그네 = swing/trapeze
단풍나무 = maple tree
시청률 = ratings
시청자 = viewer
시청각실 = audio-visual room
후문 = back door/back gate
외투 = overcoat
경향 = tendency/trend
서식지 = habitat
쌍꺼풀 = double eyelid
해양 = ocean
지중해 = Mediterranean Sea
청원 = petition
내과 = internal medicine
빙하 = glacier
해수 = seawater/saltwater
해수면 = sea level
시청하다 = to watch TV
잠기다 = to sink
서식하다 = to inhabit
압도하다 = to overwhelm
녹다 = to melt/dissolve
매달리다 = to be hanging
안도하다 = to be relaxed/relieved
역력하다 = to be clear/obvious/apparent
힘겹다 = to be hard/tough/difficult
우울하다 = to be gloomy/blue/depressed
Adverbs and Other Words:
영영 = forever/for good (usually leaving)
In this lesson, you will learn how to connect two clauses with ~다니, which will be your first real introduction into the world of compounded quoted grammatical principles. I just made up that term off the top of my head, but let’s get started.
Indicating an Emotion after hearing what somebody says: ~다니
How is this grammatical principle formed?
As you progress to more and more advanced grammar in your Korean studies, you will often come across a grammatical principle that looks like a grammatical principle that you already know but placed after ~다~ (or after ~(이)라~ in the case of nouns).
For example, look at what is being introduced in this lesson: ~다니. ~(으)니 is a grammatical principle that you learned about in Lesson 81, and it is being placed after ~다~. Whenever you see this, the clause before “~다” is often a quoted sentence, and this entire quoted sentence is then attached to whatever the next grammatical principle is. The grammatical principle that is attached to ~다~ (in our case, ~(으)니) typically just follows its usage and meaning, but only compounded onto the fact that it is attached to a grammatical principle. From this lesson forward, I’m going to refer to these as compounded quoted grammatical principles because that is exactly what they are.
Okay, I’m not sure if you were able to follow that description above. Without examples, it might be hard. Let’s look at the following example:
네가 떠나다니 너무 슬퍼
Remember what I said: “The clause before “~다~” is a quoted sentence.” Therefore, in the example above, the following is a quote:
But… how is that a quote? That doesn’t look like a quote.
When you see these compounded quoted grammatical principles, the “~다~” represents an abbreviation. It is an abbreviation of:
~ㄴ/는다고 하다 (remember that the rules change when quoting an adjective)
Therefore, the sentence from above could actually be written as this:
네가 떠난다고 하니 너무 슬퍼 = I am sad because you said you are leaving
However (as this lesson is going to describe) these types of sentences are often abbreviated to only include ~다니 between the two clauses.
As I mentioned before, there are many other compounded quoted grammatical principles, each that will be introduced in its own lesson when it becomes important. At this level, this is really the only important one that you need to worry about. However, it would be good to remember that if you see a grammatical principle attached to ~다~ instead of being directly attached to the verb/adjective – you are most likely looking at a compounded quoted grammatical principle.
Just one example to show you what I mean before we move on. The following:
Is actually an abbreviation of:
그녀가 예쁘다고 하더라
I don’t want to get into the meaning of ~다더라 (although I bet you can already guess it) or any other compounded quoted grammatical principle. At this point, I just want you to be familiar with what you are looking at in case you come across one of these while studying on your own.
Back to our original sentence:
네가 떠나다니 너무 슬퍼
The next thing I want you to realize is that the verb ~다니 attaches to does not have the usual quoted conjugation attached to it. As a quoted clause, you would probably expect that the sentence should look like this:
네가 떠난다니 너무 슬퍼
However, “떠나다니” is correct. Also note that this distinction doesn’t need to be made for adjectives, because ~ㄴ/는 isn’t added to a quoted adjective.
What does this grammatical principle mean?
Okay, now that we understand what this grammatical principle is composed of, we can start talking about the meaning that it has. Much like ~더니 form the previous lesson, ~다니 is typically used in one specific type of sentence. Let’s look at the example from before again, because ~다니 is almost always used this specific format:
네가 떠나다니 너무 슬퍼
The format is: The speaker repeats something that another person said (which is placed before ~다니 as the quoted part of the sentence), and then the speaker indicates his/her emotion or feelings as a result of hearing that fact. A simple translation for the sentence above would be:
네가 떠나다니 너무 슬퍼 = I’m sad that you are leaving
However, you need to remember that the first part of the sentence is actually a quote. Therefore, detailed (but less flowing) translation would be:
네가 떠나다니 너무 슬퍼 = Now that/because I have heard that you are leaving, I am sad, or
네가 떠나다니 너무 슬퍼 = After hearing that you are leaving, I am sad
The most common emotions that are used after the quoted sentence are adjectives that express one is sad, happy, surprised or impressed. Let’s look at a bunch of examples, all of which you will see follow a similar format:
슬기가 대학원에 가다니 믿을 수 없어 = I can’t believe Seulgi is going to graduate school (now that I have heard that Seulgi is going to graduate school, I can’t believe it)
너의 부모님이 이혼하시다니 안됐다 = It’s too bad that your parents are getting a divorce (now that I have heard that your parents are getting a divorce, it is too bad)
우리 집 앞에 경찰서가 생기다니 다행이다 = Thankfully a police station is being built in-front of our house (Now that I have heard there is a police station being built in-front of our house, I am thankful)
북극에 있는 빙하가 다 녹다니 큰 일이다 = It is a big problem that all the glaciers in the north pole are melting (After hearing that all the glaciers in the North pole are melting, (I can see that) this is a big problem
너의 아버지도 오시다니 기뻐 = I am glad that your dad is coming as well (Now that I have heard that your father is coming as well, I am glad)
네가 나에게 고맙다니 내가 더 고맙다 = After hearing you say ‘thank you’ to me, I feel more thankful
The clause before ~다니 can also be conjugated into the past tense. This makes the quoted part of the sentence in the past tense. I’ve used some of the examples above in the examples below so you can see how they might differ slightly:
네가 떠났다니 너무 슬퍼 = I’m sad that you left (Now that/because I have heard that you left, I am sad)
슬기가 대학원에 갔다니 믿을 수 없다 = I can’t believe Seulgi went to graduate school (now that I have heard that Seulgi went to graduate school, I can’t believe it)
너의 부모님이 이혼하셨다니 안됐다 = It’s too bad that your parents got a divorce (now that I have heard that your parents got a divorce, it is too bad)
네가 나에게 고마웠다니 내가 더 고맙다 = After hearing that you said ‘thank you’ to me, I feel more thankful
I’m not going to give the full “quoted sentence” translation for the upcoming sentences. Mainly because it is redundant and I think you get the idea:
그 토끼의 서식지가 다 없어졌다니 안됐다 = It is too bad that that rabbit’s habitat disappeared
너의 강아지가 죽었다니 너무 안됐다 = It is too bad that your dog died
놀이터에 있는 그네가 망가졌다니 믿을 수 없다 = I can’t believe that the swing in the playground broke
우리가 만든 드라마의 시청률이 떨어졌다니 너무 실망스러워요 = I’m very disappointed that the ratings for the drama we made dropped
Depending on the situation, it is also possible to end a sentence with ~다니 in this form. That is, use the sentences above, but to not indicate your emotion after “~다니” is said. When this is done, the emotion that would be said is assumed from context. For example, if somebody just said the following:
너의 부모님이 이혼하셨다니…
Assuming the speaker wasn’t some weirdo who wanted to start dating your mother or father after the divorce (and wanted to tell you about it), you can assume from the context that the speaker would want to say something like “it’s too bad.”
Another good example would be:
너의 강아지가 죽었다니…
You always need to remember that Korean people love shortening their sentences!
Earlier in the lesson I stressed that the grammatical principle we were dealing with was “~다니” and not “~ㄴ/는다니.”
You must be asking yourself “what meaning does “~ㄴ/는다니” have, then?”
You probably won’t believe this – I didn’t believe it when I first learned it – but this has the same meaning as described above, except for that the quoted part of the sentence is in the future tense. For example:
슬기가 대학원에 간다니 믿을 수 없어요
This would translate to:
I can’t believe Seulgi will go to graduate school (now that I have heard that Seulgi will go to graduate school, I can’t believe it)
I don’t know about you, but this – to me – absolutely doesn’t look like it should be the correct translation. However, in cases like this, I either have to trust my instinct, or trust what Korean people tell me. The Korean people around me are telling me that the translation above is correct.
Other examples, which are the same as the examples earlier, just conjugated differently:
너의 부모님이 이혼하신다니 안됐다 = It’s too bad that your parents will get a divorce (now that I have heard that your parents will get a divorce, it is too bad)
우리 집 앞에 경찰서가 생긴다니 다행이다 = Thankfully a police station will be built in-front of our house (Now that I have heard there will be a police station built in-front of our house, I am thankful)
북극에 있는 빙하가 다 녹는다니 큰 일이다 = It is a big problem that all the glaciers in the north pole will melt (After hearing that all the glaciers in the North pole will melt, (I can see that) this is a big problem
That’s it for this lesson!