Lesson 85: To know, to not know (~ㄹ/을/ㄴ/은 줄 알다/모르다), As you know (~알다시피)

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Vocabulary
Introduction

To know (how to): ~ㄹ/을 줄 알다
As you know: ~알다시피

 

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
풀 = grass
단식 = a singles match (in sports)
주거 = place of living, dwelling, residence
야심 = ambitions, aspirations
각도 = angle
수납 = storage
수납장 = closet
청년 = young people
징역 = prison
실권 = power
겉보기 = outward appearance

Verbs:
베다 = to cut
데우다 = to heat up
욕하다 = to swear, to insult
단식하다 = to fast
남모르다 = for something to be secret or unknown to people

Passive verbs:
베이다 = to be cut

Adjectives:
과하다 = to be excessive
분명하다 = to be clear, to be for definite
미지근하다 = to be lukewarm

Adverbs and Other Words:
아마 = probably
한층 = much more
남몰래 = secretly
온종일 = all day

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn two grammatical principles that can are commonly used with the verb 알다 (to know). First, you will learn about ~ㄹ/을 줄 알다, and second you will learn about ~다시피. Let’s get started.

 

To know (how to): ~/알다

By placing ~ㄹ/을 줄 알다 after a verb, you can indicate that one “knows how” to do that action. For example:

각도를 잴 줄 알아요 = I know how to measure the angle
김밥을 만들 줄 알아요 = I know how to make 김밥
한국말로 욕을 할 줄 알아요 = I know how to swear in Korean
저는 그것을 할 줄 알아요 = I know how to do that

It is common to use this type of sentence as a question to ask if one “knows how” to do an action. For example:

각도를 잴 줄 알아요? = Do you know how to measure the angle?
김밥을 만들 줄 알아요? = Do you know how to make 김밥?
한국말로 욕을 할 줄 알아요? = Do you know how to swear in Korean?
그것을 할 줄 알아요? = Do you know how to do that?

“줄” is one of these special nouns like “수” in ~ㄹ/을 수 있다 and “적” in ~ㄴ/은 적이 있다 that can only be described by something in the ~는 것 form.

You can also use the word “모르다” (to not know) instead of “알다” to state that one “does not know how” to do an action. For example:

각도를 잴 줄 몰라요 = I don’t know how to measure the angle
김밥을 만들 줄 몰라요 = I don’t know how to make 김밥
한국말로 욕을 할 줄 몰라요 = I don’t know how to swear in Korean
저는 그것을 할 줄 몰라요 = I don’t know how to do that

It is also possible to use “모르다” to create a question. For example:

각도를 잴 줄 몰라요? = You don’t know how to measure the angle
김밥을 만들 줄 몰라요? = You don’t know how to make 김밥?
한국말로 욕을 할 줄 몰라요? = You don’t know how to swear in Korean?
그것을 할 줄 몰라요? = You don’t know how to do that?

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There is another meaning that can be created by describing 줄. When creating this meaning, it is possible for the word describing 줄 to be in the past, present, or future tense.

When used this way, the speaker is stating that that he/she just realized something is not true – but because of some lapse in judgment, originally thought that it was true. It is hard to describe with words, so I will describe an example from my real life.

One day, I went to buy some 김밥 worth 2,000 won. When I paid the lady, she gave me a weird look. She looked at me and said something like “aren’t you going to give me more money?” After a minute of confusion, she looked down and said:

아~ 미안해요~ 천원만 준 줄 알았어요 = Oh, sorry, I thought you only gave me 1,000 won
(Notice that 주다 is describing in the past tense using ~ㄴ/은)

Another example would be if I was talking to somebody in my school using the low respect form of speech. Afterwards, I realize that the person that I am speaking to is not a student but is actually a teacher (which could actually happen in Korea because some people look really young). In this scenario, I could say:

미안해요~ 학생인 줄 알았어요 = Sorry, I thought you were a student
(Notice that 이다 is describing in the present tense using ~ㄴ/은)
(Also remember that the rules of describing a noun are different for verbs and adjectives/
이다.)

Notice that the English translation for the sentence above could be the same as a quoted sentence using 생각하다. For example:

학생이라고 생각했어요 = I thought you were a student

In order for you to understand the purpose of “줄,” let’s talk about the difference between:

학생인 줄 알았어요 = I thought you were a student
학생이라고 생각했어요 = I thought you were a student

The difference between the two is that ~ㄹ/을 줄 알다 implies that there was a lapse in judgment that caused the speaker to make a mistake. Whereas “~ㄴ/다고” just expresses that the speaker thought something. For example:

그녀가 예쁘다고 생각했어요 = I thought she was pretty
This would be used if your opinion was that the girl is actually pretty.

그녀가 예쁜 줄 알았어요 = (Oh,) I thought she was pretty
This would be used if you originally thought the girl was pretty, but because of some lapse in judgment (maybe you saw her from far away and couldn’t see her very well). However, when you get new information (maybe you saw her close up, or your friends told you that she is not pretty), you now realize that she actually isn’t pretty.

Depending on when the action that was mistaken occurs, it is possible to describe “줄” in the past, present or future tense. For example:

아버지가 저에게 돈을 준 줄 알았어요 = I thought that dad gave me money
The speaker, for some reason, had a lapse in judgment and mistakenly thought that his dad gave him money

아빠가 저에게 돈을 주는 줄 알았어요 = I thought that dad is/was giving me money
The speaker, for some reason, had a lapse in judgment and mistakenly thought that his dad is giving him money

아빠가 저에게 돈을 줄 줄 알았어요 = I thought that dad will give me money
The speaker, for some reason, had a lapse in judgment and mistakenly thought that his dad will give him money

Below are many examples where 줄 is being described in the past tense:

저한테 욕한 줄 알았어요  = I thought you swore at me
아빠가 풀을 이미 벤 줄 알았어요 = I thought dad already cut the grass
저의 손가락이 그 칼에 베인 줄 알았어요 = I thought my finger got cut by the knife
물이 미지근해서 아빠가 물을 데운 줄 알았어요 = I thought dad heated up the water cause it was lukewarm
그 남자가 남몰래 바람을 피우고 와이프와 이혼한 줄 알았어요 = I thought that man got a divorce with his wife because he had an affair without anybody knowing

Below are many examples where 줄 is being described in the present tense:

그 사람들이 온종일 단식하는 줄 알았어요
= I thought those people fasted all day

그 선수가 단식 테니스만 잘하는 줄 알았어요
= I thought that player was only good at singles tennis

캐나다에서 영국 왕비가 실권을 쥐는 줄 알았어요
= I thought the Queen of England held all the power in Canada

그 선물을 겉보기로만 봐서 나쁜 선물인 줄 알았어요
= By only looking at the outside appearance, I thought you got me a bad present

그 청년이 야심이 많은 줄 알았는데 어떻게 5년 동안 징역을 살았어요?
= I thought that boy had lots of aspirations, how could he have been in prison for five years?

The English translations of the verb seem to be more natural when translated into the past tense. However, in the above examples, realize that is being described by something in the present tense.

Below are many examples where 줄 is being described in the future tense:

내가 죽을 줄 알았어 = I thought I was going to die
우리가 내일 갈 줄 알았어 = I thought we were going tomorrow
나한테 돈을 줄 줄 알았어 = I thought you were going to give me money
옷을 수납장에 넣을 줄 알았어요 = I thought you would put the clothes in the closet

민지가 미국 대학교에 갈 줄 알았어
= I thought 민지 would be going to an American university

우리에게 남모르는 비밀을 말할 줄 알았어요
= I thought you were going to tell us some secret that nobody knows

여자 친구에게 과하게 욕을 해서 분명히 헤어질 줄 알았어요
= I thought for sure that your girlfriend would break up with you for swearing at her too much

저번 훈련을 통해 그 선수의 실력이 한층 더 좋아질 줄 알았어요
= I thought that athlete’s ability would be much better because of the training last time

The speaker can use 모르다 in place of 알다 to indicate that something is true – but because of some lapse in judgment, he/she originally thought that it wasn’t true. For example, look at the difference between using 모르다 and 알다 in the following examples:

그녀가 예쁜 줄 알았어요 = I thought she was pretty
This would be used if you originally thought the girl was pretty, but because of some lapse in judgment (maybe you saw her from far away and couldn’t see her very well). However, when you get new information (maybe you saw her close up, or your friends told you that she is not pretty), you now realize that she actually isn’t pretty.

그녀가 예쁜 줄 몰랐어요 = I didn’t know she was pretty
This would be used if you originally thought the girl wasn’t pretty, but because of some lapse in judgment (maybe you saw her from far away and couldn’t see her very well). However, when you get new information (maybe you saw her close up, or your friends told you that she is pretty), you now realize that she actually is pretty.

Other examples:

거기가 비싼 줄 몰랐어요 = I didn’t know it was expensive there
Originally you didn’t know it was expensive there, but you realized that you were wrong – and it is actually expensive there

그 핸드폰이 좋은 줄 몰랐어요 = I didn’t know that cell-phone was good
Originally you didn’t know that cell phone was good, but you realized that you were wrong – and it actually is good

네가 가고 싶지 않다고 한 줄 몰랐어 = I didn’t know you said you didn’t wanted to go This is a confusing example, but it could still be used. Originally you didn’t know that he/she said she didn’t want to go – but now you realize that she said she didn’t want to go])

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Referring to a Listener’s Perception: ~다시피

~다시피 can be used to refer to a listener’s perceptions. Technically the thing that connects to the word is “~다시피.” The “다” is not part of the stem of the word, but actually part of the grammatical principle itself.

~다시피 is most commonly added to 알다 to refer to what the listener knows. For example:

너도 알다시피… = As you know…
선생님도 알다시피… = As you (teacher) know…

As you can see, ~ is commonly added to the person. In addition to the speaker, the listener “also” knows.

In times when the listener deserves a high amount of respect, it is common to also include the formal ~(으)시, which you learned in Lesson 39. For example:

선생님도 아시다시피… = As you (teacher) know…
부장님도 아시다시피… = As you (boss) know…

~다시피 is often added to 보다 to refer to what the listener sees. For example:

너도 보다시피… = As you (can) see…
선생님도 보시다시피… = As you (teacher) (can) see…
부장님도 보시다시피… = As you (boss) (can) see…

You can use these constructions to refer to what the listener knows or is looking at in sentences. For example:

부장님도 아시다시피 저는 내일 출장을 가야 돼요
= As you know, I have to go on a business trip tomorrow

너도 알다시피 나는 돈이 없어서 그것을 못 사
= As you know, I have no money, so I can’t buy that

너도 보다시피 우리 집 상황이 매우 안 좋아
= As you can see, the situation of our house is really not good

선생님도 보시다시피 제 가방에 아무것도 없어요
= As you can see, there is nothing in my bag

That’s it for this lesson!

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