뇌물 = bribe
피로감 = fatigue
댁 = one’s residence/home
교무 = academic affairs
강수량 = precipitation
피해자 = victim
금메달 = gold medal
상금 = prize money
학과 = a department in school
물가 = the area around a body of water
욕구 = desire, craving
직사각형 = rectangle
정사각형 = square
동그라미 = circle
삼각형 = triangle
강요하다 = to force, to impose
이주하다 = to immigrate
양치질하다 = to brush one’s teeth
빗겨주다 = to comb one’s hair
갖추다 = to prepare, make preparations for
비기다 = to tie in a match, game
부과하다 = to impose, to levy
맞물리다 = to be interlocked
피로하다 = to be tired
삭막하다 = to be dreary, desolate
Adverbs and Other Words:
깨끗이 = cleanly
For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.
In this lesson, you will learn about the Korean grammatical principle of ~도록, which has confused foreign learners of Korean for ages. There are three common meanings of ~도록, but I will break it all down for you step by step, so you have no reason to worry. Let’s get started.
The First Meaning of ~도록: To the Extent That
In this first meaning, ~도록 attaches directly to a verb or adjective in a sentence or clause to have the meaning of “to the point that” or “to the extent that.” Typically, these sentences are straightforward:
우리는 발이 아프도록 걸어 다녔어요 = We walked around to the extent that our feet started hurting
군인들은 눈을 감고 총을 쏠 수 있도록 훈련을 받았다 = The soldiers trained to the extent that they could shoot guns with their eyes closed
제가 짜장면을 질리도록 먹었어요 = I ate 짜장면 to the extent that I was sick of it
There is not much else I can say to describe the sentences above. Using ~도록 in those situations is simply a means of putting it in place of “to the point that” in English.
This same meaning, however, can often replace “~ㄹ/을 때까지” in sentences. You should know from previous studies that “~ㄹ/을 때까지” means “until/to (a certain) point.” For example:
제가 죽을 때까지… = Until I die…
제가 도착할 때까지… = Until I arrive…
~도록 can replace “~ㄹ/을 때까지” in sentences where the meaning implied is “to the extent that…” For example, if I were to write:
제가 죽을 때까지 당신을 사랑할 거예요 = I will love you until I die,
You can replace “~을 때까지” with ~도록 because that sentence essentially means:
제가 죽도록 당신을 사랑할 거예요 = I love you to the extent that, for my whole life, until I die, I will love you
Notice that the meaning that is being expressed in that sentence is that you love somebody to a certain extent. In other cases where ~ㄹ/을 때까지 is used (where this meaning of “extent” is not implied), you cannot substitute with ~도록. For example:
제가 도착할 때까지 기다리면 안 돼요? = Could you wait for me until I arrive?
By substituting ~ㄹ/을 때까지 with ~도록, you would create this meaning:
제가 도착하도록 기다리면 안 돼요? = Could you wait for me to the extent that I arrive?
This doesn’t make sense. Therefore, you can use this usage in two ways that have similar meanings:
1) To indicate that something is/was/will be done to the “extent” of something. For example:
- 선수는 숨을 못 쉬도록 뛰었어요 = The athlete ran to the extent that he couldn’t breathe
2) To replace “~ㄹ/을 때까지” in situations where one is describing that something will be done to a certain extent until a certain time.
- 우리는 늦을 때까지 얘기했어요 = We talked until late
- 우리는 늦도록 얘기했어요 = We talked to the extent that it was late/We talked so much that…
A common word that ~도록 is used with is “지나다.” By using “지나도록,” you can emphasize that a certain amount of time has passed since something happened. For example:
우리는 3년이 지나도록 못 만났어요 = We haven’t met in so long (to the extent that) it has been 3 years since we met
이틀이 지나도록 밥을 안 먹었어요 = I haven’t eaten in so long (to the extent that) it has been 2 days since I last ate
Heh. I guess you can see why some people may be confused with this grammatical form. With any confusing grammatical form (like this one), I highly recommend not using it in speech for a few months. During this time, although you will understand it when you see it written (or hear it being said), you should take this time for your brain to better understand when it can be used. Then, once you have had a lot of exposure to it, you will be more prepared to use it in conversation.
But, we’re not done yet. Let’s look at the other meanings.
The Second Meaning of ~도록: So That, In Order to
The second meaning has a meaning closest to ~기 위해 (taught in Lesson 32). You can place ~도록 after adjectives or verbs to have the meaning of “in order to.” For example:
아침에 일찍 일어나도록 어젯밤에 일찍 잤어요 = I went to bed early last night for the purpose of (in order to) get up early in the morning
Notice that this sentence could also be said as:
아침에 일찍 일어나기 위해 어젯밤에 일찍 잤어요 = I went to bed early last night to get up early tomorrow
버스를 놓치지 않도록 정류장으로 뛰었어요 = I ran to the bus stop in order to (so that I would) not miss the bus
This meaning of ~도록 is very commonly seen in signs around Korea. For example, you may see a sign that says:
다른 승객들이 편히 탈 수 있도록 신문을 읽지 마세요 = In order for other riders to ride comfortably, please don’t read a newspaper on the train
Actually, there is a sign at the gym that I work out at that has the following message:
모든 회원님들이 사용할 수 있도록 긴 시간 동안 기계를 쓰지 마세요 = In order for other members to use them, don’t use a machine for a long time
Or, another example:
학생들이 알아들을 수 있도록 천천히 말하세요 = Speak slowly so that the students can understand you
This usage is also identical (or very very similar) to one of the usages of “~게” introduced in Lesson 56. Recall that one of the usages of “~게” is to create the meaning of “so that/in order to.” ~도록 can be replaced with ~게 in all of the example sentences in this section:
아침에 일찍 일어나게 어젯밤에 일찍 잤어요 = I went to bed early last night for the purpose of (in order to) get up early in the morning
버스를 안 놓치게 정류장으로 뛰었어요 = I ran to the bus stop in order to (so that I would) not miss the bus
다른 승객들이 편히 탈 수 있게 신문을 읽지 마세요 = In order for other riders to ride comfortably, please don’t read a newspaper on the train
모든 회원님들이 사용할 수 있게 긴 시간 동안 기계를 쓰지 마세요 = In order for other members to use them, don’t use a machine for a long time
학생들이 알아들을 수 있게 천천히 말하세요 = Speak slowly so that the students can understand you
The usage is ~도록 and ~게 is essentially the same. However, you are more likely to see ~도록 on signs and in formal writing. I would much rather say “~게” in my sentences over “~도록”. The fact that these two grammatical principles are so similar is something that comes up on the TOPIK test sometimes. It is possible that you will see questions asking you to replace ~도록 with a grammatical principle that has the same meaning. Easy peasy (aside from the fact that I wrote the TOPIK test years ago and got a question like that wrong because I didn’t know of this rule when I wrote it).
The Third Meaning of ~도록: To Command/To Make
You can also use ~도록 to give somebody a command by using any of the imperative voice conjugations discussed in Lesson 40. When doing this, you attach “~도록” to the verb that you would like somebody to do and use an imperative conjugation of “하다” after it. For example:
내일부터 하도록 하세요! = Do it from tomorrow
This is essentially the same as:
내일부터 하세요! = Do it from tomorrow
The only subtle difference is that the first one would be more likely to be used by a boss or somebody in a commanding role. It feels more like a command, like you are ordering somebody to do something.
You can also use this form to indicate that you will do something. The two most common endings attached to 하다 when it comes after ~도록 in this situation are:
제가 지금부터 열심히 일하도록 하겠습니다
제가 지금부터 열심히 일하도록 할게요
Those two sentences would be common responses to an order that was said using the “~도록 하세요” command shown above.
As you can probably guess however, the two sentences above would essentially be the same as these:
제가 지금부터 열심히 일하겠습니다
제가 지금부터 열심히 일할게요
You can also use a similar form of this to indicate that one “made” or “forced” somebody do something in the past. An example that my old Korean grammar teacher gave me a long time ago was:
부모님은 제가 대학교에 진학하도록 하셨어요 = My parents made to go to University
Just by the nature of the sentence, the word “강요하다” (to force) is often used instead of “하다” to specifically indicate that one forced somebody to do something:
부모님은 제가 대학교에 진학하도록 강요하셨어요 = My parents forced me to go to University
Note that sentences like this effectively have the same meaning/outcome of a quoted imperative sentence. For example, I could just as well say:
부모님은 저에게 대학교에 진학하라고 하셨어요 = My parents told me to go to University
This usage is probably the least common of the three that I have presented to you in this lesson; nonetheless, it is important for you to know.
Hopefully that helps in your understanding of ~도록!
That’s it for this lesson!
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