Lesson 107: ~도 Revisited

Click here for a Workbook to go along with this lesson.

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Adding ~도 to Simple Grammatical Principles
~에도
~ㄹ 때도
~에게도 and ~한테도
~에서도
~(으)로도
~부터도
~까지도

Adding ~도 to More Complicated Grammatical Principles
~는지도
~는데도
~고도
~다가도
~면서도

Adding ~도 to Pseudo-Nouns:
~ㄹ/을 줄 모르다
~ㄹ/을 수도 있다

 

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
태평양 = the Pacific Ocean
장롱 = wardrobe (Korean style closet)
피망 = bell pepper
개념 = concept, idea
제삼자 = a third party
승용차 = passenger car
잠자리 = dragonfly
거미줄 = spider web
지팡이 = walking stick, cane
문어 = octopus
전등 = lamp, light
손전등 = flashlight
인공 = artificial
떼 = some crowd or “school” of things
폭력 = violence
동전 = coin

Verbs:
인식하다 = to recognize
일광욕하다 = to sunbathe
반납하다 = to return something that you have borrowed (ex. Library books)
설치하다 = to install, to equip
맺다 = to enter into an agreement
암살하다 = to assassinate
입양하다 = to adopt
변장하다 = to disguise
봐주다 = to let somebody off the hook
파산하다 = to go bankrupt
지정하다 = to designate
비명을 지르다 = to scream, to screech
횡단하다 = to cross

Adverbs and Other Words:
인공적으로 = artificially

 

 

 

Introduction

By now, you have been exposed to the particle ~도 and it’s usage/function for a while. You are probably quite familiar with how it works, and the meaning it creates when it is added directly to a noun. This particle was first introduced all the way back in Lesson 4. Since then, you have learned a ton of additional grammatical principles – each with their own special meaning and function.
The purpose of this lesson is to familiarize you with these grammatical principles when they are combined with ~도. Sometimes, the meaning that is created by combining ~도 with another grammatical principle is just the sum of their individual meanings. However, sometimes their meaning can be slightly – or very – different. Let’s get started.

 

 

Adding ~도 to Simple Grammatical Principles

~에도
By placing “~도” after the particle “~에”, you can indicate that a location (in addition to another location) is a certain way. This is quite straight-forward, and doesn’t require much thought. This is best understood when sentences without “~에도” are placed beside a sentence with “~에도”. Some examples:

식당 밖에 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people outside the restaurant
식당 밖에도 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people outside the restaurant as well

로션을 얼굴에 발라야 돼요 = You should put lotion on your face
로션을 얼굴에도 발라야 돼요 = You should also put lotion on your face

놀이터에 아기들이 없어요 = The kids aren’t in/at the playground
놀이터에도 아기들이 없어요 = The kids aren’t in/at the playground either

태평양에 고래가 있어요 = There are whales in the Pacific Ocean
태평양에도 고래가 있어요 = There are also whales in the Pacific Ocean

 

 

 

~ㄹ 때도
This is another “~도” combination that is very straight-forward. This one is so simple I even thought about not including it in this lesson. As you know, “때” acts as a noun that refers to a time that something occurred. For example:

여자친구를 만날 때 그녀한테 키스를 할 거야 = When I meet my girlfriend, I’m going to kiss her

The word “때” is a noun that is being described by the previous clause “여자친구를 만날.” The construction “여자친구를 만날 때” could also be translated to “the time in which I meet my girlfriend” (although it sounds a little bit unnatural in English when written like that).
Anyways, by attaching “~도” to “때”, you are indicating that something occurs at that time in addition to some other time as well.

The most common English translation for this is “even when.” Some examples:

북한 사람들이 북한에서 탈출할 때도 잡혀서 죽을 가능성이 있어요
= It is possible for North Korean people to be captured and killed even when they are trying to escape the country

집에서 있을 때뿐만 아니라 한국 사람들은 외식할 때도 김치를 먹어요
= Not only when they are eating at home, but even when Korean people eat out for dinner they eat kimchi

그 여자가 일광욕을 할 때도 로션을 안 발라요
= Even when that girl is sunbathing she doesn’t put on any lotion

It can also be used to express that there will also be time where something will happen. For example:

이길 때도 있고 질 때도 있어요
= Sometimes you win, sometimes you lose (There will be some times where you will win, and there will be some times where you will lose)

 

 

 

 

~에게도 and ~한테도
By placing “도” after the common particles “에게” or “한테”, you simply create the meaning that something is done to something in addition to being done to other things. For example:

나는 그 사람에게 선물을 주었어 = I gave that person a present
나는 그 사람에게도 선물을 주었어 = I also gave a present to that person

그런 일을 하는 것은 나한테도 어려워 = It is hard for even me to do that kind of work
한국경제가 발전하는 것은 캐나다 및 미국에게도 중요하다 = Improving the Korean economy is important to Canada as well as the United states

 

~에서도
Much like the other examples given in this lesson, by attaching “~도” to “에서”, their meanings are combined together in the sentence. By using “에서도” the speaker can express that something is being done at a location in addition to other locations. For example:

그 쿠폰을 VIPS에서도 쓸 수 있어요? = Can you use that coupon at VIPS too?
물이 저 구멍에서도 나와요 = Water comes out from that hole, too
인터넷을 집에서도 설치해야 돼요 = You have to install/set up the internet at home too
병원에 사람이 너무 많아서 환자가 복도에서도 자고 있어요 = There are so many people at the hospital, so there are even patients sleeping in the hallway

 

 

 

 

~(으)로도
As you know, “(으)로” has many meanings. Below are examples of “~도” being attached to “~(으)로” in some of its different usages. In all cases, you are simply combining the meanings of the two particles:

제주도가 신선한 공기로도 유명해요 = Jeju is also famous for its fresh air
그 영화가 일본어로도 번역되었다 = That movie was also translated to Japanese
요즘에는 사람들이 컴퓨터로도 통화할 수 있어요 = These days, people can also talk over (using) computers
우리가 피자를 점심으로도 먹었어요 = We also ate pizza for lunch
비상상태에서는 의자를 구명조끼로도 쓸 수 있다 = In an emergency situation, you can also use your seat as a life jacket

 

 

 

 

~부터도
Just by the nature of the meaning of “부터”, ~도 isn’t added to it very often. If you look at an example of a sentence with “부터”:

저는 공부를 내일부터 시작할 거예요 = I will start studying from tomorrow

Placing “도” after “부터” would just be nonsense:
저는 공부를 내일부터도 시작할 거예요 = I will start studying from tomorrow… as well … ?
Doesn’t make sense.

The only time it is really used with “부터” is when it is used with “(으)로부터” – where it has the meaning of “receiving” something from a person. For example:
나는 할머니로부터도 돈을 받았어= I also received money from grandma

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~까지도
The idea of why “~도” can’t be attached to 부터 is the same as why it can’t be added to ~까지. It just doesn’t make sense. For example:

저는 내일 서울까지도 갈 거예요 = I will go to until Seoul … as well… ?

Again, doesn’t make sense.

However, although you are aware of this usage of “까지” (typically meaning “until), there is another usage that I haven’ really mentioned yet in my lessons. This usage is technically has same as the usage described way back in Lesson 12, however, it does not typically translate to “until”. Just to refresh, it is probably a piece of cake for you at this point to understand these types of sentences:

3시까지 기다릴 거예요 = I will wait until 3:00
그 여자를 지금까지 좋아했어요 = I liked that girl until now
저는 그 회사에서 5월까지 일할 거예요 = I will work at that company until May

~까지 can also be used to express the extent to which something happened. This is another case of a grammatical principle that is hard to describe with words. If we look at the following example:

친구가 문어까지 먹었어요 = My friend even ate octopus
Imagine your friend came to Korea and tried a whole bunch of different Korean foods. You were impressed with this, and you were telling another friend how many different foods he ate while he was in Korea. You could say something like “친구가 잡채와 빈대떡과 김치찌개와 볶음밥과 문어를 먹었어요”. However, by just saying “문어까지”, in effect what you are saying is “he ate everything – and even went so far as to eat octopus.”

Notice the quite subtle difference with this sentence:

친구가 문어도 먹었어요 = My friend ate octopus as well
In this example, although the speaker is indicating that the friend ate some other food in addition to octopus, he/she is not stressing that there were many other foods that the friend may have eaten.

Another example:

나는 숙제까지 다 했어 = I even finished my homework
In this example, the speaker is indicating that he had many things to do. The sentence above indicates that, not only did he/she finish the other tasks that needed to be done (maybe like cleaning, doing the dishes, walking the dog, etc…), but even went as far as to finish her homework.

This usage can actually be added to other parts of the sentence as well. For example:
할머니까지 오셨어요 = Even grandma came (it went so far that even grandma came)
In this example, the speaker is indicating that many people came to some event… and it even went so far that the grandmother (who – by context – would be somebody who usually doesn’t come because of her age or something. But in this case, the speaker is stressing that “so many people came, even grandma, who never comes.”

Now, back to ~도. While ~도 isn’t usually added to ~까지 when used as was taught back in Lesson 12, it is not uncommon to see “~도” added to “~까지” when it is used in the way described in this lesson. However, in this case, notice that both ~까지 and ~도 have very similar meanings. Doubling them up and creating “~까지도” just adds even more emotion and stress to the fact that something was done in addition to something else. For example:

친구가 문어까지도 먹었어요 = My friend even ate octopus
나는 숙제까지도 다 했어 = I even finished my homework
할머니까지도 오셨어요 = Even grandma came too

 

 

 

 Adding ~도 to More Complicated Grammatical Principles

~는지도

In Lesson 30, I talked about the use of ~는지 and the purpose of attaching ~도 specifically to future tense conjugations. If you haven’t read that lesson yet, I suggest you review that lesson briefly before continuing.

In addition to the purpose discussed in Lesson 30, adding ~도 to ~는지 stresses that the uncertain clause is one of other things that are also uncertain. For example:

이것이 무엇인지 몰라요 = I don’t know what this is
이것이 무엇인지도 몰라요 = I don’t even know what this is
Here, the speaker could be stating that he/she doesn’t know other aspects of “this thing,” and is stating that he/she “doesn’t even know what it is.” For example, imagine in somebody asked you “Do you know how to use this?” Here, you could respond with “I don’t even know what it is!”

When used in the future tense, it is possible that ~도 could have the meaning described in Lesson 30, or it is possible that it has the meaning being described here. The context of the situation will make it clear. For example:

엄마가 언제 도착할지 모르겠어요 = I don’t know when mom will arrive
엄마가 언제 도착할지도 모르겠어요 = I don’t know when mom will arrive
엄마가 언제 도착할지도 모르겠어요 = I don’t even know when mom will arrive

More examples:

불교가 무엇인지 몰라요 = I don’t know what Buddhism is
불교가 무엇인지도 몰라요 = I don’t even know what Buddhism is

문을 어떻게 열지 모르잖아! = You don’t know how to open the door!
문을 어떻게 열지도 모르잖아! = You don’t even know how to open the door!

설거지를 어떻게 제대로 하는지 몰라요 = I don’t know how to do the dishes
설거지를 어떻게 제대로 하는지도 몰라요 = I don’t even know how to do the dishes

그 개념이 무엇인지 잘 몰라요 = He doesn’t know what that concept is
그 개념이 무엇인지도 잘 몰라요 = He doesn’t even know what that concept is

사람들이 이런 음악을 왜 좋아하는지 모르겠어요 = I don’t know why people like this kind of music
사람들이 이런 음악을 왜 좋아하는지도 모르겠어요 = I don’t even know why people like this kind of music

 

~는데도
In Lessons 76 and 77, you learned all about how to use ~는데 in sentences. As you know from those lessons, the meaning of ~는데 is often hard to express in English – but the closest we can do (for one of the usages) is to say that the meaning is similar to “~지만” but not as strong… and it often provides background information for the upcoming clause.
~는데도 is very similar, but the addition of “~도” makes the “even though” feeling stronger than if it were just “~는데.” Therefore, using “~는데도” is very similar to using “~지만” in a sentence. The common dictionary translation I’ve always remembered is “in spite of” or “despite”, but “although” or “even though” would also be acceptable. For example:

건강이 점점 나빠지는데도 그 가수가 계속 공연하고 싶대요
= In spite of her health deteriorating (going down), the singer said she wants to continue with the performance

제가 자꾸 그만하라고 했는데도 친구가 말을 계속 했어요
= Even though I kept telling him to stop, my friend kept talking

열심히 공부했는데도 시험에 떨어졌어요
= Despite studying very hard, I failed the exam

날씨가 추웠는데도 우리는 야외공원을 보러 갔어요
= Despite the cold weather, we went to see an outdoor performance

할아버지가 지팡이가 없었는데도 일어나셔서 전등을 켰어요
= Even though grandpa didn’t have his cane, he got up and turned on the light

 

 

 

 

~고도
You know the general usage of “~고” is to indicate that something happens after something else. You can place ~도 after the particle ~고 to stress that even after the first action occurs, the second action occurs.
For example:

제공되는 음식을 다 먹고 아직 배고프다고 했어요
= After eating all the provided food, he said he was still hungry
제공되는 음식을 다 먹고도 아직 배고프다고 했어요
= Even after eating all the provided food, he said he was still hungry

문을 완전히 열고 강아지가 들어오지 않았어요
= After opening the door, the dog didn’t come inside
문을 완전히 열고도 강아지가 들어오지 않았어요
= Even after opening the door, the dog didn’t come inside

손전등을 켜고 떨어진 동전을 못 찾았어요
= After turning on the flashlight, I couldn’t find the coin that dropped
손전등을 켜고도 떨어진 동전을 못 찾았어요
= Even after turning on the flashlight, I couldn’t find the coin that dropped

(Note that because of the situations, both the second examples above (the ones with ~고도) actually sound much more natural than the first examples)

Here’s a good example from the book I am currently reading (Hector and the Search For Happiness in Korean):

그 모든 불행한 일을 겪고도 미소를 그렇게 자주 짓는 것은 어렵지 않아요
= Even after experiencing (going through) all that unhappiness, it is not difficult to smile often like that

 

 

 

 

~다가도
From Lesson 88, you also learned that, depending on the context of the sentence, the translation of “~다가” could be “while one does something.” For example:

제가 집을 청소하다가 잃어버린 열쇠를 찾았어요 = While I was cleaning the house, I found the key that I lost
공부를 하다가 그녀에 대한 생각이 났어요 =While I was studying, I thought about her

By placing “~도” after “~다가” you can also create the meaning of “even while one was doing…” For example:

공부를 하다가도 그녀에 대한 생각이 났어요 = Even while I was studying, I thought about her
피자를 먹다가도 김치를 먹고 싶었어요 = Even while I was eating pizza, I wanted to eat kimchi
밥을 먹다가도 눈물이 났다 = Even while (when I am/was) eating, I cried
제가 울다가도 가끔 웃음이 나요 = Even when I cry I laugh sometimes

남자친구와 사귀다가도 다른 남자랑 데이트를 하고 싶었어요
= Even while she is going out with her boyfriend, she goes on dates with other guys

거미가 거미줄을 만들다가도 잠자리가 있는지를 확인할 수 있어요
= Even while making its web, a spider can still check if a dragonfly is present

In these examples, the speaker is expressing that the second action occurs in many situations. The speaker is essentially saying – not only does this action occur in many other situations, but it also occurs when the first action takes place. For example:

공부를 하다가도 그녀에 대한 생각이 났어요 =Even while I was studying, I thought about her

Here, the speaker is saying that he thinks about the girl a lot – in many situations. By saying the sentence above, he expresses that – not only does he think about her in many other situations, but also when he is studying.

In Lesson 88, I also introduced you to another meaning of “~다가”, one that expresses that somebody does an action after another action. You would think that adding ~도 to this would create a meaning similar to ~고도, which would have a meaning like ‘even after’. However, adding ~도 to ~다가 does not have that meaning. Therefore, the following wouldn’t make sense:

저는 학교에 갔다가도 (or 가다가도) 친구 집에 갔어요
그 사람들이 아침에 왔다가도 (or 오다가도) 급히 갔어요

However, I don’t want to say that in all situations where the meaning of “~다가” is “one action happens after the other” that adding “~도” would be incorrect. For example, if we look back to this sentence:
학생은 열심히 공부하다가 잠이 들었어요 = The student studied hard and then fell asleep

I introduced that sentence in Lesson 88 as having the meaning of “the student studied hard and then fell asleep.” However, I also talked about the fact that this sentence could also have the meaning of “the student studied hard, and then while studying hard, fell asleep.” Because of this, adding ~도 to “~다가” in this situation would be acceptable. For example:

학생은 열심히 공부하다가 잠이 들었어요 = While studying hard, the student fell asleep
학생은 열심히 공부하다가도 잠이 들었어요 = Even while studying hard, the student fell asleep (the student was sleeping in many situation s, and even fell asleep when he was (trying) to study hard)

 

 

 

~면서도
In Lesson 62, you learned how to use ~(으)면서. Although ~(으)면서 is commonly used to indicate that two actions occur simultaneously, you learned that it can also be used when two clauses oppose each other. For example:

그 여자가 식당을 열고 싶다고 하면서 요리를 못해요
= That girl says she wants to open up a restaurant, but she doesn’t know how to cook

저의 와이프가 외국 브랜드를 좋아하면서 한국에서 만들어진 제품만 사요
= My wife likes foreign brands, but only buys products made in Korea

그 사람이 한국에서 살면서 한국어를 할 수 없어요
= That person lives in Korea, but he can’t speak Korean

You can attach ~도 to these types of sentences. For example:

그 여자가 식당을 열고 싶다고 하면서도 요리를 못해요
= That girl says she wants to open up a restaurant, but she doesn’t know how to cook

저의 와이프가 외국 브랜드를 좋아하면서도 한국에서 만들어진 제품만 사요
= My wife likes foreign brands, but only buys products made in Korea

그 사람이 한국에서 살면서도 한국어를 할 수 없어요
= That person lives in Korea, but he can’t speak Korean

Their respective meanings are very similar, Korean people will often tell you that their meanings feel the same. That being said, the use of ~도 makes me feel like saying “~(으)면서도 would be more stressed or emphasized.

 

 

 

 

Adding ~도 to Pseudo-Nouns:

~ㄹ/을 줄 모르다
In Lesson 85, you learned how to use “줄” to indicate a lapse of judgment in what you think. For example:

네가 간 줄 알았어 = I thought you went
네가 가고 있는 줄 알았어 = I thought you were going
네가 갈 줄 알았어 = I thought you would go

You can attach ~도 to 줄 to indicate that the fact you don’t know is just one of other facts that you also didn’t know. In order for the use of ~도 to be appropriate, there has to be some other facts (usually from context) that are being referred to as “the other things you don’t know.” I’d like to explain these situations with some simple examples:

네가 부산으로 이사한 줄도 몰랐다 = I didn’t even know you moved to Busan
For example, if you are catching up with a friend and he is telling you about what he has been up to for the last little while. He tells you a bunch of things that you didn’t know, including that he moved to Busan. In this case, you can stress that you didn’t know all of these things, even the fact that he moved to Busan (which you should have known, because that is a big piece of news to not be aware of).

그 영화를 좋아하는 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know that you liked the movie
For example, if you walked into your friend’s house and you saw that he had a bunch of memorabilia from a movie (like posters and stuff like that). You could say this sentence to express that you didn’t even know that he liked it, let alone like it so much to go as far as buy all of this memorabilia.

그 회사가 파산한 줄도 몰랐어요 = I didn’t even know that company went bankrupt

For example, if you are talking with your friend about a company, and your friend indicates that the company not only went bankrupt, but as a result of the bankruptcy the CEO fled to Japan and started the company again there. You could say this sentence to express that you didn’t even know that the company went bankrupt, let alone the other facts about the CEO fleeing to Japan and starting the company again.

 

 

 

 

 

~ㄹ/을 수도 있다
The grammatical principle ~ㄹ/을 수 있다/없다 was first talked about in Lesson 45. In that lesson, you learned that “수” acts as a “pseudo-noun” that – although noun – it can only be used in this grammatical principle being described by a clause. When adding ~도 to the noun of “수” in this grammatical principle, the meaning that is created usually is not indicating that a person/thing can do something in addition to some other action. For example, if I were to say:

나는 축구를 할 수 있다
This translates to “I can play soccer”

However, by attaching ~도 to “수” in the following example:

나는 축구를 할 수도 있다
The meaning that is created is not “I can play soccer too.”

Note that in order to express this meaning, the following should be done:
나는 축구도 할 수 있다

Instead, adding ~도 to “수” indicates that the action/situation in the previous clause is also possible. For example:

비가 올 수도 있다 = It is possible that it will/might rain
Note that a better translation might technically be “there is a possibility that it will rain.” However, I personally prefer the translation of “it is possible that…” when using the “~ㄹ/을 수도 있다” form.

It is for this reason that the following is slightly unnatural:
비가 올 수 있다
This sentence would translate to something like “It can rain.”… but… what? What can rain? What has the ability to rain? It is more natural in Korean to talk about the possibility that it could rain. For this reason, it is more natural to say “비가 올 수도 있다”.

To go back to the first example of “나는 축구를 할 수도 있다”. That sentence does make sense, but only in the situation when you are talking about the possibility of you playing soccer.
나는 내일 축구를 할 수도 있다 = It is possible that I can play soccer tomorrow

More examples:
친구가 올 수도 있어요 = It’s possible that my friend can come
계획이 변할 수도 있어요 = It’s possible that the plans can change
교장선생님이 그 선생님을 국제부 부장으로 지정할 수도 있어요
= It’s possible that the principal will designate that teacher as the head of the international department

While the English translations don’t require the use of the word “also”, it might make the meaning I am trying to describe clearer if I include it:
계획이 변할 수도 있어요 = It’s (also) possible that the plans can change

When using the ~ㄹ/을 수도 있다 form, in essence what you are doing is stating that there could be other possible outcomes in the future. With the use of ~ㄹ/을 수도 있다, you specifically indicate that one of the possibilities (in addition to other possibilities which may or may not have been indicated previously) could happen. So, if you say:

계획이 변할 수도 있어요

What you are inferring is that the plans might not change… but there is also the possibility of them changing as well. This is the function of “~도” in this grammatical principle.
More examples:

일이 내일까지 끝날 수도 있어요 = It’s possible that we could finish the work by tomorrow (but it is also possible that we could not finish it)

When adding ~도 to “수” in ㄹ/을 수 없다, the meaning expressed is very similar to not including it at all. The only difference is that speaker is stressing that one can’t do something. The best way to translate this to English is to add the word “even” to the sentence. For example:

나는 축구를 할 수도 없어 = I can’t even play soccer
방이 너무 지저분해서 움직일 수도 없어요 = You can’t even move because her room is so messy

Two common words that this is used with just by the nature of the words themselves are:

생각하다:
그 일자리에 지원하는 것을 생각할 수도 없어요 = I can’t even think about applying for that job
선생님이 되지 않은 것을 생각할 수도 없어요 = I can’t even think about not being a teacher

상상하다:
아내랑 이혼하는 것을 상상할 수도 없어요 = I can’t even imagine divorcing my wife
그렇게 많은 돈을 가지고 있는 것을 상상할 수도 없어요 = I can’t even imagine having that much money

That’s it for this lesson!

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Okay, that was a lot of stuff, but take me to the next lesson!