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Lesson 92: ~도록: To an extent, In order to, To make

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Translation 1
Translation 2
Translation 3
Translation 4
Translation 5

 

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
= one’s residence/home

Common Usages:
새댁 = new home
시댁 = the home of a woman’s husband’s parents
할머니 댁 = grandmother’s home

Examples:
내일 할머니 댁에 일찍 갈 수 있도록 짐을 미리 다 쌌어요
= I packed all of my bags so that I can go to grandma’s house early tomorrow

매주 시댁에 가는 것 때문에 남편과 자주 말다툼을 했어요
= We go to my parents-in-law’s home every week so I often bicker with my husband

뇌물 = bribe

Common Usages:
뇌물 수수 = accepting a bribe
뇌물을 주다 = to give a bribe
뇌물을 받다 = to accept a bribe

Examples:
중요한 선거가 곧 있으니 뇌물을 받지 않도록 주의하세요
= There is an important election soon, so be careful to not accept any bribes

뇌물 수수로 감옥에 간다면 정치인들 중에 감옥에 가지 않을 사람은 거의 없어요
= If you go to jail for receiving a bribe, there wouldn’t be any politicians who don’t go to jail

상금 = prize money

Common Usages:
우승 상금 = championship prize money

Examples:
이제 저는 이긴 팀에게 상금을 주도록 하겠습니다
= Now, I will give the prize money to the winning team

이 대회의 상금이 크기 때문에 대회를 이길 수 있도록 열심히 노력할 거예요
= The prize money for this contest is big, so I will (be sure to) try hard to win

학과 = a department in school

Common Usages:
경영학과 = department of management
체육학과 = department of physical education
경제학과 = department of economics
국문학과 = department of Korean literature

Examples:
기한 내에 서류를 갖춰서 학과에 내도록 하세요
= Be sure to prepare the documents within the timeframe and submit them to the department

국문학과에 입학하기 위해 수능시험을 준비할 때 언어영역을 제일 열심히 공부했어요
= In order to get admitted to the department of Korean literature, when preparing for the Suneung exam, you need to study the language field the hardest

소득세 = income tax

Common Usages:
종합소득세 = aggregate income tax (that includes all of one’s earnings)비
소득세 납부 = payment of income tax

Examples:
한국소득세가 미국 사람들에게 해당되지 않아요
= Korean tax doesn’t apply to Americans

소득세를 세무서에서 납부해야 정확해요
= Only if you pay your tax at the tax office will it be accurate

기한 내에 서류를 갖춰서 학과에 내도록 하세요
= Be sure to prepare the documents within the timeframe and submit them to the department

2015 년에 돈을 많이 벌어서 소득세를 얼마나 낼 것 같아요?
= In 2015, you earned a lot of money, so how much tax will you (probably) have to pay?

피로감 = fatigue

Common Usages:
피로감이 몰려오다 = for one to be overcome with fatigue

Examples:
자전거를 피로감이 느껴지도록 빨리 탔어요 = I rode my bike to the point that I felt fatigued

요즘 너무 많은 정보로 인해 인터넷을 할 때 피로감이 느껴져요
= These days people feel fatigued when they use the internet because of an excess of information

피해자 = victim

Common Usages:
지진 피해자 = earthquake victim
피해자와 협의하다 = to consult with a victim

Examples:
우리는 피해자들을 구하려고 노력해 볼 거예요
= We will try to save the victims

그 범죄자는 범죄를 저지를 때 피해자가 자기를 알아볼 수 없도록 마스크를 써요
= The criminal wears a mask so that the victims can’t recognize him when he commits a crime

금메달 = gold medal

Common Usages:
금메달을 따다 = to win a gold medal

Examples:
금메달을 따기 위해 맨날 죽도록 운동했어요
= In order to win the gold medal, I exercised every day to the point that I would die

슬기가 10 년 동안 연습하다 보면 올림픽 금메달을 딸 수 있을 것 같아요
= If 슬기 (continually) practiced for 10 years, she will probably be able to win an
Olympic gold medal

삼각형 = triangle

Examples:
오늘은 삼각형, 직사각형과 같은 도형에 대해 배울 거예요
= Today we will learn about triangles, rectangles and similar shapes

삼각형 모양으로 만들어진 김밥이라 해서 삼각김밥이라고 불려요
= It is kimbap made into triangle shapes, so it is called a kimbap triangle

직사각형 = rectangle

Examples:
네팔 국기는 유일하게 직사각형이 아닌 국기예요
= Nepal’s flag is the only flag that isn’t rectangular

오늘은 삼각형, 직사각형과 같은 도형에 대해 배울 거예요
= Today we will learn about triangles, rectangles and similar shapes

정사각형 = square

Examples:
정사각형의 면적을 구하려면 가로와 세로를 곱하면 돼요
= In order to find the area of a square, you can multiply its length by its width

정사각형은 가로와 세로의 길이가 똑같은 도형을 말해요
= A square is said to be a shape where the length and width are exactly the same length

동그라미 = circle

Examples:
선생님이 학생들을 동그라미 모양으로 서도록 했어요
= The teacher made the students stand in a circle

정답이 맞으면 동그라미, 틀리면 엑스자 모양을 손으로 만들어주세요
= Make a circle with your hand if it is correct, and an X if it is incorrect please

미세먼지 = microdust

Common Usages:
초미세먼지 = ultra-fine microduct (the 2.5 ppm variety)
미세먼지 마스크 = microdust mask

Examples:
미세먼지가 심한 날에 목이 아프지 않도록 꼭 마스크를 써야 돼요
= On days that the micro-dust is severe, you should definitely wear a mask so that your throat doesn’t get sore

초미세먼지는 미세먼지보다 입자가 훨씬 작아서 몸에 더 잘 흡수되기 때문에 훨씬 더 위험해요
= The ultra-fine microdust particle is much smaller than (regular) microdust, so it can be absorbed easier and therefore it is much more danger

Verbs:
따다 = to get, to obtain, to win

Common Usages:
학위를 따다 = to obtain a degree
자격증을 따다 = to get a certificate
운전면허증을 따다 = to get a driver’s license

Examples:
저는 운전면허를 16 살 때 땄어요
= I got my driver’s license when I was 16 years old

슬기가 10 년 동안 연습하다 보면 올림픽 금메달을 딸 수 있을 것 같아요
= If 슬기 (continually) practiced for 10 years, she will probably be able to win an
Olympic gold medal

닳다 = to be worn down

Notes: This word is used in the Korean national anthem. The first verse of the anthem is: 동해 물과 백두산이 마르고 닳도록…

Idioms:
발바닥이 닳도록 = doing something so hard/often to the point that the soles of one’s feet get worn down
손바닥이 닳도록 빌다 = to beg to the point that one’s hands are worn down

Common Usages:
입이 닳다 = to say something so much that one’s mouth gets worn down
신발이 닳다 = for shoes to be worn out
건전지가/배터리가 다 닳다 = for a battery to be dead

Examples:
3년 전부터 그 회사 주식을 사라고 입이 닳도록 친구에게 말했지만 사지 않았다
= I told me friend for three years to buy stock in that company, to the point that my lips were worn down, but he never bought any

부모님 몰래 외박을 하고 집에 돌아와서 손바닥이 닳도록 빌었지만 부모님의 화가 풀리지 않았다
= I slept somewhere else without my parents knowing, and as soon as I came home, I begged them (to the point that my palms were worn down), but it wasn’t enough to calm their rage

갖추다 = to prepare, make preparations for

Common Usages:
구색을 갖추다 = preparing an assortment

Examples:
기한 내에 서류를 갖춰서 학과에 내도록 하세요
= Be sure to prepare the documents within the timeframe and submit them to the department

이 가게를 둘러보다 보니 몇몇 상품들은 그냥 구색을 갖추기 위해 갖다 놓은 게 보였다
= While looking around this store, it seems like some of the products are there just to make it look like they have an assortment of products

비기다 = to tie in a match, game

Common Usages:
경기를 비기다 = to tie a match, game

Examples:
지난 경기를 안타깝게 비겨서 이번에 꼭 이기도록 할 거예요
= We unfortunately tied the previous match, so this time I will (be sure to) win

어제는 네가 이겼지만 오늘은 내가 이겼으니 우리 서로 비긴 거다!
= Yesterday you won, and today I won, so let’s just say that we tied each other!

부과하다 = to impose, to levy

The noun form of this verb “부과” translates to “a levy.”

Common Usages:
벌금을 부과하다 = to impose a fine
세금을 부과하다 = to impose taxes
과태료를 부과하다 = to impose a fine

Examples:
적발 시 10 만원의 과태료가 부과됩니다
= If caught, a fine of 100,000 won will be imposed

일반차량 주차시 즉시 과태료가 부과됩니다
= If you park a regular vehicle here, a fine will be imposed immediately

사슴사냥은 불법이니 적발 시 과태료가 부과됩니다
= Deer hunting is illegal, so if caught, a fine will be imposed

소득세를 기한 안에 내지 않으면 벌금이 부과되기 때문에 꼭 3 월 31 일까지 내도록 하세요
= If you don’t pay your taxes in the timeframe, a fine will be imposed, so be sure to pay by March 31st

강요하다 = to force, to impose

Examples:
부모님은 제가 대학교에 진학하도록 강요하셨어요
= My parents forced me to go to University

선배가 담배를 피라고 자꾸 강요해서 어쩔 수 없이 폈어요
= My upper-classman kept forcing me to smoke, so there was really nothing I could do

이주하다 = to immigrate

The noun form of this verb “이주” translates to “immigration.”

Common Usages:
이주민 = immigrant

Examples:
1980년대에 한국에서 독일로 이주한 사람들이 많았다
= There are a lot of people who immigrated from Korea to Germany in the 1980s

이곳은 세계 각국에서 이주한 이주민들이 모여 사는 지역이다
= This place is a district where immigrants who immigrated from around the world gather

저지르다 = to commit a crime

This word follows the 르 irregular.

Common Usages:
범죄를 저지르다 = to commit crime

Examples:
범죄를 저지르면 감옥에 가야 돼요
= If you commit a crime, you need to go to prison

이 남자는 살인을 저지른 죄수로 곧 감옥에 수감될 예정입니다.
= This prisoner who committed murder will soon be locked up in a prison

범죄를 저지른 사람이 양심에 가책을 느낄 거라서 곧 자수하겠지 뭐
= People that commit crimes will feel the guilt on the conscious and will eventually turn themselves in

그 범죄자는 범죄를 저지를 때 피해자가 자기를 알아볼 수 없도록 마스크를 써요
= The criminal wears a mask to make his victims not recognize him when he commits a crime

옛날에는 큰 죄를 저지른 사람에게는 벌로써 독약이 담긴 음식을 먹게 했어요
= A long time ago, as punishment for commitment of serious crimes, people were forced to eat poisoned food

양치질하다 = to brush one’s teeth

The noun form of this verb “양치질” translates to “brushing teeth.”

Common Usages:
구석구석 양치질하다 = to brush one’s teeth thoroughly (in all crooks and crannies)

Examples:
컵을 쓰면 양치를 할 때 양칫물을 아낄 수 있어요
= If you use a cup when you brush your teeth, you can save water

입 냄새가 나지 않도록 매일 양치질을 열심히 해요
= I brush my teeth well everyday so that my mouth/breath doesn’t smell

치약을 너무 많이 묻혀서 양치를 하는 것은 좋지 않아요
= It is not good to brush your teeth using too much toothpaste

Adjectives:
피로하다 = to be tired, to be fatigued

Examples:
야근이 반복될수록 몸이 더욱 피로해져서 일에 집중하기 힘들어요
= As I continue to do the night shift over and over, my body gets more and more fatigued and it is hard to focus on work

계속되는 사람들이 주식과 부동산 이야기로 저의 정신이 점점 피로해졌어요
= I’m getting more and more tired of hearing about people constantly talking about real-estate and investments

삭막하다 = to be dreary, desolate

Common Usages:
분위기가 삭막하다 = for the mood/atmosphere to be dreary

Examples:
이 교실환경이 너무 삭막해서 다른 데에 가야 돼요
= The environment/atmosphere of this classroom is so desolate we should go somewhere else

이 삭막한 공간을 리모델링해서 새로운 공간으로 만들어 내도록 하겠습니다
= We will renovate this dreary space and turn it into a new one

미세하다 = to be minute

Examples:
창문에 미세하게 금이 가 있어서 창문이 깨지기 전에 교체해야 돼요
= There is a minute crack on the window so you should replace it before it breaks

진품과 가품의 차이가 너무 미세해서 전문가가 아니면 알아채기 힘들어요
= There is such a minute difference between a genuine product and a counterfeit, unless you are an expert it is hard to tell the difference

Adverbs and Other Words:
깨끗이 = cleanly

Common Usages:
깨끗이 청소하다 = to clean well, thoroughly

Examples:
소독약을 바르기 전에 우선 손을 깨끗이 씻어 주세요
= Before you rub disinfectant on your hands, you should wash them cleanly

엄마 아빠에게 칭찬을 받을 수 있도록 방을 깨끗이 청소했어요
= I cleaned my room (cleanly) so that I could receive praise from mom and dad

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn about the Korean grammatical principle ~도록, which has confused foreign learners of Korean for ages. I think the confusion with this grammatical principal stems from the fact that there are so many translations for the same Korean usage. I will break it all down for you step by step, so you have no reason to worry. Let’s get started.

 

 

~도록: To cause a situation to occur

There are many ways that ~도록 can be translated to English. As is typical with Korean, knowing what translation to use in English depends on the situation in which ~도록 is used. Although the English translation might differ, the Korean usage of ~도록 is actually the same in all cases. You might be tempted to separate the uses of ~도록 based on their English translations, but one of the goals of this lesson is to show that all of the sentences with ~도록 have a common theme: ~도록 causes some situation to occur.

Depending on who is causing what, or what is causing whom, or who is causing whom, or what is causing what, the translation to English might be different. Here we go.

Translation 1: So that, in order to…
~도록 can be attached to adjectives or verbs to have the meaning of “so that” or “in order to.” For example:

아침에 일찍 일어나도록 어젯밤에 일찍 잤어요
= I went to bed early last night in order to get up early in the morning

One way to look at this is to think that the clause before ~도록 (getting up early) “occurs” because of the main action in the sentence (going to bed early). This fits with my description above where I state that ~도록 causes some situation to occur. This is also true for the sentences below:

버스를 놓치지 않도록 정류장으로 뛰어 갔어요
= I ran to the bus stop so that I would not miss the bus

학생들이 알아들을 수 있도록 천천히 말했어요
= I spoke slowly so that the students could understand me

입 냄새가 나지 않도록 매일 양치질을 열심히 해요
= I brush my teeth well everyday so that my mouth/breath doesn’t smell

내일 할머니 댁에 일찍 갈 수 있도록 짐을 미리 다 쌌어요
= I packed all of my bags so that I can go to grandma’s house early tomorrow

엄마 아빠에게 칭찬을 받을 수 있도록 방을 깨끗이 청소했어요
= I cleaned my room (cleanly) so that I could receive praise from mom and dad

미세먼지가 심한 날에 목이 아프지 않도록 꼭 마스크를 써야 돼요
= On days that the micro-dust is severe, you should definitely wear a mask so that your throat doesn’t get sore

그 범죄자는 범죄를 저지를 때 피해자가 자기를 알아볼 수 없도록 마스크를 써요
= The criminal wears a mask so that the victims can’t recognize him when he commits a  crime

This meaning of ~도록 is very commonly seen in signs around Korea. For example, you may see signs that say:

다른 승객들이 불편하지 않도록 신문을 읽지 마세요
= Please don’t read a newspaper on the train so that other passengers are not uncomfortable

There is a sign at the gym that I work out at that has the following message:

모든 회원님들이 사용할 수 있도록 긴 시간 동안 기구를 사용하지 마세요
= Don’t use a machine for a long time so that all members can use them

—————

Recall that one of the usages of ~게 (from Lesson 56) is to create this same meaning. ~도록 can be replaced with ~게 in all of the above sentences. For example:

버스를 놓치지 않게 정류장으로 뛰어 갔어요
학생들이 알아들을 수 있게 천천히 말했어요
입 냄새가 나지 않게 매일 양치질을 열심히 해요
내일 할머니 댁에 일찍 갈 수 있게 짐을 미리 다 쌌어요
미세먼지가 심한 날에 목이 아프지 않게 꼭 마스크를 써야 돼요
그 범죄자는 범죄를 저지를 때 피해자가 자기를 알아볼 수 없게 마스크를 써요

Although ~도록 and ~게 can be used interchangeably in these types of sentences, you are more likely to see ~도록 on signs and in formal writing. I would much rather say “~게” in my sentences over “~도록.” If you plan on taking a TOPIK test, you’ll find that there are commonly questions asking you to replace ~도록 with a grammatical principle that has the same meaning. For example, the question might ask what can replace the underlined section below to have the same meaning:

버스를 놓치지 않도록 정류장으로 뛰어 갔어요

Possible choices might be:

a) 는데
b) 고
c) 게
d) 아도

Easy peasy.

 

Translation 2: I will, I will be sure to…
In the sentences above, some situation “causes” the clause before ~도록 to occur. That same idea allows ~도록 to be attached to verbs and then followed by a verb (usually 하다) in the future tense. For example:

내일까지 하도록 하겠습니다 = I will do it by tomorrow

Despite the differences in translation, try to notice the similarities with the sentences introduced in Translation 1 in the way that ~도록 is used. Again, the clause before ~도록 is being made to occur. How will it occur? Well, we don’t know that specifically, but we know that the speaker of the sentence will be taking care of it.

In essence, this is simply a way for a speaker to indicate that he will do something in the future. It is typically used in formal settings (like in a work environment) as it contains the feeling that the speaker will “be sure to” to do the action. Below are more examples:

제가 지금부터 열심히 일하도록 할게요
= I will (be sure to) work hard from now on

서류를 준비해서 오후에 주도록 하겠습니다
= I will (be sure to) prepare the documents and give them to you in the afternoon

지난 경기를 안타깝게 비겨서 이번에 꼭 이기도록 할 거예요
= We unfortunately tied the previous match, so this time I will (be sure to) win

이 대회의 상금이 크기 때문에 대회를 이길 수 있도록 열심히 노력할 거에요
= The prize money for this contest is big, so I will (be sure to) try hard to win

이 삭막한 공간을 리모델링해서 새로운 공간으로 만들어 내도록 하겠습니다
= We will renovate this dreary space and turn it into a new one

In these sentences, the speaker is indicating that he will be sure to do the action attached to ~도록. It is also possible to apply this same idea to a command.

 

Translation 3: Be sure to…

This is the same idea that I’ve been referring to since the beginning of the lesson. A speaker can use ~도록 attached to an action that he would like to be done. This could be directed at a listener, or directed at a general audience (like the general public). Again, the clause before ~도록 is being made to occur. For example:

쿠키를 사각형 모양이 되도록 만들어 주세요
= Be sure to make the cookies into a triangle shape

기한 내에 서류를 갖춰서 학과에 내도록 하세요
= Be sure to prepare the documents within the timeframe and submit them to the department

중요한 선거가 곧 있으니 뇌물을 받지 않도록 주의하세요
= There is an important election soon, so be careful to not accept any bribes

소득세를 기한 안에 내지 않으면 벌금이 부과되기 때문에 꼭 3월 31일까지 내도록 하세요
= If you don’t pay your taxes in the timeframe, a fine will be imposed, so be sure to pay by March 31st

Those commands are directed at somebody. However, it is also possible to refer to the fact that someone gave a command to someone else. This could be seen as another translation.

 

Translation 4: To make, to force
It is possible to use ~도록 to refer to a command that was given. For example:

부장님은 모든 직원들이 회의에 참석하도록 했어요
= The boss made all of the workers come to the meeting

부모님은 제가 대학교에 진학하도록 강요하셨어요
= My parents forced me to go to University

선생님이 학생들을 동그라미 모양으로 서도록 했어요
= The teacher made the students stand in a circle

As I’ve been saying this whole lesson – all of these different uses of ~도록 are the same. We just give them different translations in English, which makes us think that they should be different in Korean. Because we’re technically always talking about the same usage, it is sometimes possible for there to be more than one translation for ~도록 in a sentence. For example, the following two sentences (from “Translation 1”) would also be appropriate using the current translation:

엄마 아빠에게 칭찬을 받을 수 있도록 방을 깨끗이 청소했어요
= I cleaned my room (cleanly) to make mom and dad praise me

그 범죄자는 범죄를 저지를 때 피해자가 자기를 알아볼 수 없도록 마스크를 써요
= The criminal wears a mask to make his victims not recognize him when he commits a crime

Although there are no commands in these two sentences, you could see how the translation of “make” would work. Again, it doesn’t matter how we translate it to English. The clause attached to ~도록 is being made to happen.

 

 

Translation 5: To the point of, to the extent of…
~도록 can be used to indicate that one does an action to a certain extent. For example:

선수는 숨을 못 쉬도록 빨리 뛰었어요 = The athlete ran fast to the extent that he couldn’t breathe

By looking at this sentence, we can see immediately how this usage fits the general usage of ~도록 that we have been referring to the entire lesson. The athlete made the action of “not being able to breathe” occur because he ran so much. Again, this action was made to occur.

Below are more examples:

제가 김치를 질리도록 먹었어요  = I ate kimchi to the extent that I was sick of it
우리는 발이 아프도록 걸어 다녔어요 = We walked around to the point that our feet hurt
자전거를 피로감이 느껴지도록 빨리 탔어요 = I rode my bike to the point that I felt fatigued
군인들은 눈을 감고 총을 쏠 수 있도록 훈련을 받았다 = The soldiers trained to the extent that they could shoot guns with their eyes closed.

This style of sentence is often used as a metaphor (most commonly with 죽다) to indicate that one does something to some metaphoric extreme. For example:

제가 죽도록 당신을 사랑할 거예요 = I will love to the point that I will die
금메달을 따기 위해 맨날 죽도록 운동했어요 = In order to win the gold medal, I exercised every day to the point that I would die

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This usage is used in the Korean national anthem. The first verse of the anthem is:

동해 물과 백두산이 마르고 닳도록…

“동해 물” refers to the water in the East Sea, and “백두산” is a mountain in Korea (it’s actually on the border of North Korea and China, but has cultural significance for all Korean people). I don’t want to write the next line, because it gets confusing. However, it refers to Korea living “long and forever.”

The line above provides the metaphor that Korea will live forever, until “the East Sea is dry, and 백두산 is completely worn down” – both of which would never really happen.

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A common word that ~도록 is used with is “지나다.” By using “지나도록,” you can indicate that a certain amount of time has passed since something happened. For example:

우리는 3년이 지나도록 못 만났어요 = We haven’t met in three years
이틀이 지나도록 밥을 안 먹었어요 = I haven’t eaten in two days

My brain likes to compartmentalize things. I feel these types of sentences fit mostly with the “extent” translation above. Although you probably wouldn’t normally say it like this, you could write those sentences as:

우리는 3년이 지나도록 못 만났어요
= We haven’t met in so long (to the extent that) three years have passed since we last met!

이틀이 지나도록 밥을 안 먹었어요
= I haven’t eaten in so long (to the extent that) two days have past

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That’s it for this lesson!

Click here for a Workbook to go along with this lesson.
Click here for Korean Short Stories specifically tailored to learners at this level.

Okay, got it! Take me to the next lesson!