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Lesson 107: ~도 Revisited

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This Lesson is also available in Español

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Adding ~도 to Simple Grammatical Principles
~에도
~ㄹ 때도
~에게도 and ~한테도
~에서도
~(으)로도
~부터도
~까지도

Adding ~도 to More Complicated Grammatical Principles
~는지도
~는데도
~고도
~다가도
~면서도

Adding ~도 to Pseudo-Nouns:
~ㄹ/을 줄 모르다
~ㄹ/을 수도 있다

 

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
떼 = some crowd or “school” of things
장롱 = wardrobe (closet not built into wall)
피망 = bell pepper
개념 = concept, idea
문어 = octopus
폭력 = violence
동전 = coin
조끼 = vest
전등 = lamp, light
손전등 = flashlight
태평양 = the Pacific Ocean
제삼자 = a third party
승용차 = passenger car
잠자리 = dragonfly
거미줄 = spider web
지팡이 = walking stick, cane

Verbs:
잡히다 = to be caught
인식하다 = to recognize
일광욕하다 = to sunbathe
반납하다 = to return something that one borrowed
설치하다 = to install, to equip
입양하다 = to adopt
변장하다 = to disguise
봐주다 = to let somebody off the hook
파산하다 = to go bankrupt
지정하다 = to designate

Adjectives:
지저분하다 = to be messy, untidy

 

 

Introduction

By now, you have been exposed to the particle ~도 and its function for a while. You are probably quite familiar with how it works, and the meaning it creates when it is added directly to a noun.

This particle was first introduced way back in Lesson 4. Since then, you have learned a ton of additional grammatical principles – each with their own special meaning and function.

The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize you with these grammatical principles when they are combined with ~도. Sometimes, the meaning that is created by combining ~도 with another grammatical principle is just the sum of their individual meanings. However, sometimes their meaning can be something that is a bit unexpected. Let’s get started.

Adding ~도 to Simple Grammatical Principles

~에도
By placing ~도 after the particle ~에, you can indicate that a location, in addition to another location, is a certain way. This is quite straight-forward, and the meaning can easily understood when sentences without ~도 are placed beside a sentence with ~도. For example:

식당 밖에 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people outside the restaurant
식당 밖에도 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people outside the restaurant as well

로션을 얼굴에 발라야 돼요 = You should put lotion on your face
로션을 얼굴에도 발라야 돼요 = You should put lotion on your face as well

놀이터에 아기들이 없어요 = The kids are not at the playground
놀이터에도 아기들이 없어요 = The kids are not at the playground either

태평양에 고래가 있어요 = There are whales in the Pacific Ocean
태평양에도 고래가 있어요 = There are whales in the Pacific Ocean as well

그 기능이 승용차에 설치돼 었어요 = That function is installed in the car
그 기능이 승용차에도 설치돼 었어요 = That function is installed in the car as well

 

~ㄹ 때도
In Lesson 42, you learned how to use ~ㄹ/을 때 to indicate a time that an action takes place For example:

여자 친구를 만날 때 그녀한테 키스를 할 거야 = When I meet my girlfriend, I’m going to kiss her

In this sentence, 때 acts as a noun that is being described by the previous clause. In other words, 여자 친구를 만날 describes 때. The construction “여자친구를 만날 때” could be translated to “the time in which I meet my girlfriend.”

By attaching ~도 to 때, their meanings are combined together to indicate that an action occurs at that time in addition to other times. The most common English translation for this is “even when.” For example:

그 여자가 일광욕을 할 때도 로션을 안 발라요
= Even when that girl is sunbathing she doesn’t put on any lotion

북한 사람들이 북한에서 탈출할 때도 잡혀서 죽을 가능성이 있어요
= It is possible for North Korean people to be captured and killed even when they are trying to escape the country

집에서 있을 때뿐만 아니라 한국 사람들은 외식할 때도 김치를 먹어요
= Not only when they are eating at home, but even when Korean people eat out for dinner they eat kimchi

때도 is often used twice in a sentence in order to indicate that there are times when one event occurs, and times where another event occurs. For example:

이길 때도 있고 질 때도 있어요
= Sometimes you win, sometimes you lose
(There will be some times where you will win, and there will be some times where you will lose)

 

 

~에게도 and ~한테도
By attaching ~도 to ~에게 or ~한테, their meanings are combined together to indicate that an action is happening to something in addition to other things. For example:

나는 그 사람에게 선물을 주었어 = I gave that person a present
나는 그 사람에게도 선물을 주었어 = I gave a present to that person as well

그런 일을 하는 것은 나한테도 어려워
= It is hard for even me to do that kind of work

한국경제가 발전하는 것은 캐나다 및 미국에게도 중요하다
= Improving the Korean economy is important to Canada as well as the United States

 

~에서도
By attaching ~도 to ~에서, their meanings are combined together to indicate that something is being done at a location in addition to other locations. For example:

물이 저 구멍에서도 나와요 = Water comes out from that hole as well
그 쿠폰을 VIPS에서도 쓸 수 있어요? = Can you use that coupon at VIPS as well?
인터넷을 집에서도 설치해야 돼요 = You have to install/set up the internet at home as well
병원에 사람이 너무 많아서 환자가 복도에서도 자고 있어요 = There are so many people at the hospital, so there are even patients sleeping in the hallway

 

 

~(으)로도
~(으)로 has many functions. Below are examples of ~도 being attached to ~(으)로 in some of its different usages. In all cases, you are simply combining the meanings of the two particles:

책을 기계로도 반납할 수 었어요
= You can also return the book using the machine

그 맛을 피망으로도 만들 수 있어요
= You can also create that taste using peppers

그 영화가 일본어로도 번역되었다
= That movie is also translated to Japanese

제주도가 신선한 공기로도 유명해요
= Jeju is also famous for its fresh air

우리가 피자를 점심으로도 먹었어요
= We also ate pizza for lunch

요즘에는 사람들이 컴퓨터로도 통화할 수 있어요
= These days, people can also talk over (using) computers

비상상태에서는 의자를 구명조끼로도 쓸 수 있다
= In an emergency situation, you can also use your seat as a life jacket

 

 

 

~(으)로부터도
Just by the nature of ~부터, ~도 isn’t added to it very often. For example, if you look at an example of a sentence with ~부터                   :

저는 공부를 내일부터 시작할 거예요 = I will start studying from tomorrow

Placing “도” after “부터” would just be nonsense:

저는 공부를 내일부터도 시작할 거예요 = I will start studying from tomorrow… as well … ?

This doesn’t make sense.

However, you can attach ~도 to ~(으)로부터 where one indicates from where something was received from. For example:

나는 할머니로부터도 돈을 받았어 = I also received money from grandma
그 정보를 제삼자로부터도 들었어요 = I also heard that information from a third party

 

 

~까지도
If you understand why ~도 can’t be attached to ~부터 as described above, you should have the same feeling about adding it to ~까지. For example, imagine the following sentence:

저는 내일 서울까지도 갈 거예요 = I will go to until Seoul … as well… ?

This doesn’t make sense.

I would like to take this opportunity to introduce you to another way that ~까지 can be used. This usage is technically the same as the one described way back in Lesson 12, however, it does not typically translate to “until.” Just to refresh, it is probably a piece of cake for you at this point to understand these types of sentences:

3시까지 기다릴 거예요 = I will wait until 3:00
그 여자를 지금까지 좋아했어요 = I liked that girl until now

저는 그 회사에서 5월까지 일할 거예요 = I will work at that company until May

~까지 can also be used to express the extent to which something happened. For example:

친구가 문어까지 먹었어요 = My friend even ate octopus

Imagine your friend came to Korea and tried a whole bunch of different Korean foods. You were impressed with this, and you were telling another friend how many different foods he ate while he was in Korea. You could say something like “친구가 잡채와 빈대떡과 김치찌개와 볶음밥과 문어를 먹었어요”. However, by just saying “문어까지”, in effect what you are saying is “he ate everything – and even went so far as to eat octopus!”

Notice the quite subtle difference with this sentence:

친구가 문어도 먹었어요 = My friend ate octopus as well

In this example, although the speaker is indicating that the friend ate some other food in addition to octopus, he/she is not stressing that there were many other foods that the friend may have eaten.

Here is another example:

나는 숙제까지 다 했어 = I even finished my homework

In this example, the speaker is indicating that he had many things to do. Not only did he finish the other tasks that needed to be done (like cleaning, doing the dishes, walking the dog, etc…), but even went as far as to finish his homework!

This usage can actually be added to other parts of the sentence as well. For example:

할머니까지 오셨어요 = Even grandma came (it went so far that even grandma came)

In this example, the speaker is indicating that many people came to some event… and it even went so far that the grandmother (who – by context – would be somebody who usually doesn’t come because of her age or something). But in this case, the speaker is stressing that “so many people came, even grandma, who never comes!”

While ~도 isn’t usually added to ~까지 when used as was taught back in Lesson 12, it is not uncommon to see ~도 added to ~까지 when it is used as described here. However, in this case, notice that both ~까지 and ~도 have very similar meanings. Doubling them up and creating ~까지도 adds even more emotion and emphasis indicating to what extent something occurs.

친구가 문어까지도 먹었어요 = My friend even ate octopus
나는 숙제까지도 다 했어 = I even finished my homework
할머니까지도 오셨어요 = Even grandma came too
제가 책상뿐만 아니라 장롱까지도 옮겼어요 = I didn’t just move the desk, but also the wardrobe

 

 Adding ~도 to More Complicated Grammatical Principles

~는지도
In Lesson 30, I introduced ~는지 and the purpose of attaching ~도 specifically to future tense conjugations. If you haven’t read that lesson yet, I suggest you review that lesson briefly before continuing.

In addition to the purpose discussed in Lesson 30, adding ~도 to ~는지 can stress that the uncertain clause is one of other things that are also uncertain. For example:

이것이 무엇인지 몰라요 = I don’t know what this is
이것이 무엇인지도 몰라요 = I don’t even know what this is

For example, imagine if somebody asked you:

“Do you know how to use this?”

You could respond with:

“I don’t even know what it is!”

When used in the future tense, it is possible that ~도 could have the meaning described in Lesson 30, or it is possible that it has the meaning being described here. The context of the situation will make it clear. For example:

엄마가 올지 모르겠어요 = I don’t know if mom will come
엄마가 올지도 모르겠어요 = I don’t know if mom will come
엄마가 올지도 모르겠어요 = I don’t even know if come will come

More examples:

불교가 무엇인지 몰라요 = I don’t know what Buddhism is
불교가 무엇인지도 몰라요 = I don’t even know what Buddhism is

문을 어떻게 열지 모르잖아! = You don’t know how to open the door!
문을 어떻게 열지도 모르잖아! = You don’t even know how to open the door!

그 개념이 무엇인지 잘 몰라요 = He doesn’t know what that concept is
그 개념이 무엇인지도 잘 몰라요 = He doesn’t even know what that concept is

설거지를 어떻게 제대로 하는지 몰라요 = I don’t know how to do the dishes properly
설거지를 어떻게 제대로 하는지도 몰라요 = I don’t even know how to do the dishes properly

사람들이 이런 음악을 왜 좋아하는지 모르겠어요 = I don’t know why people like this kind of music
사람들이 이런 음악을 왜 좋아하는지도 모르겠어요 = I don’t even know why people like this kind of music

 

~는데도
In Lessons 76 and 77, you learned how to use ~는데 in sentences. As you know from those lessons, the meaning of ~는데 is often hard to express in English – but the closest we can do (for one of the usages) is to say that the meaning is similar to ~지만, but not as strong; and it often provides background information for the upcoming clause.

~는데도 is very similar, but the addition of ~도 makes the “even though” feeling stronger than if it were just ~는데. Therefore, using ~는데도 is very similar to using ~지만 in a sentence. The common dictionary translation I’ve always remembered is “in spite of” or “despite,” but “although” or “even though” would also be acceptable. For example:

열심히 공부했는데도 시험에 떨어졌어요
= Despite studying very hard, I failed the exam

나쁜 짓을 했는데도 엄마가 왜 봐주는지 몰라요
= I did something bad, and despite that, I’m not sure why my mom let me off the hook

도마뱀이 변장을 했는데도 여우가 잡아 먹었어요
= Despite the lizard camouflaging itself, the fox still caught it

날씨가 추웠는데도 우리는 야외공연을 보러 갔어요
= Despite the cold weather, we went to see an outdoor performance

할아버지가 지팡이가 없었는데도 일어나셔서 전등을 켰어요
= Even though grandpa didn’t have his cane, he got up and turned on the light

제가 자꾸 그만하라고 했는데도 친구가 말을 계속 했어요
= Even though I kept telling him to stop, my friend kept talking

건강이 점점 나빠지는데도 그 가수가 계속 공연하고 싶대요
= In spite of her health deteriorating (going down), the singer said she wants to continue with the performance

 

~고도
In Lesson 17, you learned how to use ~고 in sentences. In this lesson, you learned that its general purpose is to indicate that one action happens after another. You can place ~도 after the particle ~고 to stress that even after the first action occurs, the second action occurs. For example:

제공되는 음식을 다 먹고 아직 배고프다고 했어요
= After eating all the provided food, he said he was still hungry

제공되는 음식을 다 먹고도 아직 배고프다고 했어요
= Even after eating all the provided food, he said he was still hungry

문을 완전히 열고 강아지가 들어오지 않았어요
= After opening the door, the dog didn’t come inside

문을 완전히 열고도 강아지가 들어오지 않았어요
= Even after opening the door, the dog didn’t come inside

손전등을 켜고 떨어진 동전을 못 찾았어요
= After turning on the flashlight, I couldn’t find the coin that dropped

손전등을 켜고도 떨어진 동전을 못 찾았어요
= Even after turning on the flashlight, I couldn’t find the coin that dropped

(Note that because of the situations, both the second examples above (the ones with ~고도) actually sound much more natural than the first examples)

Here’s a good example from the book I am currently reading (Hector and the Search For Happiness, in Korean):

그 모든 불행한 일을 겪고도 미소를 그렇게 자주 짓는 것은 어렵지 않아요
= Even after experiencing (going through) all that unhappiness, it is not difficult to smile often like that

 

 

~다가도
In Lesson 88, you learned that ~다가 can be used to indicate that one was doing an action while some other situation arises. For example:

공부를 하다가 그녀에 대한 생각이 났어요
= While I was studying, I thought about her

제가 집을 청소하다가 잃어버린 열쇠를 찾았어요
= While I was cleaning the house, I found the key that I lost

By placing ~도 after ~다가 you can indicate that a situation arises during one particular action in addition to other actions. This is often translated to “even while one was doing…” For example:

공부를 하다가도 그녀에 대한 생각이 났어요 = Even while I was studying, I thought about her

Here, the speaker is saying that he thinks about the girl a lot – while doing many different actions. Not only does he think about her when he is studying, but when doing other things as well. Let’s look at many more examples:

제가 울다가도 가끔 웃음이 나요
= Even when I cry I laugh sometimes

밥을 먹다가도 눈물이 났다
= Even while (when I am/was) eating, I cried

피자를 먹다가도 김치를 먹고 싶었어요
= Even while I was eating pizza, I wanted to eat kimchi

공부를 하다가도 그녀에 대한 생각이 났어요
= Even while I was studying, I thought about her

남자친구와 사귀다가도 다른 남자랑 데이트를 하고 싶었어요
= Even while she is going out with her boyfriend, she wants to go on dates with other guys

거미가 거미줄을 만들다가도 잠자리가 있는지를 확인할 수 있어요
= Even while making its web, a spider can still check if a dragonfly is present

In Lesson 88, you also learned that ~다가 can be used to express that somebody does an action after another action. You would think that adding ~도 to this would create a meaning similar to ~고도, which would have a meaning like ‘even after.’ However, adding ~도 to ~다가 does not have that meaning. Therefore, the following wouldn’t make sense:

저는 학교에 갔다가도 (or 가다가도) 친구 집에 갔어요
그 사람들이 아침에 왔다가도 (or 오다가도) 급히 갔어요

However, I don’t want to say that in all situations where the meaning of “~다가” is “one action happens after the other” that adding “~도” would be incorrect. For example, if we look back to this sentence:

학생은 열심히 공부하다가 잠이 들었어요 = The student studied hard and then fell asleep

I introduced that sentence in Lesson 88 as having the meaning of “the student studied hard and then fell asleep.” However, I also talked about the fact that this sentence could also have the meaning of “the student studied hard, and then while studying hard, fell asleep.” Because of this, adding ~도 to ~다가 in this situation would be acceptable. For example:

학생은 열심히 공부하다가 잠이 들었어요 = While studying hard, the student fell asleep
학생은 열심히 공부하다가도 잠이 들었어요 = Even while studying hard, the student fell asleep (the student was sleeping in many situation s, and even fell asleep when he was (trying) to study hard)

~면서도
In Lesson 62, you learned how to use ~(으)면서. Although ~(으)면서 is commonly used to indicate that two actions occur simultaneously, you learned that it can also be used when two clauses oppose each other. For example:

그 여자가 식당을 열고 싶다고 하면서 요리를 못해요
= That girl says she wants to open up a restaurant, but she doesn’t know how to cook

저의 와이프가 외국 브랜드를 좋아하면서 한국에서 만들어진 제품만 사요
= My wife likes foreign brands, but only buys products made in Korea

그 사람이 한국에서 살면서 한국어를 할 수 없어요
= That person lives in Korea, but he can’t speak Korean

You can attach ~도 to these types of sentences. For example:

그 여자가 식당을 열고 싶다고 하면서도 요리를 못해요
= That girl says she wants to open up a restaurant, but she doesn’t know how to cook

저의 와이프가 외국 브랜드를 좋아하면서도 한국에서 만들어진 제품만 사요
= My wife likes foreign brands, but only buys products made in Korea

그 사람이 한국에서 살면서도 한국어를 할 수 없어요
= That person lives in Korea, but he can’t speak Korean

Their respective meanings are very similar, Korean people will often tell you that their meanings feel the same. That being said, the use of ~도 makes me feel like saying “~(으)면서도 would be more stressed or emphasized.

 

 

Adding ~도 to Pseudo-Nouns:


In Lesson 85, you learned how to use 줄 to indicate a lapse of judgment in what you think. For example:

네가 간 줄 알았어 = I thought you went
네가 가고 있는 줄 알았어 = I thought you were going
네가 갈 줄 알았어 = I thought you would go

You can attach ~도 to 줄 to indicate that the fact you don’t know is just one of other facts that you also didn’t know. In order for the use of ~도 to be appropriate, there has to be some other facts (usually from context) that are being referred to as “the other things you don’t know.” I’d like to explain these situations with some simple examples:

부산으로 이사한 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know you moved to Busan

For example, if you are catching up with a friend and he is telling you about what he has been up to for the last little while. He tells you a bunch of things that you didn’t know, including that he moved to Busan. In this case, you can stress that you didn’t know all of these things, even the fact that he moved to Busan (which you should have known, because that is a big piece of news to not be aware of).

그 영화를 좋아하는 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know that you liked the movie

For example, if you walked into your friend’s house and you saw that he had a bunch of memorabilia from a movie (like posters and stuff like that). You could say this sentence to express that you didn’t even know that he liked it, let alone like it so much to go as far as buy all of this memorabilia.

그 회사가 파산한 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know that company went bankrupt

For example, if you are talking with your friend about a company, and your friend indicates that the company not only went bankrupt, but as a result of the bankruptcy the CEO fled to Japan and started the company again there. You could say this sentence to express that you didn’t even know that the company went bankrupt, let alone the other facts about the CEO fleeing to Japan and starting the company again.

상어가 떼를 지어 다니는 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know that sharks traveled in groups

For example, if you were talking about how sharks are often very good hunters as a group, you might be surprised to hear that they actually travel in groups in the first place.

I find it funny how different animals in English have different names for their “groups.” You can have a parliament of owls, a pride of lions and a murder of crows. Therefore, allow me to re-translate the sentence above:

상어가 떼를 지어 다니는 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know there was a such thing as a shiver of sharks

 

 


In Lesson 45 you learned how to describe 수 to indicate the ability (or inability) to do an action. When adding ~도 to 수, in this grammatical principle, the meaning that is created usually is not indicating that a person/thing can do something in addition to some other action. For example, if I were to say:

나는 축구를 할 수 있다

This translates to “I can play soccer”

However, by attaching ~도 to 수 in the following example:

나는 축구를 할 수도 있다

The meaning that is created is not “I can play soccer too.” Note that in order to express this meaning, the following should be done:

나는 축구도 할 수 있다

Instead, adding ~도 to 수 indicates that the action/situation in the previous clause is also possible. For example:

비가 올 수도 있다 = It is possible that it will/might rain

Note that a better translation might technically be “there is a possibility that it will rain.” However, I personally prefer the translation of “it is possible that…” when using 수도.

It is for this reason that the following is slightly unnatural:

비가 올 수 있다

This sentence would translate to something like “It can rain.”… but… what? What can rain? What has the ability to rain? It is more natural to talk about the possibility that it could rain. For this reason, it is more natural to say “비가 올 수도 있다.” To go back to the first example of “나는 축구를 할 수도 있다”. That sentence does make sense, but only in the situation when you are talking about the possibility of you playing soccer.

나는 내일 축구를 할 수도 있다 = It is possible that I can play soccer tomorrow

The purpose of ~도 is to indicate that there are other possibilities. I could play soccer tomorrow. I might play soccer tomorrow. There might be other things that I might do, and one of them could be soccer.

Likewise, look at this sentence:

계획이 변할 수도 있어요 = It’s possible that the plans can change

The plans could change. They might change. It’s possible that they could change, but it is also possible that they won’t change.

Below are many more examples:

친구가 올 수도 있어요
= It’s possible that my friend can come

계획이 변할 수도 있어요
= It’s possible that the plans can change

일이 내일까지 끝날 수도 있어요
= It’s possible that we could finish the work by tomorrow

임신이 안 되면 애기를 입양할 수도 있어요
= If you can’t get pregnant, you could always adopt

물건을 훔칠 때 주변에 아무도 없어도 카메라가 얼굴을 인식해서 잡힐 수도 있어요
= When you steal something, even if there is nobody there, you can get caught by a camera recognizing your face

교장선생님이 그 선생님을 국제부 부장으로 지정할 수도 있어요
= It’s possible that the principal will designate that teacher as the head of the international department

When using 수도 followed by 없다 instead of 있다, the meaning expressed is very similar to not including ~도 at all. The only difference is that the speaker is stressing that he can’t do something. The best way to translate this to English is to add the word “even” to the sentence. For example:

나는 축구를 할 수도 없어
= I can’t even play soccer

방이 너무 지저분해서 움직일 수도 없어요
= You can’t even move because her room is so messy

Two common words that this is used with just by the nature of the words themselves are:

생각하다:
선생님이 되지 않은 것을 생각할 수도 없어요
= I can’t even think about not being a teacher

그 일자리에 지원하는 것을 생각할 수도 없어요
= I can’t even think about applying for that job

상상하다:
아내랑 이혼하는 것을 상상할 수도 없어요
= I can’t even imagine divorcing my wife

그렇게 많은 돈을 가지고 있는 것을 상상할 수도 없어요
= I can’t even imagine having that much money

That’s it for this lesson!

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Okay, that was a lot of stuff, but take me to the next lesson!

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