Lesson 48: Regardless of… : ~아/어도

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Regardless of…: ~아/어도
아무리
그래도

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. You might not be able to understand all of the grammar within the example sentences, but most of the grammar used will be introduced by the end of Unit 2. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
정원 = garden

Notes: In Korea, most people don’t own a house with a yard or grass. “정원” is used to refer to having a house with any form of grass, and it doesn’t necessarily need to be a garden with flowers.

Common Usages:
정원사 = gardener
정원을 가꾸다 = to look after a garden (or simply “to garden”)

Examples:
정원이 있는 집에서 사는 게 제 꿈이에요 = It is my dream to live in a house with a garden
나이가 먹으면 정원을 가꾸는 것은 좋은 운동이에요  = When you get older, doing gardening is good exercise
그 정원이 아름다워도 내일 그 장소에서 건물을 지을 거예요 = Regardless of how beautiful that garden is, tomorrow we need to build a building in that place

새끼 = baby animals

Notes: When an animal has a baby, Korean people call the babies “새끼” instead of “애기.”

Common Usages:
개새끼 = Technically this translates to a “baby dog,” but this is a very derogatory term in Korea
새끼를 낳다 = to give birth to a baby

Examples:
어미를 찾아도 이미 고양이 새끼가 다 죽었어요
= Regardless of if you find the mother, the baby cats (kittens) all died

이 강아지는 새끼를 가져서 매우 예민하니 조심해 주세요
= This dog has babies, so it is very sensitive, so please be careful

어미는 새끼에게 먹이를 주기 위해 매일 아침마다 사냥을 해요
= The mother hunts every morning in order to feed her babies

어미 = mother for animals

Notes: When an animal has a baby, Korean people don’t call the mother “어머니.” Instead, they call them “어미.” For a Korean beginner, this word usually only comes up if you read children’s stories, where the characters are often animals.

Examples:
어미를 찾아도 이미 고양이 새끼가 다 죽었어요
= Regardless of if you find the mother, the baby cats (kittens) all died

어미는 새끼에게 먹이를 주기 위해 매일 아침마다 사냥을 해요
= The mother hunts every morning in order to feed her babies

반값 = half price

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “반갑”

Common Usages:
반값할인 = half price discount

Examples:
저는 이 책을 반값에 샀어요 = I bought this shirt for half price

그 제품을 반값으로 줘도 저는 안 살 거예요
= Regardless of if you give me that product at half price, I’m not going to buy it

내일 백화점에서 몇몇 브랜드가 반값할인을 할 예정이니 꼭 가서 쇼핑을 해야 해요
= I need to go shopping in the department store tomorrow because some of the brands are scheduled to have a half-price discount

승패 = the outcome of a game (a win or loss)

Common Usages:
승패를 다투다 = to fight/compete for victory (and, by context, to not lose)
승패를 떠나… = Win or lose…

Examples:
승패를 떠나 결과를 받아들이는 자세는 매우 중요해요
= Win or lose… it is important to accept the result

오늘 삼성과 두산은 이번 시즌 우승을 위한 마지막 승패를 다툴 예정입니다
= Today, Samsung and Doosan (the sponsoring companies of two baseball teams in Korea) are scheduled to fight/compete (in the last game) for this season’s title

개별 = individual/ly

Common Usages:
개별 과제 = individual task
개별적으로 = individually

Examples:
나이가 아무리 어려도 막내를 포함해 모든 사람들은 개별로 신청해야 돼요
= Regardless of how young, you all need to apply individually, including the youngest

이 대회에 참가하고 싶은 학생은 개별적으로 신청해주세요
= Students who want to participate in this competition need to apply individually

건축 = architecture

Common Usages:
건축가 = architect
건축학 = architecture (as a field of study)

Examples:
네가 건축가가 되어도 손으로 건물을 짓지 않을 거야
= Regardless of if you become an architect, you won’t be building buildings with your hands

건축은 단순히 멋지게 짓는 게 아니라 살고 싶은 건물을 짓는 거예요
= Architecture is not simply about making “cool” buildings, but making buildings that people want to live in

한국 대학교에서 건축학을 공부하면 5년 동안 학교에 다녀야 해요
= If you want to study architecture at a Korean University, you need to study for 5 years

건축가 = architect

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “건축까”

Examples:
내일부터 건축가 박람회가 시작돼요 = The architect exhibition starts from tomorrow

네가 건축가가 되어도 손으로 건물을 짓지 않을 거야
= Regardless of if you become an architect, you won’t be building buildings with your hands

훌륭한 건축가가 되기 위해서는 끊임없이 설계도를 많이 그려 봐야 해요
= In order to become a good architect, you have to constantly try to draw blueprints

강가 = area around the river

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “강까”

Examples:
강가가 멀어도 우리는 거기 내일 가야 돼요
= Regardless of if the (area around) the lake is far, we have to go there tomorrow

강가에는 도시에서 내려온 많은 쓰레기가 쌓여 있어요
= Garbage is piled in the area around the river that comes down from the city

막내 = youngest person in the family or group of people

Common Usages:
막내 이모 = the youngest sister of one’s mother
막내 삼촌 = the youngest brother of one’s father

Examples:
저는 막내이지만 형과 누나보다 더 성숙해요
= Even though I am the youngest, I am more mature than my older brother and sister

나이가 아무리 어려도 막내를 포함해 모든 사람들은 개별로 신청해야 돼요
= Regardless of how young, you all need to apply individually, including the youngest

보통 막내들이 집에서 제일 애교를 잘 부리고 사랑을 많이 받아요
= Usually the youngest person in the family in the person who has the most “애교” (cuteness”)

마법사 = witch

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “마법싸”

Notes: 마법사 generally refers to any being that performs magic. It could also refer to a wizard or even a magician.

Examples:
어렸을 때는 정말로 마법사가 존재한다고 생각했어요
= When I was young I thought witches really existed

그 남자가 마법사라도 그 문을 열 수 없을 거예요
= Regardless of if that man is a magician, he is not going to be able to open that door

동굴 = cave

Common Usages:
동굴에 들어가다 = A kind of idiom used when men need their “alone” man time, away from their wife or girlfriend.

Examples:
동굴에는 박쥐가 많이 살아요 = There are many bats living in caves

보석을 그 동굴에 숨겨도 사람들이 찾을 거예요
= Regardless of if you hide the jewels in that cave, people are going to find it

보석 = jewel

Examples:
보석을 그 동굴에 숨겨도 사람들이 찾을 거예요
= Regardless of if you hide the jewel in that cave, people are going to find it

보석을 구매할 때는 꼭 보석의 보증서를 확인해 보세요
= When you buy a jewel, make sure you check its warrantee

제가 가장 좋아하는 보석은 언제나 변하지 않는 다이아몬드예요
= The jewel I like most is a diamond, and it will not change

수레 = cart

Notes: 수레 usually refers to the old carts that older Korean people pull around the city to use to pick up boxes for recycling.

Common Usages:
수레를 끌다 = to pull a cart
수레를 밀다 = to push a cart

Example:
종종 할머니, 할아버지들은 수레를 끌고 주변에 종이를 모아요
= Sometimes grandmothers and grandfathers (old men and women) pull carts around and pick up paper/cardboard

태풍 = typhoon

Common Usages:
태풍이 오다 = for a typhoon to come

Examples:
다음 주에 태풍이 올 거예요 = There will be a typhoon next week

태풍이 와도 내일 박람회에 가야 돼요
= Regardless of if the typhoon comes tomorrow, we have to go to the trade show/fair

우리가 제주도에 내일 갈 예정인데 태풍이 와서 갈 수 있는지 없는지 모르겠어요
= We are scheduled to go to Jeju tomorrow, but because of the typhoon we might not be able to go

오늘 밤에 전국에 태풍이 올 예정이니 꼭 창문을 닫아 주세요
= A typhoon is scheduled to come/hit the whole country tonight, so make you close your windows

박람회 = fair, exhibition

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “방남회”

Common Usages:
박람회장 = the location of an exhibition (exhibition hall)

Examples:
박람회에 같이 가자 = Let’s go to the exhibition together
내일부터 건축가 박람회가 시작돼요 = The architect exhibition starts from tomorrow
박람회 입장료는 10,000원이고 매표소에서 표는 구매하실 수 있습니다 = The admission fee for the fair is 10,000 won, and you can buy a ticket at the ticket booth

호수 = lake

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “호쑤”

Common Usages:
호숫가 = an area around a lake

Examples:
호수에서 수영할래요? = Shall we swim in the lake?

캐나다에는 레이크 루이스라는 멋진 호수가 있어요
= In Canada, there is the amazingly cool Lake Louise

모두 호수에서 수영해도 저는 안 들어가요
= Regardless of if everyone goes swimming in the lake, I am not going in

그는 자신의 아름다움에 매혹되어서 결국 호수에 빠져 죽었다
= He was captivated by its beauty, and then he eventually drowned in the lake

호숫가 = area around the lake

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “호수까”

Examples:
호숫가에는 많은 사람들이 낚시를 하고 있어요
= There are many people fishing near the lake

제가 어렸을 때는 호숫가에서 친구들과 캠핑을 하곤 했어요
= I used to camp a lot near the lake with my friends when I was young

매력 = charm

Common Usages:
매력적이다 = charming

Examples:
저의 매력은 웃을 때 보이는 귀여운 보조개예요
= My charm is that when I smile, you can see my cute dimples

여자들이 예뻐도 똑똑하지 않으면 매력이 없어요
= Regardless of how pretty girls are, if they are not smart, they have no charm

그래서 나는 네가 좋아. 너는 네가 얼마나 매력적인지 몰라
= That is why (therefore) I like you. You don’t know how charming/attractive you are

Verbs:
구입하다 = to purchase

The noun form of this word (“구입”) translates to “a purchase.”
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “구이파다”

Examples:
이 제품을 언제 구입해도 그 가격을 내야 돼요
= Regardless of when you purchase this product, you have to pay that price

이 제품을 신용카드로 구입하시면 추가 수수료가 있습니다
= If you purchase this item with a credit card, there is an additional fee

어버이날 기념으로 부모님을 위한 작은 선물을 구입했어요
= I purchased a small present for my parents to celebrate “Parent’s Day”

교환하다 = to exchange

The noun form of this word (“교환”) translates to “an exchange.”

Common Usages:
교환 가능 = exchanges are possible (usually seen on a sign at a store)
교환 불가 = exchanges are not possible (“no exchanges) (usually seen on a sign at a store)
교환 학생 = exchange student

Examples:
바지가 너무 크면 교환해! = If the pants are too big, change them!
우리 가게는 환불이나 교환을 해 주지 않습니다 = Our store doesn’t give refunds or exchanges
교환은 1주일 이내 가능합니다 = Exchanges are possible within one week

이 제품을 구매한 지 일주일이 넘었기 때문에 교환을 할 수 없어요
= You can’t exchange this product because it has been more than a week since you purchased it

특히 내가 가장 좋아한 선물은 바로 분홍색 인형이었다. 그 인형은 너무 귀엽고 색깔도 예뻤다. 우리는 생일 축하 노래를 부르고, 선물을 교환하고 맛있는 음식을 먹었다.
= My favorite present of all was the pink doll. That doll was very cute and the color was pretty. We sang ‘happy birthday,’ exchanged presents and then ate delicious food.

면담하다 = to talk face to face, to interview

Common Usages:
일대일로 면담하다 = to talk/interview one on one
개별면담 = to talk/interview one on one

Examples:
그랑 일대일로 면담하려고 해 봐도 그는 말을 안 할 거예요
= Regardless of if you try to talk with him (face to face) he won’t say anything

오늘부터 한 명씩 개별면담이 진행될 예정이니 가능한 시간을 알려 주세요
= From today, we will are scheduled to have one on one interviews, so let me know a time that you can do it (a possible time)

미루다 = to delay

Common Usages:
할 일을 미루다 = to delay something you need to do

Examples:
오늘 회의가 내일로 미뤄져서 집에 빨리 갈 수 있어요
= Today’s meeting was postponed to tomorrow, so I can go home early

어떤 일이든지 미루지 않고 미리 하면 시간을 아낄 수 있어요
= Whatever the job is, if you don’t put it off and do it in advance, you can save time

습관적으로 할 일을 미루면 원하는 목표를 이룰 수 없어요
= If you habitually delay things that you need to do, you won’t be able to achieve  the goals that you want to do

안다 = to hug

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “안따”

Examples:
남자 친구가 저를 안아 줄 때마다 저는 너무 행복해요
= Every time I hug my boyfriend, I am happy

애기를 보자마자 아빠는 애기를 안기 위해 팔을 벌렸어요
= The father opened up his arms to hug the baby as soon as he saw it

Adjectives:
달콤하다 = to be sweet

Notes: 달다 is typically only reserved to describe something that is sweet in taste. 달콤하다 can describe a sweet taste, and is also commonly used to describe other things that can be “sweet” (like one’s personality)

Common Usages:
새콤달콤하다 = to be sweet and sour

Examples:
달콤한 치킨을 안 좋아해도 이것을 한번 먹어 봐야 돼요
= Regardless of if you don’t like sweet chicken, you have to try this

내가 가장 좋아하는 카페에 가서 달콤한 카페모카와 샌드위치를 주문했다
= I went to my favorite café and ordered a sweet café mocha and a sandwich

적당히 달콤하면서도 씁쓸한 이 맛! 정말 나에게는 최고의 커피이다
= The taste is just sweet enough (adequately sweet) while being bitter at the same time

창피하다 = to be ashamed

Examples:
그 일을 하는 사람이 누구라도 창피할 거예요
= Regardless of who does this job, they will be embarrassed

우리가 헤어진 후에 남자가 저를 창피하게 했어요
= After we broke up, the man made me (feel) ashamed

저는 오늘 학생들 앞에서 노래를 했을 때 가사를 까먹어서 창피했어요
= Today when I sang in front of the students, I forgot the lyrics so I was ashamed/embarrassed

Adverbs and Other Words:
미리 = in advance/beforehand

Notes: 우선 is used when one action will happen before another action, often because the first action has priority. For example:

우선 내일 무엇을 입을지 정하기 위해 옷장을 확인했다
= First things first, in order to set what I will wear for tomorrow, I checked my closet.

At first glance, 미리 is similar. However, 미리 is more about doing something “in advance” almost in a way that one is preparing for a future action. For example:

재료를 미리 다 준비했어요 = I prepared all of the material in advance

Other Examples:
그 사실을 저한테 미리 알려줬으면 좋겠어요 = I wish you told that fact to me earlier
어떤 일이든지 미루지 않고 미리 하면 시간을 아낄 수 있어요 = Whatever the job is, if you don’t put it off and do it in advance, you can save time

일대일(로) = one on one

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “일때일(로)”

Common Usages:
일대일로 얘기하다 = to talk one on one
일대일로 면담하다 = to talk/interview one on one
일대일로 면접하다 = to talk/interview one on one
일대일로 싸우다 = to fight one on one
일대일로 상담하다 = to consult with one on one

Examples:
그랑 일대일로 면담하려고 해 봐도 그는 말을 안 할 거예요
= Regardless of if you try to talk with him (face to face) he won’t say anything

오늘 일대일 면접이 오후에 있어서 오전 내내 면접 준비를 해야 해요
= Today I have a one on one interview in the afternoon, so all morning I need to prepare for it

정기적으로 = regularly

Notes: A good translation for “정기적으로” is regularly, but I would like to explain it more thoroughly. 정 (定) indicates that something is set, and 기 (期) indicates a time period or interval. A more detailed translation would be “at regular, set time intervals.” For example:

저는 정기적으로 대만에 가서 시장조사를 해요 = I go to Taiwan regularly and do market research
저는 시골에 정기적으로 내려가요 = I go down to the country side at regular, set time intervals
사람들은 일년에 한 번 정기적으로 건강검진을 받아야 해요 = People should get a regular health checkup once per year

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn how to use ~아/어도 to connect two clauses. You will also learn about adding this to 그렇다 to make그래도 and about the word 아무리. Let’s get started.

 

 

Regardless of… : ~/어도

By adding ~아/어도 to the stem of a word at the end of one clause, the second clause is expected to occur regardless of what happens in the first clause. For example:

밥이 있어도 저는 안 먹을 거예요 = Regardless of if there is food/rice, I am not going to eat

Notice here that the clause with ~아어도 attached is a supposition. That is, it is uncertain if that clause will occur or not. The use of ~아/어도 indicates that the second clause will occur regardless of if the first clause happens or not.

I would like to take a moment to describe how this sentence differs from one that uses ~지만, which you learned in the previous lesson. When ~지만 is added to a clause, that clause is already a fact (or already was a fact, or already will be a fact). The clause that follows ~지만 is a statement that opposes this already accepted/known fact. For example, in the following sentence:

밥이 있지만 저는 안 먹을 거예요 = Even though there is food/rice, I am not going to eat

The common translation for ~아/어도 is “Regardless of if…” Below are many examples:

태풍이 와도 내일 박람회에 가야 돼요
= Regardless of if the typhoon comes tomorrow, we have to go to the trade show/fair

보석을 그 동굴에 숨겨도 사람들이 찾을 거예요
= Regardless of if you hide the jewel in that cave, people are going to find it

네가 건축가가 되어도 손으로 건물을 짓지 않을 거야
= Regardless of if you become an architect, you won’t be building buildings with your hands

그랑 일대일로 면담하려고 해 봐도 그는 말을 안 할 거예요
= Regardless of if you try to talk with him (face to face) he won’t say anything

그 제품을 반값으로 줘도 저는 안 살 거예요
= Regardless of if you give me that product at half price, I’m not going to buy it

모두 호수에서 수영해도 저는 안 들어가요
= Regardless of if everyone goes swimming in the lake, I am not going in

어미를 찾아도 이미 고양이 새끼가 다 죽었어요
= Regardless of if you find the mother, the baby cats (kittens) all died

달콤한 치킨을 안 좋아해도 이것을 한번 먹어 봐야 돼요
= Regardless of if you don’t like sweet chicken, you have to try this

그 정원이 아름다워도 내일 그 장소에서 건물을 지을 거예요
= Regardless of how beautiful that garden is, tomorrow we need to build a building in that place

The fact that the first clause of this sentence is a supposition (i.e. is uncertain to occur) allows question words to be used in these types of sentences. For example:

네가 어디 가도 나는 가고 싶지 않아 = Regardless of where you are going, I don’t want to go

Notice the difference in sentences with ~지만 in these cases. Remember, when using ~지만 the first clause is already some accepted/known fact. This means that a question word cannot be used in these types of sentences. Notice how the following is unnatural:

네가 어디 가지만 나는 가고 싶지 않아

Here are other examples of other question words being used with ~아/어도:

우리 엄마가 무엇을 사도 산 다음 날에 항상 교환해요
= Regardless of what my mother buys, she always exchanges it the day after buying it

이 제품을 언제 구입해도 그 가격을 내야 돼요
= Regardless of when you purchase this product, you have to pay that price

공연을 언제 해도 사람들이 안 올 거예요
= Regardless of when you do the performance, people won’t come

The word 아무리 usually replaces 얼마나 in these types of sentences that describe “how much” something is done. For example:

네가 나를 아무리 사랑해도 우리는 헤어져야 돼
= Regardless of how much you love me, we need to break up

애기를 안으려고 아무리 노력해도 애기가 나를 안고 싶지 않은 것 같이 보여요
= Regardless of how much I try to hug the baby, it looks like the baby doesn’t want to hug me

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~아/어도 can also be attached to adjectives as well. For example:

여자들이 예뻐도 똑똑하지 않으면 매력이 없어요
= Regardless of how pretty girls are, if they are not smart, they have no charm

강가가 멀어도 우리는 거기 내일 가야 돼요
= Regardless of if the (area around) the river is far, we have to go there tomorrow

그 일이 급해도 저는 오늘 그것을 할 수 없어요
= Regardless of if that task is urgent, I can’t do it today

~아/어도 can also be attached to 이다. When added to 이다, it follows the same pattern that we saw when adding ~아/어서 to 이다 in Lesson 37. ~아/어도 can be attached directly to the stem of 이다, for example:

남자이어도
사람이어도

Or, the “~어” can be changed to “~라.” For example:

남자이라도
사람이라도

If the noun ends in a vowel, “이” can merge with the addition. For example:

남자여도 (Notice that andmerge to 여)
남자라도 (Notice that and merge to)

그 남자가 마법사라도 그 문을 열 수 없을 거예요
= Regardless of if that man is a magician, he is not going to be able to open that door

그 사람이 네 엄마여도 나는 그녀와 말을 안 할 거야
= Regardless of if that person is your mother, I’m not going to talk to her

그 일을 하는 사람이 누구라도 창피할 거예요
= Regardless of who does this job, they will be embarrassed

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아무리

The word ‘아무리’ has two usages. Earlier in the lesson, you learned that it can replace 얼마나 in sentences with ~아/어도.

It is also a word that is put in sentences to allow the listener to expect what the speaker will say and provide feeling. In Lesson 43, you learned that 만약 is used in sentences where there is a supposition or assumption being made. Where 만약 is often used in sentences with ~(으)면, 아무리 is often used in sentences with ~아/어도. In this usage, 아무리 is used in sentences for feeling to let the listener/reader know that ~아/어도 is coming later in the sentence. For example:

아무리 그 제품을 반값으로 줘도 저는 안 살 거예요
= Regardless of if you give me that product at half price, I’m not going to buy it

 

 

 

그래도

In Lesson 23, you learned that the meaning of the word ‘그렇다’ is close to the meaning of ‘like that.’ By adding ~아/어도 to 그렇다 you can create “그래도.”

When some situation is being talked about, you can use “그래도” to say “Regardless of if (that situation) occurs…”. The common translation of 그래도 is simply “regardless” or “it doesn’t matter.” For example:

Person 1: 같이 가자! 사람이 많을 거야! = Let’s go together! There will be so many people
Person 2: 그래도 가기 싫어요 = Regardless. I’m not going.

Person 1: 선생님! 배가 좀 아파요! = Teacher! My stomach is a little sore
Person 2: 그래도 수업에 와야 돼 = Regardless, you have to come to class

 

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