Lesson 4: Korean Adjectives ~ㄴ/은

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Vocabulary
Common Greeting Words
Using Adjectives ~ㄴ/은
Using 많다 in Sentences
Particle ~도

 

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Vocabulary

The vocabulary is separated into nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs for the purpose of simplicity.

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use (you probably won’t be able to understand the grammar within the sentences at this point, but it is good to see as you progress through your learning).

A PDF file neatly presenting all of these words, example sentences and extra information can be found here.

Want to give your brain practice at recognizing these words? Try finding the words in this vocabulary list in a Word Search.

Nouns:
= street

Common Usages:
길을 잃다 = to get lost (literally, to lose a street)
길을 건너다 = to cross a street
길이 막히다 = for the streets to be “clogged” with traffic

Notes: This is also used to indicate that somebody is “one the way” somewhere. For example:
저는 집에 가는 길이에요 = I am on my way home
This grammar is taught in Lesson 113.

Example:
에서 오른 쪽으로 가세요 = Turn right at this street
에서 직진하세요 = Go straight on this road
우리는 옛을 따라 걸었어요 = We walked along, following the old road

거리 = street/road

Common Usages:
사거리 = intersection (with four ways)
삼거리 = intersection (with three ways)

Examples:
거리에 사람이 많았어요 = There was a lot of people on the street
저는 긴 거리를 건넜어요 = I crossed the long street
저는 거리를 안전하게 건넜어요 = I crossed the street safely
우리는 사거리에서 왼쪽으로 돌았어요 = We turned left at the intersection

= hand

Common Usages:
손으로 = with one’s hand
손가락 = finger
손목 = wrist (literally “hand neck”)
손잡이 = handle (literally “hand grabber”)
저의 은 커요 = My hand is big

Example:
저는 (저의) 을 들었어요 = I raised/lifted my hand
을 씻으세요! = Wash your hands!
손을 잘 고 먹어요 = To wash one’s hands well, and then eat

영어 = English

Common Usages:
영어로 = in English
영어로 말하다 = to speak in English
영어회화 = English conversation
영어 수업 = English class

Examples:
제가 수업을 하면 항상 영어로 해요 = When I teach, I always do so in English
저는 영어를 공부할 거예요 = I will study English
한국 사람들은 외국 사람들과 영어를 연습하고 싶어요 = Korean people want to practice their English with foreigners
저는 영어랑 한국어를 학교에서 배웠어요= I learned English and Korean at school
그 사람은 영어를 자연스럽게 말해요 = That person speaks English naturally
영어를 어떻게 배웠어요? = How did you learn English?
한국어는 영어보다 훨씬 어려워요 = Korean is much more difficult than English
그 선생님은 영어를 가르친 지 20 년 됐어요 = That teacher has been teaching English for 20 years

택시 = taxi

Common Usages:
택시 기사 = taxi driver
택시를 타다 = to ride/take a taxi
택시로 가다 = to go by taxi

Example:
택시는 버스보다 더 빨라요 = The taxi is quicker than the bus
지하철을 놓쳤기 때문에 택시를 타야 돼요 = I missed the subway, so I must take a taxi

열차 = train

Common Usages:
열차로 가다 = to go by train
열차를 타다 = to ride/take a train

Example:
열차는 택시보다 더 빨라요 = The train is faster than the taxi

= train/subway station

Common Usages:
서울역 = Seoul Station
역에서 내리다 = to get off at a station
출발역 = the first (departing) station

Example:
홍대에서 어떻게 가요? = How do I get to Hong-dae station?
저는 서울에서 내릴 거예요 = I will get off at Seoul station
전철까지 걸어갈래요? = Shall we walk to the subway station?
이 기차는 서울까지 가요 = This train goes to/until Seoul Station

버스 정류장 = bus stop

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “버스 정뉴장”

Common Usages:
버스 아저씨 = bus driver (informal way to refer to a male bus driver)
버스 기사 = bus driver
버스를 타다 = to get on/ride a bus
버스 카드 = bus/transportation card

Notes:
This refers to the bus stop for a public transportation style city bus. For inter-city buses, the word “버스 터미널” (bus terminal) is more frequently used.

Example:
버스 정류장에서 버스를 타야 돼요 = You must get on the bus at the bus station
다음 버스는 저 정류장에서 출발할 거예요 = The next bus will leave from that stop

비행기 = airplane

Common Usages:
비행기를 타다= to take/ride an airplane

Examples:
비행기가 아직 출발할 준비가 안 됐습니까? = Is the plane not yet ready to depart?
하늘에 비행기가 있어요 = There is a plane in the sky
거기에 가고 싶으면 비행기를 타야 돼요 = If you want to go there, you must take an airplane
비행기
가 9시에 출발할 예정이지만 눈이 많이 와서 못 출발할 것 같아요 = The plane is scheduled to depart at 9:00, but it probably won’t because it is snowing a lot

자전거 = bicycle

Common Usages:
자전거를 타다 = to ride a bicycle
자전거로 가다 = to go by bicycle

Example:
저는 자전거를 타는 것이 너무 좋아요 = I like riding bicycles
무릎이 아플 때 자전거를 타지 마세요 = When your knee hurts, don’t ride a bike

아내 = wife

Notes:
The word “와이프” is commonly used these days.

Examples:
저의 아내는 너무 예뻐요 = My wife is very pretty
저는 아내한테 꽃을 줬어요 = I gave flowers to my wife
저는 저의 아내와 유럽에서 사랑에 빠졌어요 = I fell in love with my wife in Europe
저의 아내는 자기가 요리한 것을 보통 안 먹어요 = My wife usually doesn’t eat the food she cooks
제가 아내와 결혼하기 전에 우리는 2년 동안 사귀었어요 = Before marrying my wife, we went out/dated for 2 years

아이 = child

Common Usages:
아이를 돌보다 = to look after a child

Example:
우리 아이는 아직 두 살이에요 = My child is still 2 years old
우리 셋째 아이는 야구를 좋아해요 = Our third child likes baseball
아이는 우리 첫째 아들이에요 = This (child) is our first son
부모님들은 아이에 영향을 준다/미친다 = Parents have an influence on their children
아이
들은 나무 주위에서 놀고 있어요 = The children are playing around the tree
저는 아이를 잃어버려서 걱정이 되었어요 = I was worried because I lost the baby
그녀는 아이가 죽었다는 사실을 숨겼어요 = She hid (the fact that) her child died
아이들은 자기 부모님을 존경해야 돼요 = Children must respect their parents
저는 아이들이랑 바다에서 수영했어요 = I swam in the sea with the kids
아이
들은 만화영화를 매우 좋아해요 = Children really like animated movies

아들 = son

Common Usages:
아드님 = polite way to refer to somebody else’s son
큰아들 = one’s eldest son
첫째 아들 = first son
둘째 아들 = second son

Examples:
우리 아들은 대학생이에요 = Our son is a university student
할아버지는 우리 아들에게 돈을 주었어요 = Grandpa gave money to our son
저의 아들은 열이 났어요 = My son had a fever
저는 우리 아들이 자랑스러워요 = I am proud of our son
너는 나쁜 아들이야 = You are a bad son
저는 아들 세 명이 있어요 = I have three sons
그 사람은 아들 한 명만 있어요 = That person only has one son
아들
은 엄마를 위해 박스를 들었어요 = The son carried the box for his mother)
우리 아들은 자기(의) 일을 항상 혼자 하고 싶어요 = Our son always wants to do his work alone

= daughter

Common Usages:
따님 = polite way to refer to somebody else’s daughter
큰딸 = one’s eldest daughter
첫째 딸 = first daughter
둘째 딸 = second daughter

Example:
우리 은 그 고등학교를 다녀요 = Our daughter attends that high school
저는 저의 이 아주 자랑스러워요 = I am very proud of my daughter
우리 은 사랑스러운 여자예요 = Our daughter is a loving/lovely girl
은 어제부터 아팠어요 = The/our daughter has been sick (was sick) since yesterday

남편 = husband

Examples:
저의 남편은 선생님이에요 = my husband is a teacher
저는 남편을 공원에서 만날 거예요 = I will meet my husband at the park
그 여자의 남편이 비서랑 바람을 피운다는 소문이 있어요 = There is a rumor that that woman’s husband is having an affair with his secretary

아버지 = father

Common Usages:
큰아버지 = the eldest brother of one’s father

Notes:
The word “아빠” is used colloquially

Example:
아버지는 지금 일하고 있어요 = Dad is working now
형하고 아버지는 영화를 봤어요 = My brother and dad saw a movie
저와 저의 아버지는 너무 비슷해요 = I am very similar to my father
저의 아버지는 모자를 항상 써요 = My father always wears a hat
우리 아버지는 예전에 옷을 팔았어요 = Our dad sold clothes in the past
우리 아버지는 고모와 살고 있어요 = Our father lives with our aunt
나는 아버지랑 공원에 갈 거야 = I will go to the park with my dad

어머니 = mother

Common Usages:
큰어머니 = the wife of the eldest brother of one’s father

Notes:
The word “엄마” is used colloquially

Example:
우리 어머니는 서울대학교를 다녔어요 = Our mom attended Seoul University
저는 밥을 친구랑 저의 어머니랑 먹었어요 = I ate (rice) with my mom and my friend
저의 어머니는 언니 세 명이 있어요 = My mother has three (older) sisters
저의 어머니는 올해 한국에 올 것입니다 = My mom will come to Korea this year

편지 = letter

Common Usages:
편지를 쓰다 = to write a letter
편지를 받다 = to receive a letter

Examples:
저는 여자 친구를 위해 편지를 썼어요 = I wrote a letter for my girlfriend
저는 여자친구에게서 편지를 받았어요 = I received a letter from my girlfriend
저는 여자친구를 위해 편지를 쓰고 싶어요 = I want to write a letter for my girlfriend
우리는 서로 편지를 줬어요 = We gave letters to each other
저는 옛날 친구한테 편지를 보냈어요 = I sent a letter to an old friend
저의 여자 친구는 제가 쓴 편지를 찢었어요 = My girlfriend ripped up the letter that I wrote for her

= taste

Common Usages:
맛있다 = delicious
맛없다 = not delicious
입맛 = one’s taste in food
입맛에 맞다 = to fit one’s taste in food
__ 맛에 익숙하지 않다 = to not be accustomed to the taste of something

Notes:
맛 and 있다 come together to make “delicious” but this literally means “to have taste.” Likewise, the direct translation for “맛없다” or (맛이 없다)  is “to have no taste”

Examples:
이 조금 이상해요 = The taste is a little bit strange
빨간 사과는 가장 있어요 = Red apples are the most delicious
이 떡은 쓰레기 같아 = This 떡 tastes like garbage

식사 = meal

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “식싸”

Common Usages:
아침식사 = breakfast
점심식사 = lunch
저녁식사 = dinner

Examples:
저는 할머니를 위해 식사를 준비했어요 = I prepared a meal for grandmother
저는 아침식사를 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat breakfast
저는 보통 점심식사로 과일만 먹어요 = I usually only eat fruit for lunch
엄마가 온 후에 저는 저녁식사를 먹을 거예요 = After mom comes home, I will eat dinner
교감선생님은 선생님들을 위해 식사를 살 거예요 = The vice principal will buy a meal for all the teachers

아침 = morning

Common Usages:
아침식사 = breakfast
아침에 일어나다 = to wake up in the morning

Notes:
This can also be used to refer to “breakfast.” For example:
저는 아침을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat breakfast

Examples:
저는 아침에 일찍 일어났어요 = I woke up early in the morning
저는 아침부터 밤까지 공부만 했어요 = I only studied from morning to night
대부분 사람들은 아침밥을 먹지 않는다 = Most people don’t eat breakfast (rice breakfast)
저는 항상 아침에 운동해요 = I always exercise in the morning
아침
으로 무엇을 먹었어요? = What did you eat for breakfast?

아침식사 = breakfast

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “아침식싸”

Examples:
저는 오늘 아침식사를 못 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat breakfast today
저는 아침식사로 밥을 먹었어요 = I ate rice for breakfast

= water

Common Usages:
물을 마시다 = to drink water
바닷물 = sea water
물병 = water bottle
수돗물 = tap water
얼음물 = ice water
물고기 = fish (literally, “water meat”)

Examples:
잘하려면 을 마셔야 돼요 = If you want to do well, you must drink water
저는 만 마셔요 = I only drink water
애기는 우유 대신에 만 마시고 싶어요 = The baby wants to drink water instead of milk

사과 = apple

Example:
저는 사과랑 바나나를 샀어요 = I bought apples and bananas
바나나는 사과보다 더 맛있어요 = Bananas are more delicious than apples
사과
도 여기서 파나요? = Do you sell apples here too?
빨간 사과는 가장 맛있어요 = Red apples are the most delicious

= money

Common Usages:
용돈 = pocket money/allowance)
돈을 내다 = to pay (money)
돈이 부족하다 = to not have enough money
돈을 벌다 = to earn money
돈을 주다 = to give money

Examples:
저는 이 없어요 = I don’t have any money
어머님은 너에게 을 줬어? = Did your mother give you money?
저는 을 받을 때 행복할 거예요 = When I receive (the) money, I will be happy
의사들은 이 많아 = Doctors have a lot of money
아버지는 아들에게 을 준다 = The father gives money to his son
저는 을 정부로부터 받았어요 = I received money from the government
얼마나 많은 을 가져갈 거야? = How much money will you bring?

Verbs:
오다 = to come

Common Usages:
~에서 왔다 = to come from
내려오다 = to come down
올라오다 = to come up
다녀오다 = to go, and then come back
갔다 오다 = to go, and then come back
돌아오다 = to come back
걸어오다 = to come by walking

Example:
그 사람은 미국에서 왔어요 = That person came from the United States
친구들은 언제 올 거예요? = When are the friends coming?
어디에서 왔어요? = Where are you from (from where did you come?)
저의 친구는 6시 30분에 거예요 = My friend will come at 6:30
그는 라고 약속했어요 = He promised that he would come
캐나다에 언제 돌아 거예요? = When are you coming back to Canada?
선생님 몇 분 거예요? = How many teachers will come?
어제 어떤 남자가 왔어요? = Which man came here yesterday?

끝내다 = to finish

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “끈내다”

Notes: It is often more common to use the passive form (끝나다) to indicate that you finished something. For example:
일이 끝났어요 = The work is finished (which implies that you finished the work)
The grammar for this is talked about in Lesson 14.

Examples:
저는 저의 숙제를 끝냈어요 = I finished my homework
저는 숙제를 끝내고 나서 집으로 갈 거예요 = I will finish my homework then go home
저는 일을 만족스럽게 끝냈어요 = I finished the work/job satisfactorily
시험을 끝내기 전에 답을 확인하세요 = Check your answers before finishing the test

춤추다 = to dance

Notes:
The word “춤” is the noun “dance,” as in “a dance.” Coupled with the verb “추다” is means “to dance.”

Example:
저는 춤추는 것이 좋아요 = I like dancing

알다 = to know

알다 follows the ㄹ irregular. See Lesson 7 for more information.

Common Usages:
알겠습니다 = This is a formal way to say “okay, I understand.”
알았어 = This is an informal way to say “okay, I understand”

Examples:
저는 그 사람을 알아요 = I know that person
저는 그것을 고 있어요 = I know that
누구나 그 여자를 알아요 = Everybody knows that girl
서울에 어떻게 가는지 알아요 = I know how to get to Seoul
서울에 어떻게 가는지 알아요? = Do you know how to get to Seoul?
그 단어를 어떻게 발음하는지 알아요 = I know how to pronounce that word
그 단어를 어떻게 발음하는지 알아요? = Do you know how to pronounce that word?
그 학생이 책을 왜 버렸는지 알아요 = I know why that student threw out his book
그 학생이 책을 왜 버렸는지 알아요? = Do you know why that student threw out his book?
제가 한국어를 왜 배우고 싶은지 알아요? = Do you know why I want to learn Korean?

걷다 = to walk

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “걷따”

걷다 follows the ㄷ irregular. See Lesson 7 for more information.

Common Usages:
걸어가다 = to go by walking
걸어오다 = to come by walking

Example:
우리는 집에 걸어왔어요 = We walked home
저는 10분 동안 걸었어요 = I walked for 10 minutes
여자는 학교에 걸었어요 = The girl walked to school
그 여자는 항상 그렇게 걸어요 = That girl always walks like that
저는 너무 많이 걸어서 지금 발이 아파요 = My feet are sore because I walked so much
우리는 차가 없어서 집에 걸어왔어요 = We didn’t have a car so we walked home
전철역까지 걸어갈래요? = Shall we walk to the subway station?
학생들은 교실 쪽으로 걸어요 = Students walk towards/in the direction of their class
우리가 천천히 안 걸었더라면 늦게 도착하지 않았을 거예요 = If we hadn’t walk slowly, we wouldn’t have arrived late

배우다 = to learn

Common Usages:

한국어를 배우다 = to learn Korean
영어를 배우다 = to learn English
한국어를 배우고 싶다 = to want to learn Korean

Examples:
한국어를 언제부터 배웠어요? = Since when did you learn Korean?
저는 그것을 지난 시간에 배웠어요 = I learned that (thing) last time
저는 한국어를 한국에서 배웠어요 = I learned Korean in Korea
저는 한국어를 배우고 싶어요 = I want to learn Korean
우리는 다음 시간에 더 배울 거예요 = We will learn more next time
저는 5년 이내에 외국어를 다섯 개 배우고 싶어요 = I want to learn 5 languages within five years
한국에 온 이래로 한국어를 배우고 있어요 = Since coming to Korea, I have been learning Korean

연습하다 = to practice

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “연스파다”

Example:
한국 사람들은 외국 사람들과 영어를 연습하고 싶어요 = Korean people want to practice their English with foreigners
연습을 많이 해도 시합에서 질 거예요 = Regardless of how much you practice, you will lose the match

생각하다 = to think

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “생가카다”

The noun form of this word translates to “a thought” or “an idea.”

Common Usages:
좋은 생각이 났어요 = I have a good idea (literally, “a good thought came up”)
무슨 생각 해? = What are you thinking?

Notes:
Typically the grammatical principle ~ㄴ/다고 precedes 생각하다 as if it is a quoted sentence. For more information, visit Lesson 52.

Examples:
저도 그렇게 생각해요 = I think that way as well
나는 너에 대해 생각했어 = I thought about you
그 여자에 대해 어떻게 생각해요? = What do you think about that girl?
저는 그렇게 생각하지 않아요 = I don’t think like that
저는 저의 엄마에 대해 생각했어요 = I thought about my mother
우리 집에 대해 어떻게 생각해요? = What do you think about our house?

살다 = to live

살다 follows the ㄹ irregular. See Lesson 7 for more information.

Common Usages:
살아 있다 = to be living (the opposite of dead)

Notes: In order to say that you live in a place, it is acceptable to use “살고 있다.” For example: 저는 한국에서 살고 있어요. Note that this directly translates to “I am living in Korea”, whereas is English we would most likely say “I live in Korea.” See Lesson 18.

Example:
저는 서울에서 고 있어요 = I live in Seoul
어느 집에서 살아요? = Which house do you live in?
저는 학교에서 멀리 고 있어요 = I live far from school
한국에서 언제부터 살았어요? = Since when have you lived in Korea?
저는 2년 동안 외국에서 살았어요 = I lived in a foreign country for 2 years
저는 7년 동안 한국에서 살았어요 = I lived in Korea for seven years
우리 아버지는 고모와 고 있어요 = Our father lives with our aunt
저는 멀리 고 있기 때문에 집까지 걸어가기 힘들어요 = It is difficult to walk home because I live far

Passive Verbs:
끝나다 = to be finished

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “끈나다”

Notes:
This is the first passive verb you have come across. For more information on passive verbs, visit Lesson 14.

Examples:
이 콘서트가 벌써 끝났어요? = Is the concert already finished?
숙제는 끝났어요 = My homework is finished
수업은 2분 후에 끝날 거예요 = Class will finish 2 minutes from now
그 일이 다 끝나서 지금 기분이 아주 좋아요 = Now that that work is finished, I am very happy

Adjectives:
위험하다 = to be dangerous

The noun form of this word translates to “danger”

Common Usages:
위험성 = riskiness
위험물 = something dangerous

Examples:
그 장소가 너무 위험해서 가지 마세요 = That place is very dangerous, so don’t go
이런 일은 위험해요 = This type of work is dangerous
그 사람은 위험한 남자입니다 = That person is a dangerous man

잘생기다 = to be handsome

Notes: A composition of the adverb 잘 (well) and the verb 생기다 (to look like), which means it gets conjugated as a verb. It typically conjugates to the past tense (잘생겼다) even when talking about the present tense.

Examples:
그 남자는 너무 잘생겼어요 = That man is very handsome
저는 잘생긴 남자를 만나요 = I meet a handsome man
파란 눈이 있는 남자가 가장 잘생겼어요 = Men with blue eyes are the most handsome
그는 별로 잘생기지 않았다 = He’s not that handsome
그는 전혀 잘생기지 않았다 = He’s not handsome at all

못생기다 = to be ugly

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “몯쌩기다”

Notes: A composition of the adverb 못 (not well, poorly) and the verb 생기다. Like잘생기다, it is conjugated as a verb in the past tense.

Example:
그 남자는 너무 못생겼어요 = That man is very ugly
그 여자는 우리 반에서 제일 못생긴 여자예요 = That girl is the ugliest in our class

피곤하다 = to be tired

The noun form of this word translates to “tiredness” or “fatigue”

Example:
저는 일을 많이 해서 너무 피곤해요 = I am very tired because I worked a lot
너무 피곤해서 자고 싶어요 = I want to sleep because I am so tired
피곤한
사람은 침대에 누워서 잤어요 = The tired person lied on the bed and slept
잠을 못 자면 다음 날에 몸이 피곤해져요 = If you don’t sleep well, the next day you will be tired

다르다 = to be different

다르다 follows the 르 irregular. See Lesson 7 for more information.

Common Usages:
또 따른 = another

Notes: When saying something is different “from” something, 와/과/랑/이랑 must be attached to the noun that is being compared. See Lesson 15 for more information.

Examples:
저는 다른 영화를 보고 싶어요 = I want to see a different movie
우리는 매우 달라요 = We are so different
그 건물은 어제와 달라요 = That building is different from yesterday
고양이는 강아지와 달라요 = Cats are different than dogs
캐나다는 한국과 문화적으로 달라요 = Canada and Korea are culturally different
서양사람들은 동양사람들과 달라요 = Western people are different than Eastern people
그 여자가 오늘 화장을 하지 않아서 아주 달라 보여요 = That girl looks different today because she didn’t do her makeup

슬프다 = to be sad

슬프다 follows the ㅡ irregular. See Lesson 7 for more information.

Common Usages:
슬퍼하지 마세요 = Don’t be sad

Example:
우리 할아버지가 죽어서 저는 너무 슬퍼요 = I am very sad because my grandfather died
저의 여자친구는 어제 너무 슬퍼 보였어요 = My girlfriend looked really sad yesterday
제가 슬프다면 친구를 만나지 않을 거예요 = If I am sad, I’m not going to meet my friend

맛있다 = to be delicious

Although technically a combination of the noun “맛” (taste) and “있다” (to have) 맛있다 is officially seen as one word (literally meaning “to have taste”) and the pronunciation of ㅅ in “맛” is transferred to the next syllable. This makes the entire word sound like “마싣따.”

Conversely, 맛없다, which means “to not be delicious,” is officially seen as two words (literally meaning “to not have taste”). As such, the pronunciation of ㅅ in “맛” is usually not transferred to the next syllable and the entire word sounds like “마덥따”

Common Usages:
맛있는 음식 = delicious food

Examples:
맛있는 것을 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat something delicious
빨간 사과는 가장 있어요 = Red apples are the most delicious
사과는 가장 맛있는 과일이에요 = Apples are the most delicious fruit
한식은 너무 맛있어요 = Korean food is very delicious

재미있다 = to be fun, to be funny

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “재미읻따”

Notes:
Like the word “맛있다,” 재미있다 is made up of “재미” and “있다” (to have). Therefore, even though 재미있다 is an adjective (funny), it is conjugated like 있다.

Examples:
그 영화가 너무 재미있었어요 = That movie was very funny
그 남자는 재미있는 남자예요 = That man is a funny person
제가 보고 있는 영화는 재미있어요 = The movie I am watching is funny
친구를 만났으면 재미있었을 것이다 = If I had met my friend, it would have been fun
설사를 하는 것은 재미있어요 = Having diarrhea is fun

많다 = to be many of, to be a lot of

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “만타”

Notes: An adjective that means “many,” 많다 can be placed before a noun to describe it, for example: 많은 사람은 저를 좋아해요 (many people like me). However, 많다 is more naturally used by using the ~는 것 principle. For example: 저를 좋아하는 사람은 많아요 (literally: there are many people who like me). The ~는 것 principle is very difficult to describe, and is talked about which is very difficult to describe, and is talked about in detail from Lessons 26 to 33.

Examples:
그 회사에서 일하는 사람은 많아요 = There are many people who work at that company.
지난 주에 저는 계획이 많았어요 = I had a lot of plans last week
동대문시장에서 아주머니가 많아요 = There are a lot of older women in Dongdaemun market
그곳에서 구경하는 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people sightseeing in that place)
저는 거기에 사람이 많을 것 같아서 가고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to go there because there will probably be too many people

행복하다 = to be happy

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “행보카다”

Common Usages:
행복한 사람 = happy person

Example:
저는 매우 행복한 사람이에요 = I am a very happy person
저는 공원에 가는 날에 항상 행복해요 = I am always happy on the days I go to the park
왜 그렇게 행복해 보여요? = Why do you look so happy?
저는 행복하기 때문에 죽고 싶지 않아요 = I don’t want to die because I am happy
저는 돈을 받을 때 행복할 거예요 = When I receive (the) money, I will be happy
내가 행복하면 숙제를 잘 해 = When/If I am happy, I do my homework well
제가 행복하다면 일을 더 잘 할 거예요 = If I am happy, I will work harder

Adverbs and Other Words:
거기 = there

Notes:
The difference between “그” and “저” is the same as the difference between “거기” and “저기.” “거기” is used when referring to a place that has already been mentioned, and “저기” is used when you are referring to a place that is farther away than “여기.”

거기 and ~에세 form to make “거기서.”

Example:
거기서 언제부터 살았어요? = Since when did you live there?
거기에 간 적이 없어요 = I have never gone/been there/I haven’t been there
제가 거기에 가는 중이에요 = I am going there
밥을 거기에 두지 말아 주세요 = Don’t put the rice there, please
거기에 가고 싶으면 비행기를 타야 돼요 = If you want to go there, you must take an airplane
친구가 거기에 많을 거라서 그 파티에 가고 싶어요 = Many of my friends will be there, so/therefore I want to go to that party

저기 = there (when farther away)

저기 and ~에서 form to make “저기서”

When trying to get the attention of somebody – for example, when you want to order something at a restaurant – it is common to say “저기요!.” For example:

저기요! 지금 주문할게요! = Excuse me! We would like to order now!

Examples:
저기까지 걷자! = Let’s walk that far/Let’s walk as far as there
이불을 다 저기에 넣었어요 = I put the blankets there
저기까지 아주 빨리 수영하더라도 그 사람을 구하지 못할 거예요 = Even if you swim there very fast, you won’t be able to save that person

지금 = now

Notes:
Though referring to a time, “에” is usually not attached to “지금”

Common Usages:
지금부터 = from now
지금까지 = until now

Example:
저는 밥을 지금 먹고 싶어요 = I want to eat now
그 여자를 지금까지 좋아했어요 = I liked that girl until now
여자들은 지금 영화를 보고 있어요 = The girls are watching a movie now
저는 밥을 다 먹어서 지금 배불러요 = I ate all the food, so/therefore, I am full now
열심히 운동하고 지금 힘이 빠졌어요 = After exercising, I now have no energy
내가 밥을 벌써 먹어서 지금 먹고 싶지 않아 = Because I already ate, I don’t want to eat now
그 학생은 어떤 여자와 지금 사귀고 있어요 = That student is going out with some girl now

하지만 = but

Notes: It would be more natural to connect sentences with a grammatical principle (like ~지만 or ~는데) than to separate them using 하지만.

Example:
거기에 가고 싶어요. 하지만 돈이 없어요 = I want to go there. But I have no money
저는 먹고 싶어요. 하지만 배고프지 않아요 = I want to eat. But, I am not hungry

There are 1050 vocabulary entries in Unit 1. All entries are linked to an audio file.
You can download all of these files in one package here.

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Common Greeting Words

I wish I could tell you not to worry about these. Of course, I can tell you “don’t worry about these,” but I don’t think that will do. When learning a language, everybody wants to learn these words as soon as possible. I understand that completely, but I have purposely waited to teach you these types of words. In fact, I still don’t want to show them to you – but at this point I am sure you are asking yourself “I’ve gotten this far and I still don’t even know how to say ‘goodbye’ yet!”

In Korean, it is much easier to understand these words/phrases if you also understand why they are used the way they are. Unfortunately, we haven’t reached the point where you can understand this. We will get to that in a few more lessons. Either way, here are some very common phrases which I am sure you are dying to know:

안녕히 가세요 = Goodbye (said to somebody going)
안녕히 계세요 = Goodbye (said to somebody staying)
만나서 반갑습니다 = Nice to meet you
실례합니다 = Excuse me
죄송합니다/미안합니다 = Sorry
이름이 뭐예요? = What is your name?
저의 이름은 ______이에요 = My name is
어디에서 왔어요? = Where are you from?
저는 _______에서 왔어요 = I am from

If you can’t memorize them, that is okay. I still maintain the position that you should put off memorizing these until you can understand the grammar within them.

Now that we have gotten that out of the way, let’s start studying some actual material.

.

 

Using Adjectives ~ㄴ/은

Alright, this won’t help you understand those greeting words any better, but what you are about to learn is a major step in learning Korean. You should remember these two important facts from the previous lesson:

  • All sentences must end with either a verb or adjective
  • All verbs/adjectives end with the syllable ‘다’

Although both of those are true (and always will be), let’s look at them more deeply:

  • All sentences must end with either a verb or adjective
    Yes, but verbs and adjectives can ALSO go elsewhere in a sentence. In the previous lesson, you learned this sentence:

저는 배를 원하다 = I want a boat
(나는 배를 원해 / 저는 배를 원해요)

But what if you want to say: “I want a big boat.” In that sentence, there is a verb and an adjective. Where should we put the adjective? In Korean, this adjective is placed in the same position as in English. For example:

나는 배를 원하다 = I want a boat
나는 big 배를 원하다 = I want a big boat

Simple. So we just substitute the Korean word for big (크다) into that sentence?:

나는 크다 배를 원하다 = Not correct. Not by a long shot.

Remember that second rule I taught you?:

  • All verbs/adjectives end with the syllable ‘다’
    – Yes, but the version of the word with ‘다’ as the last syllable is simply the dictionary form of that word and is rarely used. Every verb/adjective in Korean has a ‘stem,’ which is made up of everything preceding 다 in the dictionary form of the word. Let’s look at some examples:

크다 = 크 (stem) + 다
작다 = 작 (stem) + 다
좋다 = 좋 (stem) + 다
길다 = 길 (stem) + 다
배우다 = 배우 (stem) + 다

Most of the time, when you deal with a verb/adjective, you eliminate ~다 and add something to the stem.

When you want to make an adjective that can describe a noun, as in:

small boy
big boat
delicious hamburger
soft hand

you must eliminate ‘~다’ and add ~ㄴ or ~은 to the stem of the adjective.

Words in which the last syllable of the stem ends in a vowel  (크다/비싸다/싸다) you add ~ㄴ to the last syllable:

 

Word Stem Adjective that can describe a noun Example Translation
크다 큰 배 Big boat
비싸다 비싸 비싼 비싼 음식 Expensive food
싸다 싼 것 Cheap thing

 

 

Words in which the last syllable of the stem ends in a consonant (작다/좋다/많다) you add ~은 to the stem:

Word Stem Adjective that can describe a noun Example Translation
작다 작은 작은 남자 Small man
좋다 좋은 좋은 아들 Good son
많다 많은 많은 돈 A lot of money

Looking back to what we were trying to write before:

I want a big boat = 저는 크다 배를 원하다 = incorrect
I want a big boat = 저는 큰 배를 원하다 = correct

The key to understanding this is being able to understand the difference between the following:

음식은 비싸다 = The food is expensive
비싼 음식 = expensive food

The first example is a sentence. The second example is not a sentence. The second sentence needs more words in order for it to be a sentence. You need to add either a verb or adjective that predicates the noun of “expensive food.” For example:

나는 비싼 음식을 먹다 = I eat expensive food
(나는 비싼 음식을 먹어 / 저는 비싼 음식을 먹어요)
The verb “to eat” predicates this sentence.

저는 비싼 음식을 좋아하다 = I like expensive food
(나는 비싼 음식을 좋아해 / 저는 비싼 음식을 좋아해요)
The verb “to like” predicates this sentence.

비싼 음식은 맛있다 = Expensive food is delicious
(비싼 음식은 맛있어 / 비싼 음식은 맛있어요)
The adjective “to be delicious” predicates this sentence. Notice that there is no object in this sentence.


(Remember, for the last time – you do not know how to conjugate verbs and adjectives at the end of a sentence yet. This will be introduced in the next lesson. Because you do not know how to conjugate verbs/adjectives at the ends of sentences, examples with un-conjugated forms are presented in this lesson. Remember that these sentences are technically incorrect, but understanding them is crucial to your understanding of the Korean sentence structure.

As with the previous three lessons, I have provided conjugated examples below each un-conjugated example. You will probably not be able to understand these conjugations.)


More examples of using adjectives to describe nouns within a sentence:

나는 작은 집에 가다 = I go to the small house
(나는 작은 집에 가 / 저는 작은 집에 가요)

나는 큰 차를 원하다 = I want a big car
(나는 큰 차를 원해 / 저는 큰 차를 원해요)

나는 잘생긴 남자를 만나다 = I meet a handsome man
(나는 잘생긴 남자를 만나 / 저는 잘생긴 남자를 만나요)

나는 많은 돈이 있다 = I have a lot of money
(나는 많은 돈이 있어 / 저는 많은 돈이 있어요)

나는 뚱뚱한 학생을 만나다 = I meet a fat student
(나는 뚱뚱한 학생을 만나 / 저는 뚱뚱한 학생을 만나요)

In Lessons 1 and 2, I explained that adjectives cannot “act” on objects. Many learners look at the sentences above and say “Hey! Those sentences have an object and an adjective!” Adjectives cannot act on an object to predicate a sentence. This means you cannot use a sentence like this (in either language):

나는 집을 작다 = I small house

However, I didn’t say anything about adjectives and objects being used in the same sentence. Adjectives can be used to describe an object that is being predicated by a verb. I will continue to talk about this in the examples below.

In all of the examples above, notice the difference in function between when an adjective is used to describe a noun compared to when it is used to predicate a sentence. For example:

나는 작은 집에 가다 = I go to the small house
(나는 작은 집에 가 / 저는 작은 집에 가요)
The verb “to go” predicates this sentence.

그 집은 작다 = That house is small
(그 집은 작아 / 그 집은 작아요)
The adjective “to be small” predicates this sentence. Notice that there is no object in this sentence.


저는 큰 차를 원하다 = I want a big car
(나는 큰 차를 원해 / 저는 큰 차를 원해요)
The verb “to want” predicates this sentence.

이 차는 크다 = This car is big
(이 차는 커 / 이 차는 커요)
The adjective “to be big” predicates this sentence. Notice that there is no object in this sentence.


In each of the examples above, even though the adjective always acts as a descriptive word, in the cases when they are placed before nouns to describe them – those nouns are able to be placed anywhere in the sentence (for example, as the subject, object, location, or other places). This same thing happens in English, where I can have a simple sentence like this:

남자는 음식을 먹다 = The man eats food
(남자는 음식을 먹어 / 남자는 음식을 먹어요)

I can use adjectives to describe each noun in the sentence. For example:

행복한 여자는 작은 차 안에 있다 = The happy girl is inside the small car
(행복한 여자는 작은 차 안에 있어 / 행복한 여자는 작은 차 안에 있어요)

You will see some adjectives that end in “~있다.” The most common of these for a beginner are:

맛있다 = delicious
재미있다 = fun, funny

When an adjective ends in “~있다” like this, instead of attaching ~ㄴ/은 to the stem, you must attach ~는 to the stem. For example:

그 남자는 재미있는 남자이다 = that man is a funny man
(그 남자는 재미있는 남자야 / 그 남자는 재미있는 남자예요)

나는 맛있는 음식을 먹다 = I eat delicious food
(나는 맛있는 음식을 먹어 / 저는 맛있는 음식을 먹어요)

The difference here is due to what I call the “~는 것” principle. For now, you do not need to think about why ~는 is added instead of ~ㄴ/은. It is sufficient at this point to just memorize it as an exception. The concept behind this grammatical rule is introduced in Lesson 26 and I continue to discuss it into other Lessons in Unit 2. This concept is related to verbs being able to describe nouns. For example:

“The man who I met yesterday will go to the park that I want to go to”

However, this is very complex and is the whole basis to the ~는 것 principle that I mentioned earlier. As I said, you will begin to learn about this in Lesson 26.

 

 

To be a lot of: 많다

A good way to practice your understanding of how adjectives can be used to describe a noun in a sentence or to predicate an entire sentence is to apply your knowledge to the word “많다.” 많다 is an adjective that describes that there is “many’ or “a lot” of something. Its translation to English usually depends on how it is used in a sentence. For example, when used to describe nouns in a sentence, it can be used in the following way:

나는 많은 음식을 먹다 = I eat a lot of food
(나는 많은 음식을 먹어 / 저는 많은 음식을 먹어요)

나는 많은 돈이 있다 = I have a lot of money
(나는 많은 돈이 있어 / 저는 많은 돈이 있어요)

나는 많은 아내가 있다 = I have a lot of wives (ha!)
(나는 많은 아내가 있어 / 저는 많은 아내가 있어요)

Now, if we use “많다” to predicate a sentence, it can be used like this:

사람이 많다

In your Korean studies, you need to realize that it is never effective to think of a Korean sentence as an exact translation in English. The fact is, Korean and English grammar are completely different, and trying to force the rules/structure of English into Korean is unnatural. If we stuck with the translation of “a lot of” for the meaning of “많다” and forced the English translation to the sentence “사람이 많다”, we would get:

People are a lot of

… But that clearly is not accurate. Instead, what is the sentence “사람이 많다” describing? It is describing that there is a lot of something, therefore, the translation should be:

사람이 많다 = there is a lot of people
(사람이 많아 / 사람이 많아요)

Therefore, when 많다 predicates a sentence, its translation is usually “There is/are a lot of…”. Here is another example:

음식이 많다 = there is a lot of food
(음식이 많아 / 음식이 많아요)

Of course, this can be applied to very complex sentences as well, but this is just the very beginning. Eventually, you will be able to make a sentence like:

There are a lot of singers who become famous and spend all of their money too quickly

This sentence as well would also end in “많다.” The structure would basically be:

(singers who become famous and spend all of their money too quickly)가 많다

You are still very far from understanding how complex sentences like that work, but I want to show you that the content you learned in this lesson brings you one step closer.

Also notice that the particles 이/가 are attached to the subjects in sentences ending with “많다.” There are some words where the use of the particles ~이/가 on the subject of the sentence is more natural than the use of ~는/은. 많다 is one of these words. We will continue to tell you in which situations it is more natural to use ~이/가 instead of ~은/는 as we progress through our lessons.

 

Particle ~도

~도 is another particle that is very useful in Korean. It has the meaning of “too/as well.” It can replace the subject  particles (는/은) OR the object particles (를/을), depending on what you are saying “too” with. For example:

저도 한국어를 말하다 = I speak Korean as well (In addition to other people)
(나도 한국어를 말해 / 저 한국어를 말해요)

which is different from:

저는 한국어도 말하다 = I speak Korean as well (in addition to other languages)
(나는 한국어도 말해 / 저는 한국어 말해요)

Make sure you notice the difference between the previous two examples. In English these two are written the same, but sound different when speaking. In the first example, you are emphasizing that YOU also speak Korean, in addition to other people that you are talking about. In the second example, you are emphasizing that (in addition to other languages), you also speak Korean.
See the two examples below for the same issue:

저도 사과를 먹다 = I eat apples as well
(나도 사과를 먹어 / 저도 사과를 먹어요)

저는 사과도 먹다 = I eat apples as well
(나는 사과도 먹어 / 저는 사과도 먹어요)

Notice the difference in pronunciation in English. The first one has the meaning of “other people eat some apples, but I too eat some apples.” The second example has the meaning of “I eat some other food as well, but I also eat apples.” It is important to recognize that whatever noun “~도” is attached to is the thing that is being expressed as “too.” More examples:

More examples:
나도 그것을 알다 = I know that, too
(나도 그것을 알아 / 저도 그것을 알아요)

나도 피곤하다 = I am tired, too
(나도 피곤해 / 저도 피곤해요)

나의 딸도 행복하다 = My daughter is happy, too
(나의 딸도 행복해 / 저의 딸도 행복해요)

There are 1250 example sentences in Unit 1.
All entries are linked to an audio file. You can download all of these files in one package here.

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