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Lesson 73: Instead (대신에)

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Instead: 대신(에)
차라리
Instead: ~말고

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
오락실 = arcade

Examples:
저는 오락실에서 게임을 하면서 자랐어요
= I grew up playing games in arcades

오락실에 갈 거라서 동전을 꼭 챙겨서 가야 돼요
= I’m going to an arcade, so I need to bring coins

학교에 가는 것 대신에 차라리 오락실에 가자!
= Instead of going to school, let’s go to the arcade

식은땀 = cold sweat

Common Usages:
식은땀이 나다 = to be in a cold sweat

Examples:
그 소식을 듣고 식은땀이 났어요
= I heard that news and was in a cold sweat

아플 때 식은땀을 흘리면 뜨거운 샤워를 하는 것 대신에 차가운 샤워를 해야 돼요
= When you are sick, if you have “cold sweats,” instead of having a hot shower, you should have a cold shower

집사람 = wife

Notes: I wouldn’t call my wife “집사람,” but a lot of older people do. Officially, this is a “softer” way to refer to your wife, but it is used more by the older generation.

Examples:
저의 집사람은 잠시 해외에 있는 친척을 만나러 갔어요
= My wife went to meet relatives abroad for a while

와이프를 집사람이라고 부르는 것 대신에 주부라서 아내라고 부를 거예요
= Instead of calling my wife “house person,” I will call her “wife” because she is a housewife

상태 = condition/state

Common Usages:
비상상태 = emergency condition/situation
상태가 안 좋다 = for one to not feel well, or for something to be poor condition

Examples:
비상상태에서는 의자를 구명조끼로도 쓸 수 있다
= In an emergency situation, you can also use your seat as a life jacket

몸 상태가 안 좋아서 친척을 보러 가는 것 대신에 집에 있을 거예요
= My body (condition) is not good, so instead of going to see my relatives, I will stay home

모든 물체는 진공상태에서 떨어지면 무게에 상관없이 동시에 떨어져요
= All objects, when falling in a vacuum, fall at the same rate regardless of weight

머리띠 = hairband

Examples:
머리핀 대신에 머리띠를 주세요 = Give me the hairband instead of the/a hairpin
앞머리가 엉망이라서 머리띠를 해야 돼요 = My bangs are messy so I need to wear a hairband
요즘에 여자 고등학생들이 머리띠를 많이 하고 다녀요 = These days high school girls wear hair bands a lot

머리핀 = hairpin

Common Usages:
머리핀을 꽂다 = to put in a hair pin

Examples:
머리핀 대신에 머리띠를 주세요 = Give me the hairband instead of the/a hairpin
머리핀을 하면 더 예쁠 것 같아요 = If you put a hair pin in you will be prettier
그 원피스를 입고 빨간색 머리핀을 하면 잘 어울릴 것 같아요 = If you put that dress on and put that red hair pin in your hair they will go well together

친척 = relatives

Common Usages:
먼 친척 = distant relatives

Examples:
이번 주말에 친척들이 올 거니까 우리는 하루 종일 집 청소를 했어요
= Are relatives are coming this weekend, so we cleaned the house all day

몸 상태가 안 좋아서 친척을 보러 가는 것 대신에 집에 있을 거예요
= My body (condition) is not good, so instead of going to see my relatives, I will stay home

재능 = talent

Common Usages:
재능기부 = using one’s talent to help people

Examples:
그 학생은 그림을 잘 그리는 재능을 가지고 있어요
= That student has a talent for drawing

사람의 마음을 잘 들여다보는 것은 뛰어난 재능이에요
= Knowing how to read people’s minds is an outstanding talent

언어를 배우는 재능이 있는 것 같아요
= It seems as though you have a talent/knack for learning languages

부피 = volume, girth, width

Examples:
부피 대신에 가로만 재 보세요 = Instead of the volume, just measure the width

줄자가 없어서 이 박스 부피를 못 잴 거예요
= I don’t have a tape measurer so I won’t be able to measure the girth/width of this box

이 공기청정기 부피가 너무 커서 제 방에 못 들어갈 것 같아요
= The width of this air purifier is too big, so it won’t fit in the bedroom

주부 = housewife

Examples:
요즘에는 여자들이 주부로 있는 것보다는 일을 하는 것을 선호해요
= These days, women prefer working more than being a housewife

저의 와이프는 5년 동안 가정주부로 있다 한달 전에 일을 시작했어요
= My wife was a housewife for five years and just started a job one month ago

먼지 = dust

Common Usages:
미세먼지 = fine/micro dust (in the air)

Examples:
먼지 때문에 밖에 나가는 것 대신에 집에 있자
= Because of the dust, instead of going outside, let’s stay in the house

솔이 있으면 먼지 청소를 할 때 편해요
= If you have a brush, it is easy/comfortable to clean dust

분필을 쓰면 먼지가 생겨서 분필 대신에 마커를 쓰는 학교가 많아요
= When you use chalk dust forms so there are a lot of schools that use markers instead of chalk

거품 = bubble

Common Usages:
거품이 터지다 = for a bubble to burst
거품이 꺼지다 = for a market bubble to “burst”

Examples:
우유 거품 말고 진짜 우유를 많이 주세요
= Please give me real milk, not milk bubbles/foam

재료를 다 섞다가 거품이 생겼어요
= While mixing all the ingredients, bubbles formed

부동산 시장의 거품이 드디어 꺼졌어요
= The housing market bubble has finally burst

증거 = evidence

Common Usages:
과학적인 증거 = scientific proof
증거를 인멸하다 = to destroy evidence

Examples:
소문 말고 확실한 증거가 필요해요 = We need evidence, not a rumor
그 남자가 살인을 저질렀다는 증거가 없어요 = There is no evidence that man committed the murder

하절(기) = summer

Notes: 하절기, because of the use of 기 (期), meaning “period of time,” specifically refers to the time period of the season. 하절 simply refers to the season itself, and is often placed before another noun to indicate that something is a “summer” version of that noun. For example:

하절 스포츠 = summer sport

Examples:
이 수영장은 동절기 말고 하절기에만 열어요
= This swimming pool is open only in the summer (season), not the winter (season)

하철기에는 보통 가스비가 동절기에 비해 훨씬 적게 나와요
= The gas bill is usually much lower in the summer compared to winter

동절(기) = winter

Notes: 동절기, because of the use of 기 (期), meaning “period of time,” specifically refers to the time period of the season. 동절 simply refers to the season itself, and is often placed before another noun to indicate that something is a “winter” version of that noun. For example:

동절 스포츠 = winter sport

Examples:
이 수영장은 동절기 말고 하절기에만 열어요
= This swimming pool is open only in the summer (season), not the winter (season)

하철기에는 보통 가스비가 동절기에 비해 훨씬 적게 나와요
= The gas bill is usually much lower in the summer compared to winter

자정 = midnight

Examples:
지금 말고 자정 무렵에 가는 게 어때요? = Not now, how about going around midnight?
자정이 되면 새로운 날이 시작된다 = When midnight strikes, a new day starts
그날 밤 자정부터 그 법이 바뀌어요 = That law changed from midnight on that day
저는 자정 이후에 오는 전화는 받지 않아요 = I don’t receive phone calls after midnight

Verbs:
납치하다 = to kidnap

Common Usages:
납치범 = kidnapper

Examples:
아이는 자기가 납치된 데에 다시 가고 싶지 않아요
= The child does not want to return to the place where he was kidnapped

그 부모를 협박하기 위해 돈을 가져가는 대신에 아이들을 납치했어요
= In order to threaten the parents, instead of taking money, they kidnapped the kids

협박하다 = to threaten

Common Usages:
협박범 = a person who threatens, “blackmailer”

Examples:
돈을 안 주면 때리겠다고 협박했어요
= He threatened to hit me if I didn’t give the money

우리 부장님은 맨날 협박하는 말투로 말을 해요
= Our boss always speaks in a threatening voice

그 부모를 협박하기 위해 돈을 가져가는 대신에 아이들을 납치했어요
= In order to threaten the parents, instead of taking money, they kidnapped the kids

쏟다 = to pour, to spill

Examples:
커피를 쏟아 손이 끈적거려요 = My hands are sticky after spilling coffee on them

애기가 밥을 먹다가 음식을 다 쏟았어요
= The baby was eating (the food) and then he spilled it all over the floor

바닥에 물을 쏟아서 얼른 휴지로 닦았어요
= I spilled water on the ground, so I wiped it up with a paper towel quickly

재다 = to measure, to weigh, to time

Common Usages:
조건을 재다 = to weigh the terms of something
길이를 재다 = to measure the length
무게를 재다 = to measure the weight of something (to weigh)
몸무게를 재다 = to measure one’s body weight
줄의 길이를 자로 재다 = measure the length of a line with a ruler

Examples:
각도를 잴 줄 알아요 = I know how to measure the angle
부피 대신에 가로만 재 보세요 = Instead of the volume, just measure the width
맥박을 쟀는데 맥박이 1초에 두 번씩 뛰어요 = I measured your pulse, and your heart is beating twice per second

쥐다 = to hold with one’s hands

Common Usages:
권력을 쥐다 = to hold power
칼자루를 쥐다 = to have/hold the final say

Examples:
캐나다에서 영국 왕비가 실권을 쥐는 줄 알았어요
= I thought the Queen of England held all the power in Canada

그 문제에 대한 해답을 쥐고 있는 사람은 바로 저에요
= I am the person who holds/has the answer to that problem

Adjectives:
굉장하다 = to be wonderful, to be marvelous

Examples:
굉장한 결과가 나왔어요 = We got a wonderful result
한국 대통령의 연설은 굉장했다 = The Korean president’s speech was wonderful
한국 가수의 공연의 규모는 굉장했다 = The scale of Korean singer’s concerts are magnificent

Adverbs and Other Words:
굉장히 = very

Examples:
우리 할아버지가 사는 집은 굉장히 크고 아름답다
= The house that our grandfather lives in is very big and beautiful

이 행사에는 전 세계의 대통령이 참석하기 때문에 규모가 굉장히 커요
= The scale of this event is incredibly big because presidents from the whole world will attend

무렵 = around that time

Common Usages:
해질 무렵 = around the time of sunset

Examples:
해질 무렵에 바라보는 하늘이 제일 아름다워요
= Around (the time of) sunset is when

학교를 졸업할 무렵 저는 이미 집을 나왔어요
= I had already left home around the time that I graduated from school

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn how about the word “대신,” which can be used in a few different ways to have the meaning of “instead.” In addition to this, you will learn a few other concepts and words that have the same or similar meaning to 대신. Let’s get started.

 

Instead: 대신(에)

If you look up the word “대신” in the dictionary, you will see “instead” as the English translation. Though there are times when no particle needs to be attached to it (I will get to those later), ~에 is usually attached to 대신 when it is used. The simplest way to use this word is immediately after a noun with no additional grammar. For example:

밥 대신에 = instead of rice
연필 대신에 = instead of a pencil
우유 대신에 = instead of milk
머리핀 대신에 = instead of a hairpin
부피 대신에 = instead of the volume

Each of these can then go into a sentence conveying that meaning. For example:

저는 밥 대신에 빵을 먹었어요 = Instead of eating rice, I ate bread
저는 연필 대신에 펜을 쓸 거예요 = Instead of using a pencil, I will use a pen
애기는 우유 대신에 물만 마시고 싶어요 = Instead of milk, the baby wants to drink only water
머리핀 대신에 머리띠를 주세요 = Give me the hairband instead of the/a hairpin
부피 대신에 가로만 재 보세요 = Instead of the volume, just measure the width

This is pretty simple when you are just talking about nouns, but if you want to express that one does an action instead of another action, there are two ways you can do this. Both ways involve using the ~는 것 principle.

If you want to say “instead of eating rice…” you could do either of the following:

1) 밥을 먹는 것 대신에
2) 밥을 먹는 대신에

In the first example, you are using ~는 것 to change 밥을 먹다 into a clause that describes a noun. “것” then acts as the noun and 대신에 can be used after it. For example:

밥 대신에 = instead of rice
밥을 먹는 것 대신에 = instead of eating rice

In the second example, 대신 replaces 것and acts as the noun.

Regardless of what word acts as the noun, and regardless of the slightly different appearances between the two sentences – they have exactly the same meaning, and Korean people cannot distinguish them.

The only difference between using the ~는 것 principle and not using it would be the same as expressed in English. Notice the slightly difference nuisance between the first sentence and the second and third:

밥 대신에 = instead of rice
밥을 먹는 것 대신에 = instead of eating rice
밥을 먹는 대신에 = instead of eating rice

Any of these grammatical forms could then go into sentences. Below are many examples:

지금 가는 것 대신에 자정 후에 나가자
= Instead of going now, let’s go out after midnight

먼지 때문에 밖에 나가는 것 대신에 집에 있자
= Because of the dust, instead of going outside, let’s stay in the house

안산에서 사는 것 대신에 의정부에서 살고 싶어요
= Instead of living in Ansan, I want to live in Uijeongbu

그냥 앉아 있는 것 대신에 헬스장에 가서 운동하자!
= Instead of just sitting here, let’s go to the gym and exercise!

고등학교에서 일하는 대신에 초등학교에서 일하고 싶어요
= Instead of working in a high school, I want to work in an elementary school

몸 상태가 안 좋아서 친척을 보러 가는 것 대신에 집에 있을 거예요
= My body (condition) is not good, so instead of going to see my relatives, I will stay home

그 부모를 협박하기 위해 돈을 가져가는 대신에 아이들을 납치했어요
= In order to threaten the parents, instead of taking money, they kidnapped the kids

와이프를 집사람이라고 부르는 것 대신에 주부라서 아내라고 부를 거예요
= Instead of calling my wife “house person,” I will call her “wife” because she is a housewife

아플 때 식은땀을 흘리면 뜨거운 샤워를 하는 것 대신에 차가운 샤워를 해야 돼요
= When you are sick, if you have “cold sweats,” instead of having a hot shower, you should have a cold shower

Notice that in all examples, the present tense of ~는 것 is always used. Even if you are talking about something in the past or future, you should always use ~는 것 대신에 (or ~는 대신에) and neither of the following:

밥을 먹은 대신에 빵을 먹었어요 = incorrect
연필을 쓸 대신에 펜을 쓸 거예요 = incorrect

 

차라리

The word “차라리” is another one of those words that has very little meaning on its own, but intensifies a feeling within particular sentences. “차라리” is used in sentences when one is talking about doing one action over another. Because of this usage, it is often used in sentences with “대신에.” For example:

학교에 가는 것 대신에 차라리 오락실에 가자! = Instead of going to school, let’s go to the arcade

The beauty of using “차라리” is that you don’t always need to waste your time saying “instead of.” Let’s look at the following example:

Person 1: 학교에 갈래요? = Shall we go to school?
Person 2: 학교에 가는 것 대신에 오락실 가자! = Instead of going to school, let’s go to the arcade!

That second sentence could be shortened to:
Person 1: 학교에 갈래요? = Shall we go to school?
Person 2: 오락실 가자! = Let’s go to the arcade!

But that sentence is missing something when written like that. When written like that, the two sentences don’t have any logical connection between them. However, by using “차라리” a feeling is given to the sentence that the stated action is preferred over some other action. Therefore, by using “차라리” in the response above, the speaker can indicate that he/she “doesn’t “want to go to school” without explicitly stating it. For example:

Person 1: 학교에 갈래요? = Shall we go to school?
Person 2: 차라리 오락실 가자! = Instead of doing that, let’s go to the arcade!

대신 can serve this same purpose as well. In that example, by using대신 (without 에), instead of차라리, you can create the same meaning. For example:

Person 1: 학교에 갈래요? = Shall we go to school?
Person 2: 대신 오락실 가자! = Instead, let’s go to the arcade!

Let’s look at another example. If your friend suggested the following:
밖에 나갈래요? = Shall we go outside?

There are many ways that you could respond. For example:

밖에 나가는 것 대신에 여기서 있자 = Instead of going outside, let’s stay here
밖에 나가는 대신에 여기서 있자 = Instead of going outside, let’s stay here
밖에 나가는 것 대신에 차라리 여기서 있자 = Instead of going outside, let’s stay here
밖에 나가는 대신에 차라리 여기서 있자 = Instead of going outside, let’s stay here
차라리 여기서 있자 = I’d rather stay here
대신 여기서 있자 = I’d rather stay here

Pretty simple once you hear the word 차라리 said in conversation a couple of times. It is actually a very common word, but not one that foreign people learn very early.

There is one more concept that can have a similar meaning to all this that I would like to talk about before I finish.

 

 

Instead: ~말고

In Lesson 40 you learned about the negative imperative mood. At the end of that lesson, you learned that you could make sentences like this:

매일 운동을 하지 말고 많이 쉬세요 = Don’t exercise every day, and get lots of rest
그렇게 하지 말고 내 말을 들어봐 = Don’t do it like that, and listen to what I have to say

I guess you could also translate those sentences using “instead.” For example:

매일 운동을 하지 말고 많이 쉬세요 = Instead of exercising every day, get lots of rest
그렇게 하지 말고 내 말을 들어봐 = Instead of doing it like that, listen to what I have to say

It is also possible to just use “말고” (instead of using ~지 말고 with a verb) to have a similar meaning to just using 대신 with a noun. For example:

밥 말고 빵 먹을래요?

The English translation could use the word “instead,” or it could be expressed using other words in English. For example:

밥 말고 빵 먹을래요?
= Instead of rice, shall we eat bread?
= Shall we eat bread, and not rice?

Below are more examples:

소문 말고 확실한 증거가 필요해요 = We need evidence, not a rumor
지금 말고 자정 무렵에 가는 게 어때요? = Not now, how about going around midnight?
우유 거품 말고 진짜 우유를 많이 주세요 = Please give me real milk, not milk bubbles/foam
이 수영장은 동절기 말고 하절기에만 열어요 = This swimming pool is open only in the summer (season), not the winter (season)

Some accents in Korea (usually older people who grew up in the countryside somewhere) change the pronunciation of “말고” to “말구.” I’ve also noticed that younger people are saying “말구” these days in an attempt to sound cute. Give it a try sometime!

That’s it for this lesson!

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