# Lesson 131: The Middle ㅅ: 사이시옷

Vocabulary

최댓값 = maximum value

Examples:
이 공식의 최댓값은 6 입니다
= The maximum value of this formula is 6

이 자료 집합에서 최댓값을 찾아내는 것은 매우 중요합니다
= Finding the maximum value in this dataset is crucial

전셋값 = the amount of money paid to rent a house via 전세

Examples:
요즘에는 전셋값이 오르고 있어서 전세로 집을 구하는 사람이 별로 없어요
= These days, the price of 전세 is increasing so there aren’t that many people who use 전세 to rent houses anymore

전셋값이 올라서 이제 전셋집이 별로 없어요
= The price of 전세 went up so there isn’t that many 전세 houses now

나잇값 = one’s age

Common Usages:
나잇값을 하다 = to act one’s age

Examples:
나잇값을 좀 하세요

저 사람은 나잇값을 못해서 주변에 친구가 없어요
= He has no friends around him because he doesn’t behave at his age

담뱃값 = the price of cigarettes

Examples:
정부가 내년 담뱃값을 오릴 거라고 했어요
= The government said they will increase the price of cigarettes next year

담뱃값이 매년 올라가고 있어서 흡연자들에게 부담이 돼요
= The price of cigarettes is increasing every year, burdening smokers

뱃길 = a path for boats to follow

Examples:
뱃길을 따라가면 그 섬이 나타날 거예요
= If you follow that (boat) path, the island will appear

뱃길을 따라 강을 따라 내려가는 것은 즐거운 경험이었어요
= Following the boat path down the river was a delightful experience

Examples:
눈이 많이 내려서 찻길이 잘 안 보여요
= I can’t see the road very well because a lot of snow fell

찻길을 따라 운전하는 것은 경치를 즐기는 좋은 방법이에요
= Driving along the tea road is a great way to enjoy the scenery

빗길 = a road that is being rained on

Common Usages:
빗길 운전 = driving on a rainy road
빗길 사고 = an accident on a rainy road

Examples:
어제 빗길 때문에 사고가 많이 났어요
= There were a lot of accidents yesterday because of the rainy road

빗길 운전은 조심해야 해요
= Driving on a rainy road requires caution

등굣길 = road/path that is used to walk to school

Examples:
등굣길은 학교로 가는 길을 말해요
= The road to school is the path to school

저는 아침마다 등굣길에서 친구를 만나서 같이 학교에 걸어가요
= Every morning I meet my friend on the way to school and we walk to school together

하굣길 = road/path that is used to walk from school

Examples:
하굣길은 학교에서 집으로 돌아오는 길을 말해요
= The road home from school is the path from school

하굣길에 집으로 가고 있었는데 배가 갑자기 고파서 떡볶이 집에 들어갔어요
= I was going home from school when suddenly I was hungry so I went into a 떡볶이 restaurant

기찻길 = a path for trains to follow

Examples:
기찻길은 기차가 다니는 길이에요
= A train track is a path the train goes on

기찻길을 건널 때 기차가 오는지 확인하세요
= When you cross a train track, check if a train is coming

횟집 = sushi house

Example:
횟집에 가면 그런 생선을 먹을 수 있어요
= You can eat that type of fish if you go to a sushi restaurant

찻집 = tea house

Examples:
찻집에서 차 한 잔 마시며 휴식을 취했어요
= We rested with a cup of tea at a tea house

인사동에 전통 찻집이 많아요
= There are a lot of traditional tea houses in Insadong (a popular neighborhood for tourists in Seoul)

고깃집 = meat house

Examples:
고깃집에서 맛있는 고기를 맛보았어요
= We tasted delicious meat at the meat house

종로에 가면 고깃집이 많아요
= If you go to Jongro, there are a lot of meat restaurants

전셋집 = Jeon-sae house

Examples:
전셋집은 전세 방식으로 임대된 집을 가리켜요
= Jeon-sae houses refer to houses rented using the Jeonse method

전셋값이 올라서 이제 전셋집이 별로 없어요
= The price of 전세 went up so there isn’t that many 전세 houses now

부잣집 = a rich family/household

Examples:
부잣집에는 고급 가구와 장식품들이 많아요
= In a rich family’s house, you can find luxurious furniture and decorations

그 사람이 부잣집에 태어나서 평생 동안 돈을 쓰는 것에 대해 한번도 걱정 안 했어요
= That person was born into a rich family, so during his whole life he never had to worry about spending money

햇빛 = sunlight

Common Usages:
햇빛이 들어오다 = for sunlight to come in
햇빛 알레르기 = sunlight allergy
햇빛 가리개 = shade for sun

Examples:
햇빛이 너무 세서 로션을 바르세요
= Put some lotion on because the sunlight is really strong

저는 햇빛이 안 들어오게 했어요
= I made it so the sunlight won’t come in

햇빛이 안 들어오게 커튼을 내려 주세요
= Pull the curtains down so that the sunlight doesn’t come in

이불을 강한 햇빛에 말리므로 더 빨리 말랐어요
= I dried the blanket in the strong sun so it dried quickly

장밋빛 = the color (light) of a rose (also used to indicate that something looks good)

Common Usages:
장밋빛 인생 = happy life

Examples:
제 인생은 장밋빛처럼 아름다워요
= My life is as beautiful as the color of roses

이제 사업이 잘 돼서 미래가 장밋빛으로 보여요
= Now that my business is going well, my future looks good

연둣빛 = green color/light

Examples:
제 셔츠는 오래돼서 이제 연둣빛으로 보여요
= My shirt is old, so now the color looks a light green color

그 초록색은 연둣빛이라서 아늑한 분위기를 자아냅니다
= The green color has a light hue, creating a cozy atmosphere

보랏빛 = violet color/light

Examples:
보랏빛은 신비로움을 느끼게 해요
= Violet light evokes a sense of mystery

오늘 꿈에서 보랏빛이 나는 보석을 주웠어요
= Today in my dream I picked up a violet colored jewel

무지갯빛 = rainbow colors (iridescence)

Common Usages:
무지갯빛 인생 = a happy life

Examples:
제 인생은 무지갯빛처럼 매우 화려해요
= My life is very bright, just like a rainbow

무지갯빛은 이리저리 반사되는 빛의 아름다움을 담고 있어요
= Iridescence captures the beauty of light reflecting in various directions

만둣국 = dumpling soup

Examples:
저의 와이프가 어제 만둣국을 만들었어요
= My wife made dumpling soup yesterday

한 그릇 만둣국은 추운 날씨에 몸을 녹여줘요
= A bowl of dumpling soup melts my body on a cold day

고깃국 = meat soup

Examples:
그런 것 대신에 고깃국을 먹는 게 어때요?

맛있는 고깃국은 출출한 때에 따뜻한 식사로 좋아요
= Delicious meat soup is a comforting meal when you’re hungry

감잣국 = potato soup

Examples:
어렸을 때 집에 감자만 있어서 매일 감잣국만 먹었어요
= When I was young, we only had potatoes at our house so every day we only ate potato soup

감잣국은 추운 겨울날씨에 따뜻한 식사로 좋아요
= Potato soup is a warm meal for cold winter days

순댓국 = intestine soup

Examples:
순댓국을 못 먹는 사람이 많지만 저는 순댓국을 제일 좋아해요
= There are many people who don’t like intestine soup, but it is my favorite

순댓국은 한국의 전통 음식 중 하나예요
= Intestine soup is one of the traditional Korean dishes

김칫국 = kimchi soup

Common Usages:
김칫국부터 마시다 = to drink your kimchi soup before something else, which is like the idiom “to count your chickens before they hatch.”

Examples:
느끼한 음식을 먹을 때마다 김칫국이 생각나요
= Every time I eat something “greasy,” I think about kimchi soup

한국에 유명한 속담에는 김칫국부터 마시지 마라는 말이 있어요
= There is a famous Korean saying that says “Don’t count the eggs before they hatch”

깻잎 = sesame leaf

Common Usages:
깻잎장아찌 = a type of pickled side dish with sesame leafs

Examples:
깻잎이 맛이 아주 강해서 외국인들이 보통 안 좋아해요
= The taste of sesame leaves is very strong so foreigners usually don’t like it

깻잎은 한식 요리에서 자주 사용되는 재료 중 하나예요
= Sesame leaves are commonly used in Korean cuisine

나뭇잎 = tree leaf

Examples:
캐나다 국기에는 나뭇잎이 있어요
= There is a (tree) leaf on the Canadian flag

숲 속에서는 다양한 모양의 나뭇잎을 볼 수 있어요
= In the forest, you can see various shapes of tree leaves

배춧잎 = Korean cabbage leaf

Common Usages:
배춧잎 = 만원 짜리 지폐

Examples:
삼겹살을 먹을 때 고기를 배춧잎에다가 놓고 싸서 먹으면 맛있어요
= When you eat 삼겹살, if you put the meat into a Korean cabbage leaf, wrap it up and eat it, it is delicious

배춧잎은 김치를 담그는 데 중요한 재료예요
= Korean cabbage leaves are essential for making kimchi

빗물 = rainwater

Common Usages:
빗물이 고이다 = for rainwater to pool up
빗물이 떨어지다 = for rainwater to drop

Examples:
빗물이 현관에 들어왔어요
= Rainwater is coming into the entrance-way

빗물은 식물이 자라는 데 필요한 물입니다
= Rainwater is essential for the growth of plants

시냇물 = water in/from a stream

Common Usages:
시냇물이 흐르다 = for stream water to flow

Examples:
개구리가 시냇물에서 천천히 헤엄쳤어요
= The frog swam slowly in the stream (water)

시원한 시냇물은 강으로 흘러내렸어요
= The cool stream-water flowed down into the river

저는 시냇물이 졸졸거리며 흐르는 소리를 듣는 것을 좋아해요
= I like listening to the sound of a stream flowing

양칫물 = water used for brushing one’s teeth

Examples:
엄마가 양칫물을 꼭 컵에 받아서 쓰라고 하셨어요
= My mom told me to get water for brushing my teeth in a cup

컵을 쓰면 양치를 할 때 양칫물을 아낄 수 있어요
= If you use a cup when you brush your teeth, you can save water

바닷가 = an area close to a sea

Examples:
보통 바닷가에 있는 집이 아주 비싸요
= Usually houses near the ocean/sea are very expensive

제 기억에 남는 휴가는 엄마와 함께 바닷가에 놀러 간 휴가에요
= The vacation that still remains in my memory (the most) is the time (vacation) that I went with mom to the seaside

그 아저씨가 바닷가 맨날 배를 타고 있는데 어부일까?
= That man is always in the ocean on a boat, do you think he is a fisherman?

호숫가 = an area close to a lake

Examples:
호숫가에는 많은 사람들이 낚시를 하고 있어요
= There are many people fishing along the lake

제가 어렸을 때는 호숫가에서 친구들과 캠핑을 하곤 했어요
= I used to camp a lot on the lakefront with my friends when I was young

내일이 휴일이라서 친구들이랑 물놀이를 하러 호숫가에 갈 거예요
Tomorrow is a holiday, so I will go to the lake-area with my friends to play in the water

뒷일 = aftermath, the work/affairs after something

Common Usages:
뒷일을 처리하다 = to take care of the aftermath

Examples:
남자가 경찰관에게 뒷일을 잘 처리해 달라고 몰래 돈을 주었어요
= The man asked the police officer to look after the affairs for him, and he secretly gave him money

일이 끝나고 나서는 뒷일이 남아있어서 바빠요
= After work, there are affairs left, so I’m busy

훗일 = work/affairs in the future

Examples:
훗일에 대해 걱정하기보다 현실에 집중해야 돼요
= Better than worrying about the (work in the) future, you should concentrate on the present

훗일을 대비하여 미리 계획을 세우는 것이 중요해요
= It’s important to plan ahead for future work

훗날 = a later day (the future)

Common Usages:
먼 훗날 = far in the future

Examples:
제가 훗날에 캐나다로 이사하고 싶어요
= I want to move to Canada in the future

먼 훗날 오늘이 좋은 추억으로 기억될 거예요
= In a later day, today will become a good memory

제삿날 = the day that 제사 (Korean ancestral praying) is done

Idiom:
오늘이 너의 제삿날이 될 거야 = today is the day you will be doomed

Examples:
제삿날에는 조상을 위해 제사를 지나요
= On the day of 제사, we perform the ritual for our ancestors

우리는 할아버지 제삿날에 과일이랑 고기를 많이 사 가야 돼요
= On the day of my grandfather’s 제사, we need to buy a lot of fruit and meat before going (presumably to the place where 제사 is done)

촛불 = the light of a candle

Common Usages:
촛불시위 = candlelight vigil

Examples:
바람이 너무 세서 촛불이 꺼졌어요
= The wind is very strong so the candle went out

촛불이 밝게 빛나는 밤은 특별해요
= A night when candles shine brightly is special

반딧불 = the light of a firefly

Examples:
박벌의 반딧불은 밤에 빛나는 아름다운 광경이에요
= The light of a firefly glows beautifully at night

아주 어두워서 반딧불이 잘 보여요
= It is very dark so I can see the firefly (light) very well

혼잣말 = speaking to oneself

Examples:
혼잣말을 하면 마음이 편안해져요
= Speaking to oneself can be comforting

그 왕따가 점심을 먹을 때마다 혼잣말을 많이 해요
= That outcast speaks to himself a lot whenever he eats lunch

뒷면 = the back side

Examples:
뒷면에는 특별한 문구가 적혀 있어요
= There is a special message written on the back side

종이를 아껴 쓰기 위해 종이의 뒷면도 항상 사용해요
= In order to save paper, you should always use the back side of the page

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn about words that contain an extra ㅅ. This is called a 사이시옷, and its inclusion in words is very complex. Luckily, there are a set of rules that I can teach you. Let’s get started!

사이시옷: Putting ㅅ Within Compound Words

Often two individual words get combined to make a compound word. For example:

아침 = morning
밥 = food, rice
아침밥 = breakfast, or the food/rice that one eats for breakfast

Although 아침밥 is one word, it is composed of two words that are words on their own. We have created a “compound word,” and in effect, the first half of the compound word (아침) is describing the second half (밥). What type of “rice/food” do we have? We have morning “rice/food.”

Notice in 아침밥 that the final letter of the first half of the word is a consonant. That is, 아침 ends in a consonant. In other words, the final syllable has a 받침.

A 받침 is used to refer to the type of plate that one would rest a hot pan/pot onto instead of resting it directly onto the table. In language, it is used to refer to the final consonant of a syllable. Some words have a 받침 (like “”) and some words do not have a 받침 (like “”)

Sometimes you will see compound words where the first half of the word originally doesn’t end in a consonant. That is, where the final syllable of the first half of the word doesn’t have a 받침. For example, I can combine “어제” (yesterday), and “밤” (night) to refer to yesterday’s night (last night). Notice that 어제, which would be the first half of our compound word, doesn’t end in a consonant. In other words, its final syllable doesn’t have a 받침.

In these situations, you will often see ㅅ inserted into the place where a final consonant would go. For example, if we combine 어제 and 밤, the compound word is not 어제밤, but instead it is 어젯밤.

Again, although this is one word, in effect, the first half of the compound word (어제) is describing the second half (밤). What “night” are we talking about? We are talking about yesterday’s “night.”

The addition of a ㅅ into a compound word is called “사이시옷.” 사이 means “in between” and “시옷” is the name of the letter ㅅ. There are rules that indicate when a 사이시옷 should be included. This is a very complex topic, and is something that many Korean people find difficult as well. In fact, this is the kind of thing that Korean students learn in their Korean language classes in high school. Where a Canadian high school student will learn how to use a semicolon in his high school English classes, a Korean high school student will learn how to use the 사이시옷 in his Korean classes.

I would like to use this lesson to explain the rules of 사이시옷 to you.

Rules

Rule 1: I’ve already explained this, but I want to state it specifically as a rule. The 사이시옷 is only added between the individual constituents of a compound word. It is not added within a regular word.

For example, 가방 is a word on its own. It is not a compound word. Even though “가” doesn’t have a 받침, 사이시옷 would not be added to it. 갓방 is not a word.

However, 어제 and 밤 are words on their own. They can come together to make a compound word – 어젯밤. In this case, 사이시옷 is used.

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Rule 2: I’ve already explained this as well. The 사이시옷 is only added when the final syllable of the first part of the compound word does not have a 받침.

For example, the word for “leaf” is 잎. What kind of leaf are we talking about? I can create a compound word using many types of plants/trees to specifically describe the type of leaf I am referring to. For example:

감잎 = persimmon leaf
호박잎 = pumpkin leaf
마늘잎 = garlic leaf

The three words above are compound words. However, the first half of each compound word (감, 호박 and 마늘), ends in a consonant. 사이시옷 is not added to these words because, well, it can’t fit!

However, I can create a compound word using other types of plants/trees:

깻잎 = sesame leaf
나뭇잎 = tree leaf
배춧잎 = Korean cabbage leaf

The three words above are compound words. The first half of each compound word (깨, 나무, 배추) ends in a vowel. As you can see, 사이시옷 is added to these words.

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Rule 3: You never add 사이시옷 when one of the constituents of the compound word is a foreign loan-word (excluding Hanja). These foreign words typically come from English.

For example, the word for “house” is 집.  What kind of house are we talking about? I can create a compound word to specifically describe the type of house I am referring to:

꽃집 = flower house
찻집 = tea house
고깃집 = meat house (a restaurant that serves meat)
전셋집 = Jeon-sae house (a house that is rented using the 전세 method)

Using Rule 1 and Rule 2, you can understand the four examples above.

However, I can use a foreign loan-word to describe a house. For example:

피자집 = pizza house (a restaurant that serves pizza)

피자 is a word borrowed from English. If there is one of these “foreign” words in a compound word, even if the final syllable of the first word ends in a vowel, 사이시옷 is not used.

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Rule 4: This one is hard to know, especially if you don’t know Chinese or aren’t keeping up with your Hanja studies. At least one of the constituents of the compound word must be of pure Korean origin. As you know, the other half of the compound word cannot be a foreign load-word. However, the other half can be a Hanja-derived word.

Let’s go through this step-by-step:

The word for “road/path” is 길.  What kind of road/path are we talking about? I can create a compound word to specifically describe the type of road/path I am referring to:

뱃길 = a path for boats to follow
빗길 = a road that is being rained on

In both of the words above, both constituents of the compound words are of pure Korean origin. 배 (boat), 비 (rain) and 길 (road/path) are all original Korean words. There is no Hanja equivalent for any of those words. For a Korean learner, it is very hard to know this unless you have been exposed to Korean and Hanja for many, many years.

For me, even without looking in the dictionary, I assumed that 배, 비 and 길 were pure Korean words. I honestly don’t know how I knew this, I just did. Years of exposure to these types of words have given me experience with dealing with them, and this experience gave me the assumption. If you don’t know this right now – you probably don’t have to. Your brain, with time, will most likely be able to recognize Hanja-derived words from pure Korean words eventually.

The word for “going/walking to school” is 등교. 등교 is of Hanja origin and therefore has a Hanja equivalent -登校. I can create a compound word using 등교 and 길:

등굣길 = road/path that is used to walk to school

Remember the rule. At least one of the constituents of the compound word must be of pure Korean origin. The other half can be a Hanja-derived word. 등굣길 meets the requirements of this rule (and all the other rules discussed so far), so a 사이시옷 is used.

Let’s do it again.

The word for “light” is 빛.  What kind of light are we talking about? I can create a compound word to specifically describe the type of light I am referring to:

햇빛 = sunlight
무지갯빛 = rainbow colors (iridescence)

In both of the words above, both constituents of the compound words are of pure Korean origin. 해 (sun), 무지개 (rainbow) and 빛 (light) are all original Korean words. There is no Hanja equivalent for any of those words.

The word for “rose” is 장미. 장미 is of Hanja origin and therefore has a Hanja equivalent -薔薇. I can create a compound word using 장미 and 빛:

장밋빛 = the light (color) of a rose

Remember the rule. At least one of the constituents of the compound word must be of pure Korean origin. The other half can be a Hanja-derived word. 장밋빛 meets the requirements of this rule (and all the other rules discussed so far), so a 사이시옷 is used.

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Rule 5: Rule 4 states that at least one of the constituents of the compound words must be of pure Korean origin. There are six exceptions to this, where both constituents are of Hanja origin, and there is no Korean originated word:

숫자(數字) = a numeral
횟수(回數) = the number of times something is done
찻간(車間) = the inside of a train car
곳간(庫間) = a storehouse
셋방(貰房) = a room to be rented
툇간(退間) = the space between the awning of a traditional Korean building and the actual building

The words 찻간, 곳간 and 툇간 aren’t really said anymore, and young Korean people probably won’t know what they mean. However, older Koreans and those who watch Korean dramas set hundreds of years ago might know.

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Usage

That’s it for the rules. Now let me give you a list of words that are commonly used with (specifically, after) 사이시옷:

For help memorizing these words, try using our mobile app.

= price, value
최댓값 = maximum value
이 공식의 최댓값은 6 입니다 = The maximum value of this formula is 6

전셋값 = the amount of money paid to rent a house via 전세
요즘에는 전셋값이 오르고 있어서 전세로 집을 구하는 사람이 별로 없어요 = These days, the price of 전세 is increasing so there aren’t that many people who use 전세 to rent houses anymore

나잇값 = one’s age (used when saying “act your age!” or something like that)
나잇값을 좀 하세요 = Act your age!

담뱃값 = the price of cigarettes
정부가 내년 담뱃값을 오릴 거라고 했어요 = The government said they will increase the price of cigarettes next year

뱃길 = a path for boats to follow
뱃길을 따라가면 그 섬이 나타날 거예요 = If you follow that (boat) path, the island will appear

눈이 많이 내려서 찻길이 잘 안 보여요 = I can’t see the road very well because a lot of snow fell

빗길 = a road that is being rained on
어제 빗길 때문에 사고가 많이 났어요 = There were a lot of accidents yesterday because of the rainy road

등굣길 = road/path that is used to walk to school
저는 아침마다 등굣길에서 친구를 만나서 같이 학교에 걸어가요 = Every morning I meet my friend on the way to school and we walk to school together

하굣길 = road/path that is used to walk from school
하굣길에 집으로 가고 있었는데 배가 갑자기 고파서 떡볶이 집에 들어갔어요 = I was going home from school when suddenly I was hungry so I went into a 떡볶이 restaurant

기찻길 = a path for trains to follow (a train track)
기찻길을 건널 때 기차가 오는지 확인하세요 = When you cross a train track, check if a train is coming

= house
횟집 = sushi house (a restaurant that serves sushi)
횟집에 가면 그런 생선을 먹을 수 있어요 = You can eat that type of fish if you go to a sushi restaurant

찻집 = tea house (a place that serves tea)
인사동에 전통 찻집이 많아요 = There are a lot of traditional tea houses in Insadong (a popular neighborhood for tourists in Seoul)

고깃집 = meat house (a restaurant that serves meat)
종로에 가면 고깃집이 많아요 = If you go to Jongro, there are a lot of meat restaurants

전셋집 = Jeon-sae house (a house that is rented using the 전세 method)
전셋값이 올라서 이제 전셋집이 별로 없어요 = The price of 전세 went up so there isn’t that many 전세 houses now

부잣집 = a rich family/household
그 사람이 부잣집에 태어나서 평생 동안 돈을 쓰는 것에 대해 한번도 걱정 안 했어요 = That person was born into a rich family, so during his whole life he never had to worry about spending money

= light
햇빛 = sunlight
햇빛이 많이 들어오는 집이 제일 좋아요 = Houses that allow a lot of light in are the best

장밋빛 = the color (light) of a rose (also used to indicate that something looks good)
이제 사업이 잘 돼서 미래가 장밋빛으로 보여요 = Now that my business is going well, my future looks good

연둣빛 = green color/light
제 셔츠는 오래돼서 이제 연둣빛으로 보여요 = My shirt is old, so now the color looks a light green color

보랏빛 = violet color/light
오늘 꿈에서 보랏빛이 나는 보석을 주었어요 = Today in my dream I picked up a violet colored jewel

무지갯빛 = rainbow colors (iridescence)
제 인생은 무지갯빛처럼 매우 화려해요 = My life is very bright, just like a rainbow

= soup
만둣국 = dumpling soup
저의 와이프가 어제 만둣국을 만들었어요 = My wife made dumpling soup yesterday

고깃국 = meat soup
그런 것 대신에 고깃국을 먹는 게 어때요? = Instead of that, how about eating meat soup?

감잣국 = potato soup
어렸을 때 집에 감자만 있어서 매일 감잣국만 먹었어요 = When I was young, we only had potatoes at our house so every day we only ate potato soup

순댓국 = intestine soup
순댓국을 못 먹는 사람이 많지만 저는 순댓국을 제일 좋아해요 = There are many people who don’t like intestine soup, but it is my favorite

김칫국 = kimchi soup
느끼한 음식을 먹을 때마다 김칫국이 생각나요 = Every time I eat something “greasy,” I think about kimchi soup

= leaf
깻잎 = sesame leaf
깻잎이 맛이 아주 강해서 외국인들이 보통 안 좋아해요 = The taste of sesame leaves is very strong so foreigners usually don’t like it

나뭇잎 = tree leaf
캐나다 국기에는 나뭇잎이 있어요 = There is a (tree) leaf on the Canadian flag

배춧잎 = Korean cabbage leaf
삼겹살을 먹을 때 고기를 배춧잎에다가 놓고 싸서 먹으면 맛있어요 = When you eat 삼겹살, if you put the meat into a Korean cabbage leaf, wrap it up and eat it, it is delicious

= water
빗물 = rainwater
빗물이 현관에 들어왔어요 = Rainwater is coming into the entrance-way

시냇물 = water in/from a stream
시원한 시냇물은 강으로 흘러내렸어요 = The cool stream-water flowed down into the river

양칫물 = water used for brushing one’s teeth
컵을 쓰면 양치를 할 때 양칫물을 아낄 수 있어요 = If you use a cup when you brush your teeth, you can save water

= an area near something
바닷가 = an area close to a sea
보통 바닷가에 있는 집이 아주 비싸요  = Usually houses near the ocean/sea are very expensive

호숫가 = an area close to a lake
내일이 휴일이라서 친구들이랑 물놀이를 하러 호숫가에 갈 거예요 = Tomorrow is a holiday, so I will go to the lake-area with my friends to play in the water

= work, affairs
뒷일 = aftermath, the work/affairs after something
남자가 경찰관에게 뒷일을 잘 처리해 달라고 몰래 돈을 주었어요 = The man asked the police officer to look after the affairs for him, and he secretly gave him money

훗일 = work/affairs in the future
훗일에 대해 걱정하기보다 현실에 집중해야 돼요 = Better than worrying about the (work in the) future, you should concentrate on the present

= day
훗날 = a later day (the future)
제가 훗날에 캐나다로 이사하고 싶어요 = I want to move to Canada in the future

제삿날 = the day that 제사 (Korean ancestral praying) is done
우리는 할아버지 제삿날에 과일이랑 고기를 많이 사 가야 돼요 = On the day of my grandfather’s 제사, we need to buy a lot of fruit and meat before going (presumably to the place where 제사 is done)

= light, flame
촛불 = the light of a candle
바람이 너무 세서 촛불이 꺼졌어요 = The wind is very strong so the candle went out

반딧불 = the light of a firefly
아주 어두워서 반딧불이 잘 보여요 = It is very dark so I can see the firefly (light) very well

= words, speech
혼잣말 = speaking to oneself
그 왕따가 점심을 먹을 때마다 혼잣말을 많이 해요 = That outcast speaks to himself a lot whenever he eats lunch

= side, face
뒷면 = the back side
종이를 아껴 쓰기 위해 종이의 뒷면도 항상 사용해요 = In order to save paper, you should always use the back side of the page

Pronunciation

The rules for using 사이시옷 can be confusing. Unfortunately, the pronunciation of words containing 사이시옷 aren’t straightforward either.

Pronunciation Rule 1: The first general rule of pronunciation is that the ㅅ sound is not pronounced, and the following consonant’s sound (in the next syllable) is doubled. For example, the word 만둣국 is pronounced as “만두꾹.” Notice how the ㅅ is not pronounced, and the first ㄱ in “국” changed to ㄲ. Look at the examples below to see an example of this from each of the sections above:

Notice that other parts of the word might have a different pronunciation than the spelling for other reasons. For example, on its own is pronounced as “갑.” Also, on its own is pronounced as “빋.” The following pronunciation guides include the pronunciation changes due to the 사이시옷, but also due to other Korean pronunciation phenomena.

 Spelling Pronunciation 최댓값 최대깝 뱃길 배낄 찻집 차찝 햇빛 해삗 고깃국 고기꾹 바닷가 바다까 촛불 초뿔

Pronunciation Rule 2: If the first sound after the 사이시옷 is an ㄴ or ㅁ, then the 사이시옷 “ㅅ” sound changes to an ㄴ sound. For example:

 Spelling Pronunciation 빗물 빈물 시냇물 시낸물 양칫물 양친물 훗날 훈날 제삿날 제산날 혼잣말 혼잔말 뒷면 뒨면

Pronunciation Rule 3: If the first sound after the 사이시옷  is a vowel (and therefore, the letter immediately after the 사이시옷 is “ㅇ”), then the 사이시옷 “ㅅ” sound changes to an ㄴ sound, and the ㄴ sound is pronounced again in place of ㅇ. For example:

 Spelling Pronunciation 깻잎 깬닢 나뭇잎 나문닢 배춧잎 배춘닢 뒷일 뒨닐 훗일 훈닐

I love lessons like this! I just love them! Just completely filled with grammar nonsense. Haha!

That’s it for this lesson!