Lesson 51: ~기도 하고… ~기도 하다

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Adding ~도 to a Clause: ~기도 하다
Stressing Two Actions or Descriptions: ~기도 하고 ~기도 하다

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
억양 = accent

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “어걍”

Notes: 사투리 (dialect) and 억양 (accent) are a little bit different. If you speak Korean with a 사투리, you probably come from a different part of the country and use different words and even sentence endings compared to the people in Seoul. It may be incomprehensible to a person in Seoul to hear a 사투리 of Korean. For example, the equivalent to “먹었어” in the Jeju dialect could be “먹언” – something that is incomprehensible to a person in Seoul.

However, an 억양 is more about the pronunciation of words being different. For example, a foreigner speaking Korean will most likely have a different “억양” compared to the native Korean speakers.

Examples:
한국 사람들이 영어로 말할 때는 특이한 억양이 있어요
= When Korean people speak in English, they have a unique accent

유럽 사람들이 쓰는 영어 억양의 개수를 세기도 하고 비교하기도 했어요
= I counted the number of English accents used by European people and compared them too

= debt

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “빋”

Common Usages:
빚을 갚다 = to pay back a debt
빚보증을 서다 = to guarantee (co-sign) somebody’s debts

Examples:
빚을 빨리 갚아야 되겠네
= Oh, I should probably pay off this debt quickly

사고 싶은 것이 많아서 빚이 없었으면 좋겠어요
= I wish I didn’t have (any) debt because there is a lot of things that I want to buy

= comb

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “빋”

Common Usages:
빗자루 = broom
머리빗 = hair comb
꼬리빗 = a specific type of flat comb

Examples:
앞머리가 있으면 꼬리빗을 꼭 가지고 다녀야 해요
= If you have bangs, you must (go around carrying) have a comb

백화점에서 구매한 빗이 질이 좋아서 아직까지 쓰고 있어요
= The quality of the comb I purchased at the department store is so good that I am still using it

= brush

Notes: “솔” is not usually used to refer to a brush that one would use to “brush” his/her hair. When brushing your hair, the word “빗” or “브러쉬” would be used. “솔” is typically used to refer to a brush that is used for cleaning.

Common Usages:
칫솔 = toothbrush

Examples:
솔이 있으면 먼지 청소를 할 때 편해요 = If you have a brush, it is easy/comfortable to clean dust
청소할 때 쓰는 솔은 자주 바꿔야 해요 = You need to change the brush that you use to clean often

치약 = toothpaste

Common Usages:
치약을 짜다 = to squeeze the toothpaste

Examples:
제가 치약을 사기도 하고 칫솔을 사기도 했어요 = I bought toothpaste and a toothbrush too
치약을 너무 많이 묻혀서 양치를 하는 것은 좋지 않아요 = It is not good go brush your teeth using too much toothpaste

칫솔 = toothbrush

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “치쏠”

Notes: This word contains a 사이시옷. For information about this, see Lesson 131.

Examples:
제가 치약을 사기도 하고 칫솔을 사기도 했어요 = I bought toothpaste and a toothbrush
칫솔은 2개월에 한번씩 교체해야 돼요 = You should change your toothbrush once every two months
칫솔에 물을 묻히기 전에 치약을 짜야 돼요 = You should put (squeeze) toothpaste onto your toothbrush before putting water onto it

화학 = chemistry

Common Usages:
화학자 = chemist
화학과 = department of chemistry
화학물질 = chemical
화학반응 = chemical reaction

Examples:
저는 화학도 가르쳐요 = I teach chemistry too (in addition to other subjects)
화학은 매우 흥미로워요 = Chemistry is very interesting
나는 화학을 이해할 수 없어 = I can’t understand Chemistry
대학교에서 철학이나 화학을 공부하고 싶어요? = In University, do you want to study philosophy or chemistry?

철학 = philosophy

Common Usages:
철학자 = philosopher
철학과 = department of philosophy

Examples:
대학교에서 철학이나 화학을 공부하고 싶어요?
= In University, do you want to study philosophy or chemistry?

아르키메데스는 철학을 가르치기도 하고 중요한 발명품을 발명하기도 했어요
= Archimedes taught philosophy and also invented important inventions too

가죽 = leather, animal skin

Common Usages:
뱀가죽 = snake skin
가죽가방 = leather bag
악어가죽 = alligator skin
가죽소파 = leather sofa
가죽바지 = leather pants

Examples:
가죽을 입거나 고기를 먹거나 둘 다 동물을 죽이는 것이에요
= If you wear leather or eat meat, both of them are killing animals

그 남자가 악어가죽신발을 신고 있어서 못생겨 보이지 않아요?
= That person is wearing alligator skin (leather) shoes, so doesn’t he look ugly?

악어 = alligator, crocodile

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “아거”

Notes: Korean people typically don’t distinguish between alligators and crocodiles. I know they are different, but most people in the world don’t. You can specifically refer to a crocodile with the word “크로커다일.”

Common Usages:
악어가죽 = alligator skin

Examples:
그 남자가 악어가죽신발을 신고 있어서 못생겨 보이지 않아요?
= That person is wearing alligator skin (leather) shoes, so doesn’t he look ugly?

악어를 실제로 볼 수 있는 곳이 한국에는 동물원밖에 없어요
= The only place where you can really/actually see alligators in Korea is in zoos

크로커다일과 악어는 비슷하게 생겨서 구분하기 힘들어요
= Crocodiles and alligators look very similar so it is hard to distinguish them

발명품 = invention

Examples:
슬기가 새로운 발명품을 만들어서 부자가 됐어요
= Seulgi made a new invention, so she became rich

발명품을 완성하자마자 그 과학자는 특허를 냈어요
= As soon as the scientist completed his invention, he/she got it patented

아르키메데스는 철학을 가르치기도 하고 중요한 발명품을 발명하기도 했어요
= Archimedes taught philosophy and also invented important inventions too

스타일 = style

Common Usages:
강남스타일 = Gangnam Style
스타일이 좋다 = to have a good style

Examples:
제 이상형은 스타일이 좋은 남자예요 = My ideal type is a man with good style
저는 그런 스타일의 셔츠를 못 입어요 = I can’t wear that style of shirt
그 여자가 예쁜데 내 스타일이 아니야 = That girl is pretty, but she is not my style

향수 = perfume

Common Usages:
향수를 뿌리다 = to spray/sprinkle perfume

Examples:
첫인상에 어떤 향수를 뿌리는지는 많은 영향을 미쳐요
= The type of perfume that you use (spray) has a big impact on a first impression

제가 나갈 때 가끔 향수를 뿌리기도 하고 가끔 안 뿌리기도 해요
= When I go out, sometimes I put on (spray) perfume, sometimes I don’t

= nose

Common Usages:
코털 = nose hairs
콧구멍 = nostril
코딱지 = boogers
코를 파다 = to pick one’s nose
코를 풀다 = to blow one’s nose
콧물(이 나다) = liquid from one’s nose (a runny nose)
코피(가 나다) = blood from one’s nose (a nose bleed)
낮은 코 = a low nose
높은 코 = a high nose (Korean people think that people with “high noses” are good looking)

Examples:
한국 사람들이 코가 높은 사람들이 제일 잘생겼다고 생각해요
= Korean people think that people with high noses are the most handsome

계절이 바뀔 때마다 알레르기가 있는 사람들은 코가 간지러워져요
= Each time the season changes, the noses of people with allergies get itchy

콧구멍 = nostril

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “코꾸멍”

Notes: This word contains a 사이시옷. For information about this, see Lesson 131.

Common Usages:
콧구멍이 크다 = to have big nostrils

Examples:
제 친구 중 한 명은 콧구멍이 커서 엄지 손가락을 넣을 수 있어요
= One of my friends nostrils are so big that he can put his thumb into them

양파 = onion

Notes: The word for a green onion is just “파”
The word for a leek (which is really just a big green onion) is “대파”

Common Usages:
양파즙 = squeezed onion juice
양파 껍질 = onion peel

Examples:
양파 껍질을 다 벗겨 주세요 = Please take all of the peel off of the onion
햄버거 한 개 주세요. 양파 빼고요 = One hamburger please. And hold the onions.
양파를 자르는 김에 당근도 잘라주세요 = While you cut the onions, also cut the carrots please!
양파가 아주 싸서 수십 개를 살까 해요 = I am thinking about buying dozens of onions because they are very cheap
양파를 작은 조각으로 썰고 재료를 다 섞으세요 = Chop the onions into small pieces and mix all the ingredients

양말 = socks

Common Usages:
양말을 신다 = to put on socks
양말을 신기다 = to put socks on someone else
양말을 벗다 = to take off socks
양말을 벗기다 = to take socks off of someone else
발목 양말 = ankle socks

Examples:
양말을 벗겨 주세요 = Please take off my socks
이 양말을 오른발에 신겨 주세요 = Please put this sock on my right foot
저는 종업원한테 양말이 어디에 있냐고 물어봤어요 = I asked the worker where the socks are

= crack

Notes: This word refers to a crack (an small open space), but it can also refer to a “chance” or “opportunity” as it refers similarly to a small open space. For example, imagine you want to eat a cookie, but your father is in the kitchen and he won’t let you. However, the moment he goes to the bathroom, you have your “chance” to eat the cookie. This “chance” is like a crack in your father’s watch that you slip into to grab a cookie.

Common Usages:
틈을 타다 = to make the most of a chance

Examples:
부모님이 안 계신 틈을 타서 여자 친구를 만났어요
= I made the most of the opportunity of my parents not being here and met my girlfriend

선생님이 저를 안 보는 틈에 저는 몰래 교실 밖으로 나왔어요
= The time/opportunity that the teacher wasn’t looking at me, I came out of the classroom without him knowing

현관문 바닥에 작은 틈이 있어서 이를 막으려고 테이프를 붙였어요
= On the floor of the porch door, there is a small crack, so I stuck tape on it to block it

시설 = facilities

Notes: At the school that I work at, there are a bunch of men who have the job of fixing any broken things around the school. The school refers to these men as “시설 관리인” which I would translate to “facility custodians.”

Common Usages:
시설을 운영하다 = to manage facilities
시설을 확장하다 = to expand facilities

Examples:
우리 회사가 내일부터 모든 시설을 대체하기 시작할 거예요
= Our company will start replacing all of the facilities from tomorrow

새로 지어진 공원에 운동 시설이 매우 좋아서 많은 사람들이 거기에서 운동을 해요
= The newly built part has very good exercise facilities so many people exercise there

서울에는 많은 문화생활을 즐길 수 있는 시설이 많은 반면에 서쪽 지역에는 문화생활을 즐길 수 있는 시설이 거의 없어요
= In Seoul, there are many facilities in place for people to enjoy a cultured life, but on the other hand, in the western areas there are barely any of those things

개수 = the number of things

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “개쑤”

Notes: “개” refers to (and is a counter for) a thing, and “수” refers to a number. You can see a similar word in 명수 where “명” refers to (and is a counter for) people.

Common Usages:
개수를 세다 = to count the number of things

Examples:
이 바구니 안에 들어 있는 공의 개수를 정확히 맞추면 선물을 줘요
= If you guess the correct number of balls in this basket, we will give you a present

유럽 사람들이 쓰는 영어 억양의 개수를 세기도 하고 비교하기도 했어요
= I counted the number of English accents used by European people and compared them to

명수 = the number of people

Notes: “명” refers to (and is a counter for) people, and “수” refers to a number. You can see a similar word in 개수 where “개” refers to (and is a counter for) things.
The word “인원” is also commonly used to refer to a number of people as well.

Common Usages:
명수를 세다 = to count the number of people

Examples:
1반과 2반의 명수가 같아서 체육 시간에 게임을 할 때 편해요
= The number of students in class 1 and class 2 is the same, so it is easy/comfortable to play a game with those classes during PE class.

각 반마다 명수를 세서 도시락을 총 몇 개 준비할지 알아봤어요
= I counted the number of students/people in each class, and found out how many lunch boxes I need to prepare

대화 = conversation

Common Usages:
대화를 나누다 = to have a conversation with
대화가 안 된다 = for it to be difficult to have a conversation with
대화가 잘 통하다 = to be able to have a conversation easily with

Examples:
여자친구는 다른 여자와 대화를 하지 말라고 했어요
= My girlfriend told me not to talk to (have a conversation with) other girls

친구들끼리는 반말을 쓰고, 어른들과 대화를 할 때는 존댓말을 써요
= Amongst friends, you speak casually, and when talking with older people, you speak formally

저도 일본에 있을 때 더듬거리며 일본어 하는 외국인과 대화를 나누게 되었다면 매우 기뻐서 발음이 이상하든 문법이 엉터리든 “일본어 잘 하시네요~”라고 해요
= When I am in Japan having a conversation with foreigners speaking (fumbling in) Japanese, regardless of if their pronunciation is strange or if their grammar is rubbish, I gladly say “Oh, your Japanese is really good!”

Verbs:
빗다 = to comb ones hair

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “빋따”

Common Usages:
머리를 빗다 = to comb one’s hair

Examples:
머리를 감고 나서 머리를 안 빗으면 머리가 다 엉켜요
= After you wash your hair, if you don’t comb it your hair gets all tangled

머리를 묶기 전에 빗으로 잘 빗어주면 더 예쁜 머리를 할 수 있어요
= Before you tie up your hair, if you comb it well you can get prettier hair

비교하다 = to compare

The noun form of this word (“비교”) translates to “a comparison.”

비교하다 can be used simply in sentences to mean “to compare” with ~와, ~과, ~랑, ~이랑 or ~하고 attached to the noun that the object is being compared with For example:

저를 그 사람과 비교하지 마세요 = Don’t compare me with that person
저의 시어머니가 저를 자기 딸과 항상 비교해요 = My mother-in-law always compares me to her daughter

You can use the grammatical principles like ~(으)면 or ~아/어서 to create sentences that say “if/when one compares.” For example:

저를 그 사람과 비교하면 저는 더 똑똑해 보여요
= If you compare me to that person, I look smarter

이 차를 BMW와 비교하면 이 차는 훨씬 싸요
= If you compare this car with a BMW, this car is much cheaper

이 베개를 저것과 비교하면 이 베개가 훨씬 부드러워요
= If you compare this pillow with that one, this pillow is much softer

다른 건강 식품과 비교하면 인삼이 몸에 더 좋아요
= If you compare ginseng to other health products, ginseng is better for your body

발명하다 = to invent

Common Usages:
발명가 = inventor

Examples:
에디슨은 전구를 발명했어요 = Edison invented the light bulb

발명품을 완성하자마자 그 과학자는 특허를 냈어요
= As soon as the scientist completed his invention, he/she got it patented

아르키메데스는 철학을 가르치기도 하고 중요한 발명품을 발명하기도 했어요
= Archimedes taught philosophy and also invented important inventions too

끓이다 = to boil

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “끄리다”
The passive form of this word is “끓다” (to be boiling)

Common Usages:
물을 끓이다 = to boil water
육수를 끓이다 = to boil (meat) broth
라면을 끓이다 = to boil/make ramen noodles

Examples:
물을 냄비에 끓이세요 = Boil the water in a pot

제가 된장찌개를 끓일 때마다 할머니께서 맛있게 드셔요
= Every time I make (boil) 된장찌개, Grandma always eats it well (“deliciously”)

국을 끓일 때 조개를 넣어서 육수를 내면 국물이 더욱 맛있어요
= When you make “boil” soup, if you put clams into the broth, the (soup) water tastes more delicious

솔질하다 = to brush

Examples:
욕실 바닥을 솔로 솔질해서 깨끗하게 청소했어요
= I cleanly brushed/cleaned the bathroom floor with a brush

약을 바르고 구두를 솔로 잘 손질하면 구두가 반짝거려요
= If you spread shoe polish on your (dress) shoes and brush it (with a brush) they will be all shiny

진학하다 = to enter a school

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “진하카다”

Common Usages:
대학교에 진학하다 = to enter a university
고등학교에 진학하다 = to enter a high school

Examples:
부모님은 제가 대학교에 진학하도록 하셨어요 = My parents made to go to University
우리 학교에서 많은 학생들이 대학교에 진학해요 = Many students from our school enter university
대학교에 진학하든지 진학하지 않든지 열심히 공부해야 돼요 = It doesn’t matter if you go to University or not, you need to study hard

세다 = to count

Common Usages:
…수를 세다 = to count the number of
명수를 세다 = to count the number of people
개수를 세다 = to count the number of things

Examples:
숨바꼭질을 할 때 보통 술래는 숫자를 1부터 10까지 세요
= When you play hide-and-seek, the person who is it counts from 1 to 10

각 반마다 명수를 세서 도시락을 총 몇 개 준비할지 알아봤어요
= I counted the number of students/people in each class, and found out how many lunch boxes I need to prepare

이 바구니 안에 들어 있는 공의 개수를 정확히 맞추면 선물을 줘요
= If you guess the correct number of balls in this basket, we will give you a present

학교가 끝나고 나는 매우 행복했다. ‘집에 가면 맛있는 케이크와 음식이 있겠지?’. 기쁜 마음으로 집에 도착했다. 그리고 숫자 3을 셌다.
= After school, I was very happy. ‘When I go home, there will be delicious cake and food, right?’ I arrived home with my happy/glad heart. Then, I counted to three.

사과하다 = to apologize

The noun form of this word (“사과”) translates to “an apology.”

Common Usages:
정중히 사과하다 = to apologize respectfully
진심으로 사과하다 = to apologize sincerely

Examples:
저는 아빠에게 사과하기 싫어요 = I don’t want to apologize to dad
그 친구가 죽기 전에 내가 사과할걸 = Before that friend died, I should have apologized

그 사람이 내가 무례하다고 생각할까 봐 그에게 사과했어요
= I was worried that that person would think I am rude, so I apologized to him

학생은 친구한테 돈을 돌려주기도 했고 선생님께 사과하기도 했어요
= The student returned the money to his friend and also apologized to the teacher too

뿌리다 = to sprinkle

Common Usages:
소금을 뿌리다 = to sprinkle salt
설탕을 뿌리다 = to sprinkle sugar
향수를 뿌리다 = to spray perfume

Examples:
화단에 물을 다 뿌렸느냐고 물어봤어요
= I asked if you sprayed all of the water on the plants/flowers

지금 뿌리는 것이 농약이 아니라 그냥 물이에요
= The thing that I am spraying now is not pesticide, it is just water

중국 사람들은 소금을 뿌리는 것 대신에 음식에 간장을 써요
= Instead of using salt, Chinese people put/use soy sauce on their food

제가 나갈 때 가끔 향수를 뿌리기도 하고 가끔 안 뿌리기도 해요
= When I go out, sometimes I put on (spray) perfume, sometimes I don’t

Passive Verbs:
끓다 = to be boiling

The active form of this word is “끓이다” (to boil)

Common Usages:
물이 끓다 = for water to be boiling

Examples:
라면을 맛있게 먹으려면 물이 팔팔 끓어야 해요
= If you want to eat ramen deliciously, the water should be really boiling
(팔팔 is an adverb used to provide feeling to something blazing hot)

물이 끓기 시작하면 불을 끄고 찻잎을 넣으면 맛있는 차가 돼요
= When the water starts boiling, turn off the fire/stove and put it in tea leaves, and (if you do that), you will have delicious tea

Adjectives:
끝없다 = to be endless

Examples:
인생에서 배움은 끝이 없어요 = Learning in life has no end
끝없이 펼쳐진 바다를 보면 기분이 좋아요 = When I look at the endlessly (flat) ocean, I feel good
끝없이 이 일을 하면 제가 불행하기도하고 힘들기도 해요 = When I do work endlessly, I am unhappy and (feel) difficult

미묘하다 = to be subtle

Common Usages:
미묘한 차이 = a subtle difference
미묘한 기류 = some sort of awkward feeling between people that they can feel but can’t really express. For example, imagine you bump into your ex-girlfriend while with your current girlfriend. In this situation, there will be a “미묘한 기류” between the two girls. Even though nobody is saying anything about the awkwardness, everybody can feel it.

Examples:
두 사람 사이에는 알 수 없는 미묘한 기류가 있어요
= There is an “awkward feeling” between the two people

두 식당의 음식을 비교했지만 맛의 차이가 미묘하기도 하고 가격이 비슷하기도 했어요
= I compared the two restaurants, but the difference in taste was subtle and the price is similar too

불행하다 = to be unhappy

The noun form of this word (“불행”) translates to “unhappiness.”

Common Usages:
불행한 삶 = an unhappy life

Examples:
그냥 내 삶 전반이 불행한 것 같아서…
= I’m just unhappy about my life in general…

손님이 불행에 찬 눈으로 주인을 봤어요
= The customer looked at the owner with eyes “full of” unhappiness

그 모든 불행한 일을 겪고도 미소를 그렇게 자주 짓는 것은 어렵지 않아요
= Even after experiencing (going through) all that unhappiness, it is not difficult to smile often like that

밉다 = for somebody to piss you off

for somebody to piss you off

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “밉따”

Notes: This word is most commonly said by itself (usually by younger people) when they are annoyed or mad at somebody in a cute joking way – especially among grade school students simply as “미워!”

Examples:
남편을 많이 사랑하지만 가끔 밉기도 하고 귀찮기도 해요
= I love my husband a lot, but sometimes he pisses me off, and sometimes he is annoying

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

At the very beginning of Unit 2, you learned about the ~는 것 principle over the course of many lessons. In these lessons, you learned how to change verbs, adjectives and entire clauses into nouns by adding ~는 것, ~기 or ~ㅁ/음. In this lesson, you will learn another practical application of ~기 in Korean sentences by using ~기도 하고 ~기도 하다. Let’s get started.

 

 

Adding ~ to a Clause: ~기도 하다

Way back in Lesson 4, you learned how to attach ~도 to nouns to add the meaning of “as well” or “too” to the noun it is attached to. For example:

저는 화학도 가르쳐요 = I teach chemistry too (in addition to other subjects)
저도 화학을 가르쳐요 = I teach chemistry too (in addition to other people that also teach chemistry)

Adding ~도 to a simple noun like this is very easy, and I am sure you are comfortable doing it by now. It is also possible to add ~도 to other parts of speech, including verbs and adjectives that have been changed to their respective noun forms.

To see a long list of other ways ~ can be used, you might want to also check out Lesson 107.

In Lesson 29, you learned that you can attach ~기 to verbs or adjectives. In Lesson 29, you saw some common and specific ways that ~기 can be used in Korean. For example:

It is often used to say that one doesn’t like, or doesn’t want to do something:
저는 아빠에게 사과하기 싫어요 = I don’t want to apologize to dad

It is often used to say that one starts an action:
우리 회사가 내일부터 모든 시설을 대체하기 시작할 거예요
= Our company will start replacing all of the facilities from tomorrow

We can apply the meaning of ~도 to verbs or adjectives that have been changed to their respective noun-forms using ~기. Let’s look at how we can do this.

Look at the following sentences/clauses:

그녀가 예쁘다 = She is pretty
내가 밥을 먹는다 = I eat

We can turn those clauses into nouns by attaching ~기 to the predicating adjective or verb:

그녀가 예쁘기
내가 밥을 먹기

By attaching ~도 to ~기, you are indicating that the clause also occurs in addition to some other clause. For example:

그녀가 예쁘기도…
내가 밥을 먹기도…

Those constructions are not sentences yet – they’re technically just a clause in noun-form. In order to turn them into actual sentences, 하다 is typically used as a predicating verb. For example:

그녀가 예쁘기도 해요 = She is pretty too
내가 밥을 먹기도 했어 = I ate too

Make sure that you are aware of the function and meaning of ~도 – and the meaning that it can create depending on the noun it is attached to. Remember that only the noun that ~도 is attached to is the noun that carries the meaning. Look at these examples:

그녀도 예뻐요 = She too is pretty
(In the sense that other people are pretty, but she is too)

그녀가 예쁘기도 해요 = She is pretty too
(In the sense that she may also have other qualities or characteristics, but she is pretty too)

——————————–

나도 밥을 먹었어 = I too ate rice
(In the sense that other people ate rice, but I did too)

내가 밥도 먹었어 = I ate rice too
(In the sense that I ate other things, but I also ate rice)

내가 밥을 먹기도 했어 = I ate rice too
(In the sense that I did other things, but I also ate rice)

——————————–

Let’s look at the two sentences that we have created so far:

그녀가 예쁘기도 해요 = She is pretty too
내가 밥을 먹기도 했어 = I ate rice too

These two are perfect sentences, but would probably not be said on their own with no prior context. In order for these sentences to be appropriate, they would usually have to be prefaced (by you, or by somebody else) with some other action or description.

This is the same in English. You would never just walk into a room and randomly say:

“She is pretty too”

In order for this clause to be appropriate, somebody would have had to be talking about her other traits. For example:

Person 1: 그녀가 매우 똑똑하고 친절해요 = She is very smart and kind
Person 2: 네, 그녀가 예쁘기도 해요 = Yeah, she is pretty too

Here are some other examples. Notice that I am providing examples in the form of a (short) dialogue so you can see that these types of sentences need some kind of underlying context:

Person 1: 우리 학교에서 많은 학생들이 대학교에 진학해요
= Many students from our school enter university
Person 2: 그리고 몇몇 학생들은 바로 일자리를 구하기도 해요
= And/also, some students get jobs right away

Person 1: 그 사람은 직업이 없어서 돈이 전혀 없어요
= Because that person doesn’t have a job, he doesn’t have any money
Person 2: 그리고 빚이 많기도 해요
= And/also, he has a lot of debt

Person 1: 그 남자가 악어가죽신발을 신고 있어서 못생겨 보이지 않아요?
= That person is wearing alligator skin (leather) shoes, so doesn’t he look ugly?
Person 2: 네, 머리스타일이 이상하기도 해요
= Yeah, and his hair style is weird too

In these examples, we see that some prior context is needed to make these sentences appropriate. It is also possible for one person to talk about multiple actions or descriptions, which would eliminate the need for prior context when using ~기도 하다. I will talk about this in the next section.

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Stressing Two Actions or Descriptions: ~기도 하고 ~기도 하다

If you wanted to create a sentence with ~기도 without having to preface it with prior context, you could talk about two things in one sentence. In order for this to be done, ~기도 하다 is sometimes used twice in the same sentence. Let’s look at how this can be created.

If I wanted, I could simply say:

그녀가 예쁘고 똑똑해요, which would translate to “She is pretty and smart.”

The speaker could also stress that “she is pretty, and smart too” by attaching ~기도 하다 to both 예쁘다 and 똑똑하다. The two clauses can be separated by ~고. For example:

그녀가 예쁘기도 하고 똑똑하기도 해요 = She is pretty, and smart too

As an English speaker, you would look at the Korean sentence and think that the extra ~기도 is unnecessary. In English, we would not say “She is pretty too, and smart too.” However, in Korean, this is a common way to make these types of sentences.

It might be good for you if we compare these types of sentences with a more simple sentence. I’d like to discuss the following two sentences.

제가 치약과 칫솔을 샀어요 = I bought toothpaste and a toothbrush
제가 치약을 사기도 하고 칫솔을 사기도 했어요 = I bought toothpaste and a toothbrush too

The idea of both of those sentences is the same. In both examples, the end result is that the speaker bought toothpaste and a toothbrush. In most cases, ~기도 하고… ~기도 하다 is used to emphasize that both actions (or descriptions) happened. Therefore, although both sentences above would be correct, I can’t really imagine that the second example would be very common. Only in cases where the speaker wanted to specifically emphasize that the action of “buying toothpaste” and “buying a toothbrush” occurred. For example, maybe if somebody asked “Did you go to the store and only buy a toothbrush?”

Here are some more examples:

양파를 썰기도 하고 물을 끓이기도 했어요
= I chopped onions and boiled water too

끝없이 일을 하면 제가 불행하기도하고 힘들기도 해요
= When I do work endlessly, I am unhappy and (feel) difficult

아르키메데스는 철학을 가르치기도 하고 중요한 발명품을 발명하기도 했어요
= Archimedes taught philosophy and also invented important inventions too

유럽 사람들이 쓰는 영어 억양의 개수를 세기도 하고 비교하기도 했어요
= I counted the number of English accents used by European people and compared them too

두 식당의 음식을 비교했지만 맛의 차이가 미묘하기도 하고 가격이 비슷하기도 했어요
= I compared the two restaurants, but the difference in taste was subtle and the price is similar too

It’s also possible to conjugate the first 하다 (but not the word immediately before ~기) to match the tense of the final 하다. For example:

양파를 썰기도 했고 물을 끓이기도 했어요 = I chopped onions and boiled water too

유럽 사람들이 쓰는 영어 억양의 개수를 세기도 했고 비교하기도 했어요 = I counted the number of English accents used by European people and compared them too

I’ve discussed the conjugation of this first하다 (comparing it to a non-conjugated 하다) with many Korean people. I’ve never had a Korean person be able to distinguish these for me. Even when I’ve asked a Korean person to describe any difference in feeling between the two, I’ve always been told that they are identical.

———————————

Depending on the situation, sentences with ~기도 하고… ~기도 하다 can be used to indicate that “sometimes one action is done, and sometimes another action is done.” For example, if we look at the following sentence:

제가 피자를 먹을 때 콜라랑 먹기도 하고 물이랑 먹기도 해요
= When I eat pizza, sometimes I eat it with cola, and sometimes I eat it with water

In this sentence, the speaker is probably not saying that he/she eats pizza with both cola and water, but rather sometimes one option is done, and sometimes the other option is done.

I always try to make distinctions between usages to make it easier for a learner to grasp. Originally, I tried distinguishing this usage with the usage I discussed previously (where ~기도 하고 ~기도 하다 stresses that both options occur). However, I feel that their usages cannot be distinguished, and the difference in meaning/feeling can only be done through context. For example, if we look at this sentence that I showed you earlier:

양파를 썰기도 하고 물을 끓이기도 했어요

I was discussing this sentence with my wife, and I incorrectly assumed that this sentence would only be able to mean that the speaker “chopped onions and boiled water too.” I incorrectly assumed that this sentence would never be able to mean “sometimes I chop onions and sometimes I boil water.” I thought to myself “when would anybody ever need to express this?” My wife immediately came up with an example, saying “maybe you were working at a restaurant, and somebody asks if you only poured drinks – at which point you could say ‘no, I sometimes cut onions and sometimes boiled water.’”

Therefore, I prefer to not separate these two meanings and consider them all a part of the same usage. As always in Korean, context can help you distinguish between subtle differences in meaning. You can see this same ambiguity in an English sentence as well. For example, if I said the following:

“When we used to meet, we used to watch movies and have dinner too”

In this sentence, is the speaker indicating that he had dinner and watched a movie on the same date? Or is he indicating that sometimes he had dinner, and sometimes he watched a movie? This is similar to the ambiguity that we are creating in our Korean sentences. Context, however, can clear up any ambiguity.

Here are some other examples that I have translated to have the “sometimes I… and sometimes I…” meaning:

저는 그 친구를 좋아하기도 하고 싫어하기도 해요
= I like that friend sometimes, and I hate him sometimes too

저는 아침에 차를 마시기고 하고 커피를 마시기도 해요
= Sometimes I drink tea in the morning, and sometimes I drink coffee

제가 나갈 때 가끔 향수를 뿌리기도 하고 가끔 안 뿌리기도 해요
= When I go out, sometimes I put on (spray) perfume, sometimes I don’t

남편을 많이 사랑하지만 가끔 밉기도 하고 귀찮기도 해요
= I love my husband a lot, but sometimes he pisses me off, and sometimes he is annoying

저는 화요일에 테니스를 치기도 하고 배드민턴을 하기도 해요
= On Tuesdays, sometimes I play tennis, and sometimes I play badminton

우리가 만났을 때 밥을 같이 먹기도 했고 영화를 보기도 했어요
= When we met (used to meet), sometimes we would eat together, and sometimes we would watch a movie (together)

That’s it!

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