Lesson 71: To include (포함하다), to exclude (제외하다)

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Vocabulary
Introduction

To Include: 포함하다
To exclude: 제외하다
In addition to: 외에

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
문신 = tattoo
나비 = butterfly
낙타 = camel
사슴 = deer
돌고래 = dolphin
= dirt/mud
하체 = lower body
상체 = upper body
조명 = lighting
포도주 = wine
양주 = hard liquor
회원권 = membership
마약 = drug
구급차 = ambulance
월세 = monthly rent
가스비 = gas bill (at one’s home)
비용 = fee, charge

Verbs:
제외하다 = to exclude (except)
때리다 = to hit, to beat
양보하다 = to yield

Adjectives:
평평하다 = to be flat
이르다 = to be early, to be premature

Adverbs and Other Words:
외에 = in addition to

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn about two opposite words that are very common in Korean. You will learn how to use 포함하다 to include something, and how to use 제외하다 to exclude something. Let’s get started.

 

 

To Include: 포함하다

Just like most verbs, “포함하다” can be placed at the end of a sentence. When used like this, 포함하다 indicates that something “includes” something. For example:

이 뷔페가격은 포도주를 포함해요 = This buffet price includes wine

This sentence is understandable in Korean, but it usually sounds more natural to use 포함되다 to indicate that something “is included.” Of course, if you use 포함되다, it cannot act on an object because it is a passive verb. Therefore, ~이/가 should be included on the noun that is “included.” For example:

이 뷔페가격은 포도주가 포함돼요 = This buffet price includes wine
나의 월세는 가스비가 포함된다 = My rent includes the gas (bill)
이 조명 가격은 세금이 포함돼요 = The price of these lights includes tax
이 회원권 가격은 일대일 트레이닝이 포함돼요 = This membership price includes one-on-one training

It would also be natural to attach ~아/어 있다 (introduced in Lesson 14) to these passive sentences. For example:

이 뷔페가격은 포도주가 포함되어 있어요
나의 월세는 가스비가 포함되어 있어
이 조명 가격은 세금이 포함되어 있어요
이 회원권 가격은 일대일 트레이닝이 포함되어 있어요

Although 포함하다 and 포함되다 can be used at the end of a sentence like this, it is often used in the middle of a sentence (at the end of a clause) to indicate what is included in a situation. You learned about the ~아/어(서) in the previous lesson and how they can be used to connect two clauses. You can attach ~아/어 to 포함하다 in sentences where you want to indicate what is included. For example:

저를 포함해(서)… = including me…
저의 친구를 포함해(서)…  = including my friend…
세금을 포함해(서)… = including tax

These constructions can then be placed in sentences where you want to include these nouns in a situation. For example:

저를 포함해 여기에 네 명이 있어요
= Including me, there are four people here

세금을 포함해 이 집은 20만 원입니다
= Including taxes, this house is 20만원

저의 친구를 포함해 열 명이 같이 여행할 거예요
= Including my friend, ten people will go travel together

구급차 비용을 포함해 치료비가 100만 원이었어요
= Including the ambulance fee, the treatment (fee) was 100만원

다리에 있는 문신을 포함해서 저는 문신 네 개가 있어요
= Including the tattoo on my leg, I have four tattoos

In Lesson 43, you learned about ~(으)면. Instead of using ~아/어(서), it is possible to attach ~(으)면 to 포함하다. This would more appropriately translate to “if …,” but the result of the sentences would be the same. For example:

저를 포함하면 여기에 네 명이 있어요
= If you include me, there are four people here

세금을 포함하면 이 집은 20만 원입니다
= If you include taxes, this house is 20만원

저의 친구를 포함하면 열 명이 같이 여행할 거예요
= If you include my friend, ten people will go travel together

구급차 비용을 포함하면 치료비가 100만 원이었어요
= If you include the ambulance fee, the treatment (fee) was 100만원

다리에 있는 문신을 포함하면 저는 문신 네 개가 있어요
= If you include the tattoo on my leg, I have four tattoos

Now that you know how to include something in sentences, let’s learn how to exclude something.

 

To exclude: 제외하다

Just like “포함하다,” and many other verbs, the verb “제외하다” can be placed at the end of a sentence. For example:

나쁜 성적 때문에 선생님은 그 학생을 여행에서 제외했어요
= The teacher excluded the student from the trip because of his bad grades

It can also be used in the passive voice as well:

나쁜 성적 때문에 학생은 여행에서 제외되었어요
= The student was excluded from the trip because of his bad grades

Like the word “포함하다,” 제외하다 is often used in the middle of a sentence (at the end of a clause) to indicate what is (or isn’t) excluded in a situation. To create this meaning, you can place “제외하고 OR 제외한” after the noun you want to exclude. For example:

저의 어머니를 포함해(서)… = Including my mother
저의 어머니를 제외한… = Excluding/except for my mother
저의 어머니를 제외하고… = Excluding/except for my mother

Note that while ~아/어(서) is used with 포함하다 (to make 포함해(서)) to indicate what is included, it is not added to 제외하다 to indicate what is excluded. If this was done, it would be understandable, but strange.

Conversely, while adding ~ㄴ, or ~고 to 제외하다 (to make 제외한 or 제외하고) is natural, it would sound slightly unnatural to attach either of these to 포함하다.

These constructions can then go in sentences where appropriate, for example:

나비를 제외한 모든 동물이 싫어요
나비를 제외하고 모든 동물이 싫어요
= Except for butterflies, I don’t like any/all animals

하체를 제외한 온몸을 운동했어요
하체를 제외하고 온몸을 운동했어요
= Except for my lower body (legs), I exercised my whole body

열 명을 제외한 사람들이 다 죽었어요
열 명을 제외하고 사람들이 다 죽었어요
= Except for ten people, everybody died

저는 축구를 제외한 모든 스포츠가 좋아요
저는 축구를 제외하고 모든 스포츠가 좋아요
= I like all sports except for soccer

Notice the grammatical principles that are being used in the sentences above with 제외한 and 제외하고. When using “제외하고” the sentences are essentially split into two clauses – and you could see them as two separate sentences. For example:

열 명을 제외하고 = Except for 10 people
사람들이 다 죽었어요 = Everybody died

However, when “제외한” is used, it is (through the use of the ~는 것 principle) describing the upcoming noun. Just like any other noun being described by a preceding clause using ~는 것, we can dissect the descriptive clause. For example, here is a regular sentence with the noun “학생” not being described by anything special:

학생들은 수업을 듣고 싶지 않아 = The students don’t want to come to class

As you learned in Lesson 26, you can describe “학생” with verbs. For example:

내가 가르치는 학생들 = Students that I teach

And now this can be put in the sentence. For example:

내가 가르치는 학생들은 수업을 듣고 싶지 않아
= The students that I teach don’t want to come to class

In this same way, 제외하다 describes a noun. For example, here is a regular sentence with the noun “사람” not being described by anything special:

사람들이 다 죽었어요 = Everybody died

With the same grammar that you learned in Lesson 26, you can describe “사람” with 제외하다. For example:

열 명을 제외한 사람들

This is difficult to translate to English because it isn’t a full sentence. However, just like our example from above (내가 가르치는 학생들 = the students that I teach) we have a noun being described by a preceding clause. This is hard for an English speaker to wrap their head around, but try to understand that the underlined section of the sentence below is describing the noun “사람.”

열 명을 제외한 사람들이 다 죽었어요 = Except for ten people, everybody died

You don’t really need to worry about this. However, it’s good practice to connect the dots with the grammatical principles in your head.

Now, if the noun that is being described by “제외한” is also being described by another verb, it is better to use “제외하고.” For example, if the sentence above said:

열 명을 제외한 공장에서 일한 사람들이 다 죽었어요

Notice how far the descriptive word (제외한) and the noun (사람들) are from each other. Because there is another clause that is also describing the noun in the sentence (“그 공장에서 일한”), we essentially have two verbs describing the same noun – and this sounds weird in Korean. In these cases, although both sentences would be understood, it would be more natural to connect 제외하다 with the other descriptive clause using ~고 instead of using “제외한.” For example:

열 명을 제외하 그 공장에서 일한 사람들이 다 죽었어요
= Except for ten people, everybody working at that factory died

In essence, what you are doing is changing the noun so it is only being described by one (longer) clause. In this case, our noun is being described by the underlined portion in the following example:

열 명을 제외하고 그 공장에서 일한 사람들이 다 죽었어요
= Except for ten people, everybody working at that factory died

When you want to exclude an adverb (in these cases, usually a place, time, day, month, etc…) it is usually more natural to use 제외하고 and not 제외한. For example:

일요일을 제외하고 저는 매일 일해요
= Except for Sunday, I work every day

다음 달을 제외하고 저는 올해 내내 한국에서 있을 거예요
= Except for next month, I will be in Korea for the entire year

Below are other examples of 제외하다 in use.

포도주를 제외하고 저는 이제부터 술을 안 마실 거예요
= Except for wine, I will not drink alcohol starting from now

저는 저의 어머니를 제외하고 모든 여자들을 싫어합니다
= Except for my mother, I don’t like all women

구급차를 제외하고 차가 이 길에서 운전하는 것이 불법이에요
= Except for ambulances/emergency cards, it is illegal for a car to drive on this road

시간이 너무 일러서 경비아저씨를 제외하고 밖에 아무도 없어요
= It is too early, so except for the security guard there is nobody outside

어린이를 제외하고 저는 버스에서 자리를 아무에게도 양보하지 않아요
= Except for children, I don’t yield (give) my seat to anybody on the bus

돌고래를 보러 가는 이유를 제외하고 동물원에 가고 싶은 이유가 없어요
= Except for (the reason of) going to see the dolphins, I don’t have a reason to go to the zoo

“빼다” (which literally translates to “to take out”) is often used instead of 제외하다 in these types of sentences. For example:

나비를 빼고 모든 동물이 싫어요
하체를 빼고 온몸을 운동했어요
열 명을 빼고 사람들이 다 죽었어요
저는 축구를 빼고 모든 스포츠가 좋아요
일요일을 빼고 저는 매일 일해요
열 명 빼고 그 공장에서 일한 사람들이 다 죽었어요
포도주를 빼고 저는 이제부터 술을 안 마실 거예요
저는 저의 어머니를 빼고 모든 여자들을 싫어합니다
구급차를 빼고 차가 이 길에서 운전하는 것이 불법이에요
시간이 너무 일러서 경비아저씨를 빼고 밖에 아무도 없어요
어린이를 빼고 저는 버스에서 자리를 아무에게도 양보하지 않아요
돌고래를 보러 가는 이유를 빼고 동물원에 가고 싶은 이유가 없어요

Using 빼다 is a common way to order something and request that something not be included. For example, if you ordered 김밥 in Korea and didn’t want any ham in it, you could say:

햄을 빼고 주세요 = Please hold the ham

The particle ~을/를 is often omitted in speech in these types of sentences. For example:

햄 빼고 주세요 = Please hold the ham

These types of requests are often shorted even further by removing “주세요” and by just telling the person what they don’t want using “빼고.” For example:

햄 빼고요! = No ham (please)

Other examples:

설탕 빼고요 = Please hold the sugar
커피에 우유 빼고요 = Please don’t put milk in my coffee
음료수에 얼음 빼고 주세요 = Please don’t put ice in my drink
햄버거 한 개 주세요. 양파 빼고요 = One hamburger please. And hold the onions.

As with 포함하다, it is also possible to attach ~(으)면 (Lesson 43) to 제외하다. This literally just translates the sentence into “if you exclude.” For example:

저를 제외한다면 모든 사람들이 갈 거예요 = If you exclude me, everybody is going

Though I have covered everything I would like to cover regarding 제외하다 and 포함하다, there is one more word I would like to talk about before finishing this lesson.

 

Outside of: 외에

The word “외” could be talked about in another lesson, but I felt this lesson would be fitting because of the similarities with how the words 제외하다 and 포함하다 are used. I’m not sure if you have been brushing up on your Hanja (Chinese characters), but the character 외 in Hanja is . This character means “outside” and is used in a lot of Korean words.

Early in a sentence (or referred from another sentence) some noun will be mentioned. Placing 외에 after that noun creates the meaning of “outside of (that noun)” or “other than (that noun).” For example:

그 선생님 외에… = outside of that teacher (other than that teacher)…
그 여자 외에… = outside of that girl (other than that girl)…

When something is being referred to from another sentence, it is very common to use “그” before 외에. For example:

그 외에… = outside of that (other than that)

I spent a few minutes trying to figure out if the meaning of this was more similar to 제외하다 or 포함하다. Are we excluding something here? Or are we including something here?

The answer in my mind is; neither. We’re not including or excluding anything. 외에 allows the speaker to talk about all other things outside of what was mentioned before, regardless of if it was included or excluded (as per the rest of the sentence). You could find a natural way to translate “외에” to “in addition to” or “except for” depending on the situation. For example:

저는 음식 외에 홍삼도 샀어요 = I bought food in addition to Ginseng

This would be better translated to:

저는 음식 외에 홍삼도 샀어요 = Other than food, I also bought Ginseng

Below are more examples:

그 외에 다른 것이 필요해요?
= Outside of that, do you need something else?

조명 외에 또 고쳐야 되는 것이 있나요?
= Other than the lighting, is there anything else that needs to be fixed?

그 선생님 외에 이 일을 할 수 있는 사람이 없어요
= Outside of that teacher, there is nobody who can do this job

한국 사람들과 얘기하는 것 외에 저는 다른 공부를 하지 않았어요
= Outside of speaking with Korean people, I didn’t do any other studying

때리는 것 외에 남편이 다른 이상한 행동을 했어요?
= Outside of hitting you, did your husband do anything else strange?

That’s it for this lesson!

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