Lesson 39: Honorific ‘시’ ending, Honorific words

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Honorific Addition: ~(으)시

Special Words:
드리다 and ~께
말씀하다
드시다/잡수시다
계시다
주무시다

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. You might not be able to understand all of the grammar within the example sentences, but most of the grammar used will be introduced by the end of Unit 2. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
자네 = you

Notes: Using 자네 is informal like “너,” but is typically used by much older people addressing much younger people (whereas “너” could generally be used with any person you are close with.) Also, the person using 자네 is usually an older male speaking to a younger male.

Examples:
자네는 왜 이렇게 밤 늦게까지 밖에 있었나? = Why were you out so late?
자네는 이 일이 만족스럽지 못한가? = Are you not satisfied with this job?
자네 할아버지가 주방에 들어가셨어 = Your grandfather went into the kitchen

또래 = age, peer group

Common Usages:
또래친구 = a friend that is in the same age/peer group

Examples:
내 부장님은 내 나이 또래 사람들을 좋아하시지 않아 = My boss doesn’t like people my age
우리 아들은 또래에 비해 훨씬 똑똑해요 = Our son is much smarter compared to his peers

그 학생은 또래보다 영어실력이 뒤처지고 있어요
= That student is falling behind his peers in English ability

자기 나이또래에 맞는 친구들과 노는 것이 제일 좋아요
= It is best to play with somebody in one’s same age group

이 마을에는 슬기의 또래친구들이 없어서 조금 걱정이에요
= I am a little bit worried because there are no (age/peer group) friends of Seulgi in this village

세제 = laundry detergent

Common Usages:
설거지세제 = dish detergent
세탁세제 = laundry detergent
…전용세제 = detergent specific for …
강력세제 = strong powered detergent

Examples:
이 세제는 세탁할 때만 사용하세요 = Use this detergent only when you do the laundry
마트에는 여러 종류의 세제가 있으니 꼭 용도에 맞는 세제를 구입하세요 = There are many types of detergent at a mart, so make sure you buy the one for the right usage

뒷모습 = one's appearance from behind

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “뒨모습”

Examples:
가끔 사람들이 저의 뒷모습을 보고 여자가 아니라 남자라고 착각해요
= Sometimes when people see me from behind they think (mistake me for) I am man and not a woman

봉지 = paper bag, plastic bag

Common Usages:
비닐봉지 = vinyl (plastic bag)
봉지를 재활용하다 = to recycle a bag

Examples:
봉지가 필요하세요? = Do you need a bag?
저는 항상 손님들께 봉지를 드려요 = I always gives bags to the customers
한국에서는 비닐봉지도 재활용해야 해요 = In Korea, you have to recycle plastic bags too

마트에서 물건을 구입하고 봉지가 필요하면 50원을 내고 사야 해요
= At the mart if you buy something and need a bag, you have to pay 50 won

국립 = national

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “궁닙”

Notes: 국립 is usually placed before another word to indicate that something is a “national” or “public” institute. For example:

국립고등학교 = public high school
국립대학 = national university
국립공원 = national park
국립묘지 = national cemetery
국립박물관 = national museum

Examples:
그 선생님은 국립고등학교에서 일하셔요 = That teacher works at a public school
한국에서는 정부가 국립학교를 통제해요 = In Korea, the government controls the public schools

캐나다에는 매우 아름다운 국립공원이 많아요
= In Canada, there are many (very) beautiful national parks

저는 내일 가족들과 함께 할아버지께서 계시는 국립묘지를 방문할 예정이에요
= Tomorrow, with my family I’m planning on visiting the national cemetery where my grandfather is

산소 = oxygen

Common Usages:
산소통 = oxygen tank
산소부족 = a lack of oxygen
무산소 운동 = anaerobic exercise
유산소 운동 = aerobic exercise

Examples:
물은 산소와 수소로 결합돼 만들어진다 = Water is made from combining oxygen and hydrogen

산소가 10분 이상 부족하게 되면 사람들은 죽을 수도 있어요
= People can die if there is a lack of oxygen for more than ten minutes

잠수를 할 때는 꼭 여분의 산소통을 함께 메고 물 속에 들어가야 해요
= When you dive underwater, you must go into the water with extra oxygen tanks

= bell

Notes: The English word “벨” is sometimes used as well.

Common Usages:
초인종 = doorbell
종이 울리다 = for a bell to ring
종이 치다 = for a bell to ring
종을 누르다 = to press a bell
종을 치다 = to ring a bell

Examples:
종이 아직 안 쳤어요 = The bell hasn’t rang yet
종이 칠 때까지 선생님이 수업을 하실 거예요 = The teacher will do the class until the bell rings

점심 시간 종이 울리면 학생들이 급식을 먹기 위해 달리기 시작해요
= When the lunch bell rings, students start running to eat the (cafeteria) food

주방 = kitchen

Common Usages:
주방용품 = kitchen utensils

Examples:
자네 할아버지가 주방에 들어가셨어 = Your grandfather went into the kitchen
주방에 들어갈 때마다 저는 과자를 먹고 싶어요 = Every time I enter the kitchen, I want to eat snacks

Verbs:
드시다 = to eat (formal)

Notes: This is the formal version of the word “먹다”

Common Usages:
맛있게 드세요 = A way to say “Bon-Appetit!” in Korean. It directly translates to “eat deliciously!”
드시고 가세요? = Will you eat and then go? (This is a common way for a server at a fast food restaurant to ask customers if they will “eat it here”)

Examples:
아버지! 다 드셨어요? = Dad! Have you finished eating?
점심을 드셨어요? = Did you have lunch?
뭐 드시고 싶어요? = What do you want to eat?

할아버지께서 작년에 쓰러지신 후에 거의 음식을 드시지 못하고 계세요
= After falling last year, Grandpa can barely eat any food

제가 된장찌개를 끓일 때마다 할머니께서 맛있게 드셔요
= Every time I make (boil) 된장찌개, Grandma always eats it well (“deliciously”)

잡수시다 = to eat (formal)

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “잡쑤시다”

Notes: Using 잡수시다 shows a ridiculous amount of respect, and saying it to anybody other than people who deserve that amount of respect will most likely just make people laugh. When I first met my wife’s parents, I used ‘잡수시다’ and they both thought it was funny. I only reserve that word for the rare times that I have dinner with my wife’s grandparents – in which case, after the meal, I ask them: 잘 잡수셨어요? = Did you have a good meal?

Examples:
보통 ‘잡수시다’라는 말은 젊은 세대보다는 부모님들 세대에서 더 많이 사용하는 표현이에요
= Usually saying “잡수시다” is used more by the parents (older) generation than the younger generation

주무시다 = to sleep (formal)

Notes: 주무시다 is the formal equivalent of the word “자다” (to sleep)

Common Usages:
잘 주무세요 = Sleep well!

Examples:
잘 주무셨어요? = Did you sleep well?
아버지가 지금 주무시고 있어요 = Dad is sleeping now

계시다 = to be in/at a location (formal)

Notes: 계시다 is the formal equivalent of the word “있다” when it is used to indicate that a person of high respect is in/at a location, or is staying in a location. For example:

아버지가 집에 계셔요 = Dad is (at) home

계시다 can also replace 있다 in the ~아/어 있다 (Lesson 14) and ~고 있다 (Lesson 18) grammatical forms. For example:

아버지가 아직 서 계셔요 = Dad is still standing
아버지가 아직 드시고 계셔요 = Dad is still eating

However, when 있다 it is used to indicate that one “has” a noun, the formal equivalent is 있으시다. For example:

할아버지! 지금 시간이 있으셔요? = Grandpa! Do you have time now?

Common Usages:
안녕히 계세요 = Goodbye (said to somebody who is staying)

Examples:
교장선생님이 학교에 안 계셔요 = The principal isn’t in the school
혹시 부모님이 집에 계셔요? = Are your parents at home?
선생님이 안 계셔서 학생들은 다 자고 있어요 = The teacher isn’t there, so all the students are sleeping

사람들은 대통령이 그 건물에 계시는 것을 알아서 그 건물 입구에 다가갔어요
= People knew that the president is in that building, so they approached the entrance

낯선 사람이 집에 누가 계시냐고 물어보면 꼭 누군가가 있다고 말해야 해요
= If a strange person asks “who is home” you should say that somebody is home

말씀하다 = to speak (formal)

You should use 말씀하다 in place of 말하다 when the person speaking deserves high respect. The ~하다 portion of the word is usually connected with ~(으)시다 to form 말씀하시다. Also, if 말씀 and ~하다 are separated, 말씀 is the honorific form of the noun “말.” For example:

소망이 무엇인지 말씀해 주실래요? = Can you tell me what your dream/hope is?
지금 교장선생님께서 잠깐 말씀을 하시겠습니다  = Now, the principal will speak
선생님의 말씀을 듣고 있는 유일한 사람은 저예요 = I am the only person who is listening to the teacher

우리가 계속 얘기해서 선생님의 말씀을 못 들었어요
= Because we were talking, we didn’t hear what the teacher said

모든 사람들은 교수님이 말씀하시기 시작하는 것을 기다렸다
= Everybody was waiting for the professor to start talking

부장님이 그 일을 망쳐서 부장님이 말씀하시는 것을 듣는 사람이 별로 없어요
= There isn’t really that many people who listen to the boss because he ruined that job

선생님이 하시는 말씀을 잘 들었어요?
= Did you listen (well) to what your teacher said?

회의가 끝나기 전에 교감선생님이 말씀하실 거예요
= Before the meeting finishes, the vice principal will speak

그저께 회의 시간 동안 무슨 말씀을 하셨어요?
= What did you say during the meeting two days ago?

말씀 is also used as the noun when you are speaking to a person who deserves high respect. I find this strange because in the examples/explanation above, 말씀 is used when the acting person of the sentence deserves high respect. However, in cases when you are saying something (some words) to a person of high respect (and therefore, you are the acting person) 말씀 is used instead of 말. When used like this, the formal word “드리다” is commonly used to indicate that “some words” are given to a person. For example:

제가 드리고 싶은 말씀이 있습니다 = I have something that I want to say
You would say this when you are speaking to a person (or people) who deserve high respect

드리다 = to give (formal)

You should use the word 드리다 in place of the word 주다 when one gives something to somebody who deserves high respect. Also, remember the formal version of ~에게/한테 is ~께. Therefore,~께 should be attached to the person that you are giving something to.

Let’s look at an example:
할아버지께 선물을 드리고 싶어 = I want to give my grandfather a present

If you are also saying this sentence to somebody who deserves respect, you can also end the sentence using honorifics as well:

할아버지께 선물을 드리고 싶어요 = I want to give my grandfather a present

Korean people don’t say “드리시다.” One might think that this would be used when talking about somebody of high respect giving something to somebody of high respect. However, it appears that 드리다 is formal enough to cover both the person acting and the person receiving in these situations.

It can also replace 주다 when one does an action for somebody who deserves high respect:

더 넣어 줄까요? = Shall I put more in for you?
더 넣어 드릴까요? = Shall I put more in for you?

Common Usages:
부탁 드리다 = to ask for a favor.

Normally, 드리다 is used when giving something to somebody of high respect. When using the word “부탁” the person receiving the favor is you, and you should never use 드리다 when talking about yourself. However, adding 드리다 to 부탁 is the one exception to this rule, and it is very common to say “부탁 드리다” instead of “부탁하다” when finishing these sentences. For example:

엄마에게 그것을 사 달라고 부탁 드렸어요 = I asked my mother to buy that for me

소변을 보다 = to urinate

소변검사 = urine examination

Examples:
할아버지가 아파서 소변을 못 보셔요 = Our grandfather can’t urinate because he is sick
소변을 보고 나서 꼭 손을 깨끗하게 씻어야 해요 = You need to wash your hands cleanly after going pee
소변을 본 후에 물을 내리는 것은 다음 사람을 위한 배려예요 = After going pee, it is courteous to the next person if you flush the toilet

대답하다 = to answer, to reply

The noun form of this word (“대답”) translates to “a response, an answer or a reply.”
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “대다파다”

Common Usages:
말대답하다 = to talk back

Examples:
선생님이 대답을 빨리 하셨어요 = The teacher responded quickly
교장선생님이 아직 대답하시지 않았어요 = The principal hasn’t responded yet

십대에는 사춘기를 겪으면서 많은 아이들이 부모님께 말대답을 해요
= Many teenagers talk back to their parents while going through puberty

어제 남자친구랑 통화하다가 갑자기 남자친구가 제 질문을 대답을 안 하고 끊어 버렸어요
= Yesterday I was talking to my boyfriend on the phone, and suddenly he didn’t answer my question and just hung up the phone 

치다 = to tap

Notes: 치다 has many meanings depending on the noun it is used with. Typically, 치다 is used to indicate that one “strikes” an object. For example:

Common Usages:
박수 치다 = to clap one’s hands
종을 치다 = to hit a bell
골프를 치다 = to play golf
테니스를 치다 = to play tennis
머리를 치다 = to hit/tap somebody’s head

Examples:
테니스를 잘 쳐요? = Are you good at playing tennis?
종이 아직 안 쳤어요 = The bell hasn’t rang yet

망치다 = to spoil, to ruin, to screw up

Common Usages:
시험을 망치다 = to ruin an exam
사업을 망치다 = to ruin a business

Examples:
부장님이 그 일을 망쳐서 부장님이 말씀하시는 것을 듣는 사람이 별로 없어요
= There isn’t really that many people who listen to the boss because he ruined that job

직원 중 한 명이 회사의 사업을 망치기 위해 중요한 정보를 다른 회사에 넘겼어요
= One of the employees gave (handed over) important information to another company in order to ruin our business

다가가다 = to approach, to go near

Common Usages:
천천히 다가가다 = to approach slowly
서서히 다가가다 = to approach slowly/gradually

Examples:
그 연예인이 방에 들어가면 양쪽에서 사람들이 그에게 다가가요
= Whenever that celebrity goes into a room, people approach him from both/all directions

사람들은 대통령이 그 건물에 계시는 것을 알아서 그 건물 입구에 다가갔어요
= People knew that the president is in that building, so they approached the entrance

친구를 사귀고 싶을 땐 먼저 다가가서 말을 거는 것이 중요해요
= If you want to go out with a friend, it is important to approach them slowly and talk to them

다가오다 = to approach, to come near

Examples:
어떤 할아버지가 저에게 다가오시고 있어요 = Some old man is approaching me

골목을 걷고 있을 때 뒤에 누군가가 다가오는 느낌이 들어 저는 경찰서에 전화했어요
= When I was walking down an alley, I felt somebody approaching me, so I called the police

작은 입으로 큰 생선을 먹을 수 있다는 게 너무 신기했다. 나는 펭귄에게 먹이를 주기 위해 천천히 다가갔다. 펭귄들은 내가 먹이를 가지고 있자 내 주위로 다가왔다.
= The fact that they can eat big fish with their little mouth is very amazing. I approached the penguins slowly in order to give them the bait. I had the bait, and then penguins came to the area around me.

Adjectives:
가파르다 = to be steep

Common Usages:
길이 가파르다 = for a street to be steep
언덕이 가파르다 = for a hill to be steep

Examples:
이 길은 가파르기 때문에 자동차 사고가 많이 나요
= Many car accidents happen on this road because it is steep

저희 집이 언덕이 가파른 곳에 있어서 겨울에 눈이 내리면 조심해야 해요
= Our house is at a place with a steep hill so in the winter when it snows we need to be careful

Adverbs and Other Words:
그저께 = the day before yesterday

Examples:
그저께 회의 시간 동안 무슨 말씀을 하셨어요?
= What did you say during the meeting two days ago?

그저께 먹었던 빵이 너무 맛있어서 내일 꼭 다시 사 먹으러 갈 거예요
= Tomorrow, I’m going to go and eat that bread that I had two days ago because it was so delicious

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you are going to learn something that we haven’t specifically looked at in a very long time. Way back in Lesson 6, you learned how to apply Korean honorifics to the endings of verbs and adjectives. In addition to what you learned in that lesson, there is still more that you must know in terms of adding respect to Korean sentences. We will cover more of that here, starting with the use of ‘~(으)시’ in sentences.

 

 

Honorific Addition: ~(으)

This one is hard for English speakers to understand. Before you learn specifically when to add ‘~(으)시’ to your sentences, let’s remember when you should use honorifics in the first place. Remember, if you are talking to somebody who deserves a high level of respect, you should use honorifics. These types of people can be: bosses, parents, people older than you, guests, customers, etc… If you are talking to your boss, you should say:

저는 열심히 일했어요/일했습니다 = I worked really hard

But, if you are talking to your friend (for example) you can use the lower form:

나는 열심히 일했어 = I worked really hard

Therefore, the use of those honorifics solely depends on the person you are speaking to.

The use of ‘~(으)시’ is a little bit tricky at first. You should add ‘~(으)시’ to verbs/adjectives in which the acting person deserves respect, regardless of who you are speaking to. You can add ‘~시’ to word stems ending in a vowel and ‘~으시’ to stems ending in a consonant. Once ‘~(으)시’ is added, the verb/adjective gets conjugated as usual as if the stem ended in ‘~(으)시.’

The following table shows how ~(으)시다 can be added to words, and then how other conjugations can be added on top of it. I specifically chose words that follow irregulars so you can see how the ~(으)시 addition can affect the stem of a word. Make sure to check out Lesson 7 to brush up on your irregulars if you forget about this.

Original Word + ~(으)시다 + ~아/어요 + ~ㅂ/습니다 + ~았/었다
가다 (go) 가시다 가셔요 가십니다 가셨다
공부하다 (study) 공부하시다 공부하셔요 공부하십니다 공부하셨다
알다 (know) 아시다 아셔요 아십니다 아셨다
찾다 (find) 찾으시다 찾으셔요 찾으십니다 찾으셨다
걷다 (walk) 걸으시다 걸으셔요 걸으십니다 걸으셨다
고르다 (select) 고르다 고르셔요 고르십니다 고르셨다
있다 (to be at) 있으시다 있으셔요 있으십니다 있으셨다
짓다 (build) 지으시다 지으셔요 지으십니다 지으셨다

Let’s look at an example of when you would use this ~(으)시 addition.

If I am talking to my friend and the person I am talking about is that friend’s mother – the mother deserves respect. Therefore, I should not say this:

어머님은 너에게 돈을 줬어? = Did your mother give you money?

Remember, the mother (who deserves respect) is the person acting in that sentence. Therefore, ~(으)시 should be added to the verb. This would be more correct:

어머님은 너에게 돈을 주셨어? = Did your mother give you money?

You should always keep the information you learned in Lesson 6 in mind as well – because depending on who you are speaking to, the form can change based on what you learned in that lesson. If I were to say a sentence where I was talking to somebody who deserves respect (your boss, for example) about somebody who deserves respect, I should say:

어머님은 미용실에 가셨습니까? = Did your mother go to the beauty salon?

Again, notice the situation of this sentence. You are talking to somebody of high respect, about somebody of high respect. Notice all of the situations that can take place:

어머님은 미용실에 가셨어? = Did your mother go to the beauty salon?
Situation: To somebody of low respect, about somebody of high respect

친구는 미용실에 갔어? = Did your friend go to the beauty salon?
Situation: To somebody of low respect, about somebody of low respect

친구는 미용실에 갔습니까? = Did your friend go to the beauty salon?
Situation: To somebody of high respect, about somebody of low respect

어머님은 미용실에 가셨습니까? = Did your mother go to the beauty salon?
Situation: To somebody of high respect, about somebody of high respect

Many more examples:

선생님은 우리를 너무 잘 가르치셨어 = Our teacher taught us really well
부장님은 그 집을 나무로만 만드시고 싶어요 = Our boss wants to make that house using only wood
선생님이 대답을 빨리 하셨어요 = The teacher responded quickly
그 선생님은 국립고등학교에서 일하셔요 = That teacher works at a public school
자네 할아버지가 주방에 들어가셨어 = Your grandfather went into the kitchen
종이 칠 때까지 선생님이 수업을 하실 거예요 = The teacher will do the class until the bell rings
할아버지가 아파서 소변을 못 보셔요 = Our grandfather can’t urinate because he is sick
교장선생님이 아직 대답하시지 않았어요 = The principal hasn’t responded yet
내 부장님은 내 나이 또래 사람들을 좋아하시지 않아 = My boss doesn’t like people my age
어떤 할아버지가 저에게 다가오시고 있어요 = Some old man is approaching me

Now that you’ve got all that under your belt, there are certain words that change completely when the acting person in the sentence deserves respect. We will look at those one by one:

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To give: 드리다 and ~

You should use the word 드리다 in place of the word 주다 when one gives something to somebody who deserves high respect. Also, remember the formal version of ~에게/한테 is ~께. Therefore,~께 should be attached to the person that you are giving something . Let’s look at an example:

할아버지께 선물을 드리고 싶어 = I want to give my grandfather a present

If you are also saying this sentence to somebody who deserves respect, you can also end the sentence using honorifics as well:

할아버지께 선물을 드리고 싶어요 = I want to give my grandfather a present

Korean people don’t say “드리시다.” One might think that this would be used when talking about somebody of high respect giving something to somebody of high respect. However, it appears that 드리다 is formal enough to cover both the person acting and the person receiving in these situations.

More examples:

저는 항상 손님들께 봉지를 드려요 = I always gives bags to the customers
저는 스님께 돈을 드렸어요 = I gave money to the monk
아버지가 매일 쓰실 수건을 드리고 싶어요 = I want to give dad a towel that he will use everyday

 

 

To speak: 말씀하다

You should use 말씀하다 in place of 말하다 when the person speaking deserves high respect. The ~하다 portion of the word is usually connected with ~(으)시다 to form 말씀하시다. Also, if 말씀 and ~하다 are separated, 말씀 is the honorific form of the noun “말.” For example:

모든 사람들은 교수님이 말씀하시기 시작하는 것을 기다렸다
= Everybody was waiting for the professor to start talking

부장님이 그 일을 망쳐서 부장님이 말씀하시는 것을 듣는 사람이 별로 없어요
= There isn’t really that many people who listen to the boss because he ruined that job

선생님이 하시는 말씀을 잘 들었어요?
= Did you listen (well) to what your teacher said?

회의가 끝나기 전에 교감선생님이 말씀하실 거예요
= Before the meeting finishes, the vice principal will speak

그저께 회의 시간 동안 무슨 말씀을 하셨어요?
= What did you say during the meeting two days ago?

말씀 is also used as the noun when you are speaking to a person who deserves high respect. I find this strange because in the examples/explanation above, 말씀 is used when the acting person of the sentence deserves high respect. However, in cases when you are saying something (some words) to a person of high respect (and therefore, you are the acting person) 말씀 is used instead of 말. When used like this, the formal word “드리다” is commonly used to indicate that “some words” are given to a person. For example:

제가 드리고 싶은 말씀이 있습니다
= I have something that I want to say
You would say this when you will speaking to a person (or people) or deserve high respect.

 


To eat: 드시다
/잡수시다

When a person who deserves high respect is eating, it is common to use the word 들다 combined with ~(으)시다 to form 드시다. For example:

아버지! 다 드셨어요? = Dad! Have you finished eating?
점심을 드셨어요? = Did you have lunch?
뭐 드시고 싶어요? = What do you want to eat?

Another possible word is 잡수시다. Using 잡수시다 shows a ridiculous amount of respect, and saying it to anybody other than people who deserve that amount of respect will most likely just make people laugh. When I first met my girlfriend’s parents, I used ‘잡수시다’ and they both thought it was funny. I only reserve that word for the rare times that I have dinner with my girlfriend’s grandparents – in which case, after the meal, I ask them:

잘 잡수셨어요? = Did you have a good meal?

 

 

To be at/in: 계시다

계시다 is the formal equivalent of the word “있다” when it is used to indicate that a person of high respect is in/at a location, or is staying in a location. For example:

아버지가 집에 계셔요 = Dad is (at) home

계시다 can also replace 있다 in the ~아/어 있다 (Lesson 14) and ~고 있다 (Lesson 18) grammatical forms. For example:

아버지가 아직 서 계셔요 = Dad is still standing
아버지가 아직 드시고 계셔요 = Dad is still eating

However, when 있다 it is used to indicate that one “has” a noun, the formal equivalent is 있으시다. For example:

할아버지! 지금 시간이 있으셔요? = Grandpa! Do you have time now?

You will learn more about 계시다 in the following lesson. Until then, let’s look at some more example sentences with 계시다:

할아버지가 여기에 계신지 몰랐어요 = I didn’t know you were here, grandpa
교장선생님이 학교에 안 계셔요 = The principal isn’t in the school
거기에 언제까지 계실 거예요? = Until when will you be there?

사람들이 대통령이 그 건물에 계시는 것을 알아서 그 건물 입구에 다가갔어요
= People knew that the president is in that building, so they approached the entrance

선생님이 안 계셔서 학생들은 다 자고 있어요
= The teacher isn’t here, so all the students are sleeping

 

 

 

To sleep: 주무시다

주무시다 is the formal equivalent of the word “자다” (to sleep). For example:

잘 주무셨어요? = Did you sleep well?
아버지가 지금 주무시고 있어요 = Dad is sleeping now

 

That’s it!

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