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Lesson 141: ~(으)로써 – From what ingredient, or by what means or tool

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Vocabulary
Introduction

~(으)로써: From what ingredient, or by what means or tool

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
콩 = bean
못 = nail (to hammer)
망치 = hammer
지능 = intelligence
마당 = yard
복면 = mask
별도 = separate, extra
수당 = extra pay, overtime pay
식기 = dishes, plates
한지 = Korean paper
수입 = income
낙엽 = fallen leaves
육수 = broth
인공 = artificial
초청장 = invitation card
서술형 = essay style answer
상품권 = gift certificate, voucher
포장지 = packing paper
설욕전 = revenge match

Verbs:
볶다 = to fry, to stir-fry
박다 = to drive an object into

Adjectives:
굵다 = to be thick
치열하다 = to be fierce, intense

 

 

Introduction

In this lesson, we will learn about ~(으)로써, which looks slightly similar to the grammatical principle ~(으)로서 from the previous lesson. Korean people often have trouble remembering which one is which, but let’s make sure that doesn’t happen to you! Let’s get started.

 

 

~()로써: From what ingredient, or by what means or tool

In Lesson 12, you were first introduced to ~(으)로 and learned some of the ways it can be used. Two of the most common ways ~(으)로 is used are:

To indicate from what ingredient something is made:
그 회사는 금속으로 철사를 만들어요 = That company makes wires from metal

To indicate by what means or tool an action occurs:
저는 망치로 벽에 못을 박았어요 = I put the nail in the wall using a hammer

In both situations above, you can use ~(으)로써 instead of ~(으)로. That is, you can use ~(으)로써 to indicate from what ingredient something is made, or by what means or tool an action occurs. For example:

그 회사는 금속으로써 철사를 만들어요
저는 망치로써 벽에 못을 박았어요

Now, there must be some difference, right? There is. ~(으)로써 is more stressed than ~(으)로. In fact, I would be more inclined to simply use ~(으)로 when the object it is attached to is obvious.

Of course the wires are made of metal. What else would they be made of?
Of course the nail was put in using a hammer. What else would you use?

I would be more inclined to use ~(으)로써 when the ingredient, tool or method is not obvious or not expected. For example, instead of making wire with metal, and instead of hammering a nail with a hammer, maybe these sentences would be more appropriate:

To indicate from what ingredient something is made:
요즘의 철사는 금속이 아닌 유리로써 만들어져요 = Wires these days are made out of glass, not metal

To indicate by what means or tool an action occurs:
저는 굵은 나무로써 벽에 못을 박았어요 = I put the nail in the wall using a thick piece of wood

Below are more examples that show ~(으)로써 being used to indicate the ingredient in which something is made. Due to the nature of ~(으)로써, It’s pretty easy to make sentences for this usage where the predicating verb is 만들다 or 만들어지다. I specifically tried to use some other verbs as well to have a bit more variety in the sentences.

낙엽으로써 복면을 만들었다
= I made a mask using fallen leaves

커피는 볶은 콩으로써 만들어진다
= Coffee made using roasted beans

이곳에서는 한지로써 초청장을 인쇄한다
= Here, we print invitations using Korean paper

우리는 버려진 나무로써 울타리를 지었어요
= We built a fence using discarded/thrown out wood

찌개를 맛있게 하려면 육수를 양파껍질로써 내야 돼요
= If you want to make jigae right, you should make the broth using onion peels

대부분의 마트에서 파는 소시지는 좋지 않은 고기로써 제조된다
= Most of the sausage you buy at stores (marts) are made from bad meet

Below are more examples that show ~(으)로써 being used to indicate by what means or tool an action occurs:

포장지로써 한지를 사용하기도 한다
= You can use Korean paper for packing paper, too

잘 익은 사과는 설탕으로써 사용이 가능하다
= It is possible to use really ripe apples as sugar

인간은 1000년 전에 식기로써 돌을 사용했다
= Humans used rocks as plates 1000 years ago

우리 회사는 광고로써 대부분의 수입을 올린다
= Our company earns most of its income from advertising

You might think that 수입을 올리다 would be “to increase one’s income,” however, this is simply used to indicate that one earns an income.

이 문제는 서술형으로써 꼭 10줄이상 서술해야 합니다
= This problem must be answered in essay form and be longer than ten lines

이곳은 마당으로써 사용해도 되고 정원으로써 가꿔도 돼요
= You can use this place as a yard, or grow a garden

오늘 밤에 있는 경기는 설욕전으로써 치열한 경기가 될 것이다
= The match tonight will be a fierce revenge match

저는 이별의 선물로써 남자친구에게 가장 아끼는 신발을 줬어요
= I gave my boyfriend my favorite shoes (the shoes I was saving most) as a goodbye present

이 스피커는 인공지능이 있는 기계로써 사람과 대화가 가능합니다
= It is possible for this speaker to talk with humans by using an artificial intelligence machine

주말에 일한 것에 대해 별도 수당으로써 상품권이 지급 될 예정이다
= For working on the weekend, a gift certificate will be paid as overtime pay

I never found ~(으)로써 difficult to understand or apply. As I eluded to earlier, a lot of Koreans will say it is difficult because they get confused between ~(으)로서 and ~(으)로써. With these two lessons, that should never be a problem for you!

That’s it for this lesson!