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It’s time for another difficult word lesson! In this lesson, instead of learning about some Korean grammatical principles, the vocabulary is the lesson. As with previous “difficult word” lessons, I will teach you some words that cannot be understood by simply looking up the translation in a dictionary. Rather, these words need a detailed description to be fully understood. You will learn about the following words in this lesson:
대로 = to be done the same as another action
– 그대로 = for something to be done as it once was
– 마음대로 = to do something as one’s heart desires
인기 = popularity
– 끌다 = to pull, to drag
당연하다 = to be obvious
알맞다 = to go well with
– 액자 = picture frame
전체 = the whole of something
– 행성 = planet
For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.
And the construction: ~바로 그 때문이다
Let’s get started.
As Experienced: 대로
“대로” is the type of noun that must be described by a preceding clause. You have learned many other nouns like this, some of them being; 지 (Lesson 30), 적 (Lesson 32), 수 (Lesson 45) and 데 (Lesson 77). 대로 is described by a clause to indicate that some action is done in the same way or form as one “experiences” an event.
Events often happen in the past, and people often refer to these experiences when speaking. As such, words that inherently refer to one’s experience – like seeing, hearing, feeling, expecting or guessing are often used to describe 대로 in the past tense. For example:
제가 봤던 대로 / 제가 본 대로 = As I saw
제가 들었던 대로 / 제가 들은 대로 = As I heard
제가 느꼈던 대로 / 제가 느낀 대로 = As I felt
제가 예상했던 대로 / 제가 예상한 대로 = As I expected
제가 기대했던 대로 / 제가 기대한 대로 = As I expected
제가 짐작했던 대로 / 제가 짐작한 대로 = As I guessed
제가 생각했던 대로 / 제가 생각한 대로 = As I thought
I don’t want to get into the difference between ~ㄴ/은 and ~았/었던 in this lesson. If you would like to see a discussion about this, I encourage you to check out Lesson 27.
The constructions above can be placed in sentences as appropriate, for example:
그 영화는 제가 예상한 대로 재미있었어요
= As I expected, that movie was funny
제가 들은 대로 이 지역 호박은 진짜 맛있어요
= As I heard, the pumpkins in this area are very delicious
제가 본 대로 인종차별은 그 나라에서 큰 문제예요
= As I saw, racism (discrimination based on race) is a big problem in that country
제가 생각했던 대로 악기를 연주하는 것은 어려워요
= As I thought, playing an instrument is very difficult
제가 느꼈던 대로 그 사람의 첫인상은 제 예상과 맞아요
= As I felt, the (my) first impression of that person met my expectations
제가 기대했던 대로 그 나쁜 학생이 학교에서 자퇴했어요
= As I expected, that bad student dropped out of school
제가 짐작했던 대로 우리 회사는 저를 승진시키지 않을 거예요
= As I guessed, my company will not promote me
대로 can also be described by clauses in the present tense. In these cases, the nature of the sentence implies that one’s is still experiencing the situation. For example:
그 영화는 제가 예상하는 대로 흘러가고 있어요 = The movie is progressing (along) as I expect
Two common verbs that are often used to describe 대로 in the present tense are 알다 (to know) and 시키다 (to order). For example:
내가 시키는 대로 해 줘 = Please do it as I ask (as I order)
문제를 아는 대로 풀어 봐 = Solve the problem as you know it
The meaning of 대로 is included in these two common adverbs:
마음대로 = to do something as one’s heart desires
그대로 = for something to be done as it once was
Remember what the purpose of “그” is when used by itself. It is used to refer to a previous/known situation. “그대로” is used when one indicates that something is done as that previous/known situation.
이 상황을 그대로 그냥 인정하세요 = Just accept the situation as it is
아무것도 만지지 말고 그냥 그대로 두세요 = Don’t touch anything – just leave it the way it is
먹고 싶은 것을 마음대로 고르세요 = Choose the food that you want to eat (whatever you want)
저는 유럽에 갈 건데 어디 갈지 정하지 않았어요. 제가 그냥 거기 가서 마음대로 여행할 거예요 = I’m going to Europe, but I haven’t set where I will go. I will just go there, and travel wherever I want (wherever my heart desires)
인기 isn’t that hard of a word – its meaning (popularity) is usually the same in all situations. However, a variety of verbs are used to act on 인기 that you would not expect. The easiest (and most intuitive) word you can use with 인기 is “많다” to indicate that somebody/something has a lot of popularity. For example:
그 만화책은 성인들에게 인기가 많아요
= That comic book is popular among adults
그 선생님은 키가 커서 학생들한테 인기가 많아요
= That teacher is popular (has a lot of popularity) among students because he is tall
그 식당은 이 지역 주민들에게 인기가 제일 많아요
= That restaurant is the most popular among residents of this area
Notice that the group that something is popular with should be attached to ~한테/에게/께.
A common word that is used with 인기 is “끌다,” which means “to pull.” Like 많다, 끌다 is used to indicate that one is popular (or has a lot of popularity). When 끌다 is used in the present tense, some form of the present progressive (~고 있다, ~끄는 중이다) is usually used with 끌다. For example:
그 모자는 색깔이 예뻐서 인기를 끌고 있어요
그 모자는 색깔이 예뻐서 인기를 끄는 중이에요
= That hat is getting popular because the color is pretty
그 가수가 새로운 노래를 만들어서 이제 인기를 끌고 있어요
그 가수가 새로운 노래를 만들어서 이제 인기를 끄는 중이에요
= That singer made a new song, and now he/she is getting popular
그 선수가 세계에서 하키를 제일 잘해서 인기를 많이 끌고 있어요
그 선수가 세계에서 하키를 제일 잘해서 인기를 많이 끄는 중이에요
= That athlete/player is the best hockey player in the world, so he/she is getting popular
Notice that the particle ~를/을 is used instead of ~이/가 because 끌다 is a verb.
If something increases in popularity, you can use the verb 얻다 (to gain). For example:
그 물품이 영화에 나와서 인기를 얻었어요
= That product was in a movie, so it got popular
그 회사원이 승진을 해서 동료들한테 인기를 얻었어요
= That worker was promoted and gained popularity with his coworkers
우리 사업은 자연 재료만 사용하기 시작한 후에 인기를 얻었어요
= After our company started only using natural ingredients, we became popular
If something decreases in popularity, you can use the verb 떨어지다 (to drop). For example:
그 노래의 인기는 떨어졌어요 = That song’s popularity dropped
아이폰 인기는 이제 떨어지고 있어요 = The iPhone’s popularity is dropping now
그 소문으로 인해 대통령 인기가 떨어졌어요 = The president’s popularity dropped due to that rumor
In addition to all of this, you could also use 있다/없다 to say that something is/isn’t popular:
그 영화는 인기가 있어요 = That movie is popular
그 영화는 인기가 없어요 = That movie isn’t popular
미국 대통령은 인기가 있어요 = The American president is popular
미국 대통령은 인기가 없어요 = The American president isn’t popular
To be Obvious, Correct, Natural: 당연하다
It is difficult to translate 당연하다 perfectly to English. A common definition of 당연하다 is “natural” or “correct.” However, I prefer “obvious” as a more accurate definition.
Let me introduce this word to you first by using its adverb form “당연히.” By showing you examples of this, I think you will better understand the meaning of 당연하다.
Look at the following examples:
그는 당연히 왔어요 = He obviously came… (Of course he came! Why wouldn’t he come?)
저는 내일 당연히 갈 거예요 = I am obviously going tomorrow (Of course I am going tomorrow! Why wouldn’t I go?)
The translation for 당연하다 in a dictionary is usually “natural,” which I guess could be used as well. Notice the similarities in the following English translations:
그는 당연히 왔어요 = Naturally, he came yesterday
저는 내일 당연히 갈 거예요 = Naturally, I will go tomorrow
If somebody asks you a question and you want to respond by saying “Of course!” or “Obviously!” you can use 당연하다. For example:
Person 1: 내일 갈 거예요?
= Are you going tomorrow?
Person 2: 당연해요! = Of course!
You have yet to learn the meaning of attaching ~지 (informal) or ~죠 (formal) to the end of a word (they will be introduced in Lesson 93). I don’t want you to worry about the meaning of ~지/죠 yet. In cases where you are answering a question to say “Of course!” or “Obviously!” you can attach ~지/죠 to 당연하다. The meaning doesn’t change in this example – it is just done for effect. For example:
Person 1: 내일 갈 거야? = Are you going tomorrow?
Person 2: 당연하지!! = Of course!!
Kids these days often replace 당연하다 with “당근” which actually means “carrot” as a joke. For example:
Person 1: 내일 갈 거야? = Are you going tomorrow?
Person 2: 당근! = Of course!
It is also common to attach 이다 to 당근, which allows for ~지/죠 to be attached. For example:
Person 1: 내일 갈 거야? = Are you going tomorrow?
Person 2: 당근이지! = Of course!
I guarantee that if you use “당근” in this situation while talking to a Korean person, you will make them laugh.
당연하다 can also be used as an adjective. Now that you know the meaning of 당연하다 through its use as an adverb, you should have no problem figuring out its meaning as an adjective.
As an adjective, 당연하다 describes situations that are obvious. For example:
당연한 거예요 = (That is) an obvious thing
그가 그 여자를 사랑하는 것은 당연해요 = It is obvious that he loves that girl
그 사람이 지난 1년 동안 아주 열심히 일해서 그가 승진되는 게 당연한 거예요
= That person worked very hard during the last year, so it is obvious that he is getting promoted
그 가수가 다른 여자와 바람을 피운 후에 가수의 인기가 떨어진 게 당연한 거예요
= After that singer cheated on his wife (with another girl), it is obvious that his popularity dropped
The four statements above indicate that something is obvious. In English, it is common to describe that something is obvious by asking “isn’t it obvious?” For example:
It’s it obvious that he loves that girl?
In Korean, you can describe an “obvious situation” by using “당연한 게 아니에요?” at end of a sentence. For example:
그가 그 여자를 사랑하는 것은 당연한 게 아니에요? = Isn’t it obvious that he loves that girl?
그 사람이 지난 1년 동안 아주 열심히 일해서 그가 승진되는 게 당연한 게 아니에요?
= That person worked very hard during the last year, so isn’t it obvious that he is getting promoted?
그 가수가 다른 여자와 바람을 피운 후에 가수의 인기가 떨어진 게 당연한 게 아니에요?
= After that singer cheated on his wife (with another girl), isn’t it obvious that his popularity dropped?
I first learned the words 알맞다 and 당연하다 at the same time, and I found them very difficult to distinguish. Now that you have a good base of what “당연하다” means, you should have no problem distinguishing the two.
알맞다 is typically used when two (or more) things go well with each other – usually in appearance, taste or smell. For example:
저 책상은 이 방에 알맞아요
= That desk looks good in this room
저 사진은 저 액자에 알맞아요 = That picture looks good in that frame
A similar word is “어울리다,” which can also be used in these situations. For example:
저 책상은 이 방에 어울려요
= That desk looks good in this room
저 사진은 저 액자에 어울려요 = That picture looks good in that frame
어울리다 is also used to indicate that two (or more) people get along. For example:
그 사람은 친구와 잘 어울려요 = That person gets along well with his/her friend
저는 우리 장모님과 잘 어울려요 = I get along well with my mother-in-law
The whole __: 전체
전체 is a noun that refers to “the whole” of something. It is typically placed after another noun to indicate that one is referring to that entire noun.
If you have been keeping up with your Hanja studies, you can probably understand how this meaning is created by seeing its Hanja characters. 전 (全) refers to “all” and 체 (體) refers to a body or thing.
Here are some examples of 전체 placed after a noun to refer to the whole noun:
학교 전체 = the whole school
도시 전체 = the whole city
행성 전체 = the whole planet
회사 전체 = the whole company
These constructions can then go in sentences where appropriate:
학교 전체가 닫혀 있어요 = The whole school is closed
그 행성 전체에 물이 있어요 = There is water on that whole planet
우리는 도시 전체를 걸어 다녔어요 = We walked around the whole city
부장님이 회사원 몇 명을 해고할 거라고 해서 회사 전체가 긴장했어요
= The whole company was nervous because the boss said he will fire some workers
That is why … : 바로 그때문이다
When I was at this stage of my Korean studies, I really wanted to know how to create the following types of sentences:
That is why I want to go!
That is why I like her!
That is why I am learning Korean!
I wanted to know how to say “That’s why…” in Korean. At that time, I asked people and the best answer I could get was:
… 바로 그 때문이다
First of all, let’s think about when (in English) we would use this type of sentence. I would say this when some situation is being talked about – and I want to say that the reason for me doing something is because of this situation. I’m not going to explicitly state this situation, because I can just refer to it by using “that.” For example, imagine I heard that my best friend is going to a party tonight. I can say “That is the reason I want to go.”
I don’t need to say “Because my best friend is going, I want to go.” Because “my friend going” is something that was already discussed, I can just say “That is the reason I want to go.”
The construction “바로 그 때문이다” has the function of meaning “That is the reason.” “그” refers to the situation that is already known, and “때문에” refers to the reason. The purpose of “바로” in this construction is to mean something like “precisely” – to stress that that is the reason. For example:
That is precisely the reason…
Now, we need to state the action that occurs as a result of this known situation. In order to do this, we can turn the result into a noun using ~는 것. For example:
제가 가고 싶은 것 = (the noun of “I want to go”)
제가 그녀를 좋아하는 것 = (the noun of “I like her”)
제가 한국어를 배우고 있는 것 = (the noun of “I am learning Korean”)
Now we can place “바로 그 때문이다” after each noun to indicate the referred reason why these actions will occur. For example:
제가 가고 싶은 것은 바로 그 때문이에요 = That is why I want to go
제가 그녀를 좋아하는 것은 바로 그 때문이에요 = That is why I like her
제가 한국어를 배우고 있는 것은 바로 그 때문이에요 = That is why I am learning Korean
It is also possible to simply place “그래서” before the action to indicate what will result of a referred situation. As you learned in Lesson 37, 그래서 can be used to refer to a reason discussed in a previous clause. For example:
그래서 가고 싶어요 = That is why I want to go (therefore, I want to go)
그래서 그녀를 좋아해요 = That is why I like her (therefore, I like her)
그래서 한국어를 배우고 있어요 = That is why I am learning Korean (therefore, I am learning Korean)
That’s it for this lesson!