentences where appropriate:

신문에 의하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요
= According to the newspaper, the death rate for heart disease is very high

소문에 의하면 그 학생은 학교에서 자퇴했어요
= According to rumors, that student dropped out of school

그 사람의 말에 의하면 옥수수 밭은 저 쪽이에요
= According to what that person says, the corn field is that way

More examples:

심판에 의하면 저는 규칙을 어겼어요
= According to the referee, I broke the rules

치과 의사에 의하면 입에 잇몸 병이 생겼어요
= According to the dentist, a gum-diseased sprung up in my mouth

한국 사람에 의하면 이 나물을 먹으면 힘이 생겨요
= According to Korean people, if you eat this plant/herb, you will get energy

면접을 자주 하는 사람들에 의하면 면접을 볼 때 첫인상은 제일 중요하다고요
= According to people to do (give) interviews, when you get interviews, they say the most important thing is the first impression


The second usage of ~에 의하다 is a little bit more complicated, but still nothing to worry about.

By attaching ~아/어 to ~에 의하다, you can create “~에 의해.” This is attached to nouns to create the meaning of “due to…” You were first introduced to  “~에 의해” way back in Lesson 14.

As you learned in that lesson, you can attach ~에 or ~에 의해 to nouns in passive sentences.
Remember that a passive verb cannot act on an object. This means that you can never attach the particle ~을/를 to a noun that is predicted by a passive verb. For example:

밥은 제공된다 = Food is provided
집은 청소되었다 = The house was cleaned
음식은 요리됐다 = The food was cooked

Though there can never be an object in a passive sentence, other nouns can be in the sentence to provide more information. In English we use words like “by” in passive sentences to provide additional information. For example:

Food is provided by the school
The house was cleaned by my father
The food was cooked by the chef

In Korean, when something is done by a non-person, you can attach ~에 의해 to that word. For example:

밥은 제공된다 = Food is provided
밥은 학교에 의해 제공된다 = Food is provided by the school

Also remember that ~에게 is the particle that has the same role of ~에 의해 in these cases, but is used when the passive act is done by a person. For example:

집은 청소되었다 = the house was cleaned
집은 아버지에게 청소되었다 = The house was cleaned by my dad
집은 청소기에 의해 청소되었다 = The house was cleaned by the vacuum cleaner

Although acceptable and understandable, remember that Korean sentences are usually not natural when said in the passive voice. However, it is important to know because you will come across it from time to time.


~에 의해 can also be used in active sentences. When used in active sentences, the most common translation for “에 의해” is “due to.” For example:

사고에 의해 = Due to the accident

고속도로에서 발생한 사고에 의해 사람들이 지나가지 못했어요
= Due to the accident (that occurred) on the highway, people couldn’t pass

Because of the translation, the use of ~에 의해 in active sentences appears to be completely different than its use in passive sentences. When you think about it, however, they essentially have the same role in their respective sentences. In English, we might use different words, so it sounds like they are different, but Korean people would use “~에 의해” in both of these situations:

Passive – The door was opened _____ the wind
Active – People couldn’t pass ______ the accident

If I told you to fill in the blanks in those two sentences, what would you write? Assume I also told you to not use the word “because of” – because we have already talked about how to say that in Korean.

The most natural way to say those two (in my mind) would be:

Passive – The door was opened by the wind
Active – People couldn’t pass due to the accident

In both sentences the words “by” and “due to” have the same role. In both situations, we have a noun that is causing the predicating verb to occur; regardless of if it is active or passive.

Even more so, in some situations the words “by” or “due to” could be interchanged in the English translation without sounding awkward. For example:

공사에 의해 이 길은 막혔습니다 = Due to the construction, this road is blocked
공사에 의해 이 길은 막혔습니다 = This road is blocked by the construction

문이 바람에 의해 열렸어요 = The door was opened by the wind
문이 바람에 의해 열렸어요 = The door was opened due to the wind

Below are many more examples of ~에 의해 being used in active sentences:

안개에 의해 비행기가 못 떴어요 = The plane couldn’t take off due to the fog
안개에 의해 오이가 다 상했어요 = All of the cucumbers spoiled due to the fog
핼러윈에 의해 호박 가격이 올랐어요 = The price of pumpkins rose due to Halloween
구름에 의해 저는 석양을 잘 못 봤어요 = I couldn’t see the sunset due to the clouds
알람 소리에 의해 저는 뒷정리를 못했어요 = I couldn’t clean up due to the alarm going off

먼 거리에 의해 저는 저의 여자 친구를 자주 못 만나요
= I can’t meet my girlfriend often due to the long distance

성차별에 의해 여자들이 회사에서 승진하는 게 힘들어요
= It is difficult for women to be promoted in the workplace due to sexual discrimination

As I mentioned earlier in my description, in each situation what we have is a noun that is causing the predicating verb to occur. You might be wondering what difference would be created if “때문에” were used in these situations instead?

For example, look at the following two sentences:

안개 때문에 비행기가 못 떴어요 = The plane couldn’t take off because of the fog
공사 때문에 이 길은 막혔습니다 = The road is blocked because of the construction

Which one would sound more natural?

The plane couldn’t take off due to the fog, or
The plane couldn’t take off because of the fog


The road is blocked due to the construction, or
The road is blocked because of the construction

In my mind, their differences don’t need to be distinguished. In English, and in Korean, there can be more than one way to express the same idea. In speech, (both in English and in Korean), I would be more inclined to use “because” and “때문에.” That doesn’t mean that using “due to” and “~에 의해” never happens, though. Specifically, in print (newspapers or signs on the road, for example), you might see “due to” or “~에 의해” more often.

Also note that ~ㄴ can be added to ~에 의하다 to allow it to describe an upcoming noun. We saw this being done with words of similar function like 대하다, 관하다 and 관련하다 in Lesson 34. For example:

환경에 대해 = About the environment
환경에 대한 것 = A thing about the environment

환경에 관해 = About/regarding the environment
환경에 관한 것 = A thing about/regarding the environment

환경에 관련해 = About/regarding the environment
환경에 관련한 것 = A thing about/regarding the environment

~에 의하다 can also be used in this same way. That is, you can use ~에 의하다 to describe an upcoming noun. For example:

담배에 의한 사망은 증가하고 있어요
= Deaths due to smoking are increasing

매년 인종차별에 의한 사망자가 늘고 있어요
= Every year, the number of deaths due to racism (racial discrimination) is increasing

날씨에 의한 피해는 예방할 수 없는 문제예요
= Damage due to weather is a problem that we can’t prevent

모르는 사람과 같은 집에서 살면 오해에 의한 싸움이 자주 생겨요
= If you live with a person you don’t know, fights due to misunderstandings often occur

That is all you need to know about ~에 의하다, but I would like to also introduce you to another similar grammatical principle before this lesson finishes.




Due to: ~()인하다

As you learned in the previous section, ~에 의해 can be used to indicate the noun that is causing a predicating verb to occur. When used like this, it can be replaced by ~(으)로 인해 with little (or no) difference in meaning. Korean people say that the following sentences are identical to the sentences in the previous section where ~에 의해 is used:

안개로 인해 비행기가 못 떴어요
안개로 인해 오이가 다 상했어요
핼러윈으로 인해 호박 가격이 올랐어요
구름으로 인해 저는 석양을 잘 못 봤어요
알람 소리로 인해 저는 뒷정리를 못했어요
먼 거리로 인해 저는 저의 여자 친구를 자주 못 만나요
성차별로 인해 여자들이 회사에서 승진하는 게 힘들어요

However, you can’t replace ~에 의하다 with ~(으)로 인하다 when ~(으)면 is attached to create the meaning “according to.” For example, the following wouldn’t be used in Korean:

신문으로 인하면 심장병 사망률은 아주 높아요

Like “~에 의하다,” the typical translation for “~(으)로 인하다” is “due to.” If you are pressed to find a different English translation to distinguish them, you could use “as a result of.” Below are some new examples:

그 사람은 사고로 인해 목숨을 잃었어요
= That person died from (due to/as a result of) a car accident

저는 야외모임을 비로 인해 취소했어요
= I cancelled the meeting outside due to/as a result of the rain

날씨로 인해 콘서트가 취소되었습니다
= The concert was cancelled due to/as a result of the weather

Like ~에 의하다, ~(으)로 인하다 can also be used to describe an upcoming noun. For example:

담배로 인한 사망 = deaths due to smoking
호우로 인한 홍수 = a flood due to heavy rain
지진으로 인한 피해 = damage due to an earthquake

These described nouns can then go into sentences where appropriate. For example:

담배로 인한 사망은 증가하고 있어요
= Deaths due to smoking are increasing

그 지역에서 호우로 인한 홍수가 많이 생겨요
= In this region/area, there are a lot of floods that are caused by heavy rain

이번에 다행히 지진으로 인한 피해가 없었어요
= Thankfully, there was no damage due to the earthquake this time

That’s it for this lesson!

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