Lesson 102: Quoted Abbreviations

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Conjugating ~ㄴ/는다고 하다 to ~한대
Abbreviating Quoted Sentences with 이다
Abbreviating a Quoted Imperative Sentence
Abbreviating ~자고 하다 and ~냐고 하다

 

 

 

Vocabulary

Nouns:
혼잡 = congestion
교통혼잡 = traffic jam
글씨 = handwriting
체격 = person’s physical build
앞줄 = front row
야시장 = night market
결혼기념일 = wedding anniversary day
미역국 = seaweed soup
노인 = old man
연간 = annual
마리 = counter for animals

Verbs:
떠오르다 = to come into somebody’s head
삶다 = to boil
조퇴하다 = to leave work early
징수하다 = to collect money, fees
붙잡다 = to hold onto, to detain
인상하다 = to raise a price
삭감하다 = to lower a payment
달성하다 = to achieve a goal
섬기다 = to work for/serve a master
부활하다 = to revive

Adjectives:
훌륭하다 = to be excellent

Adverbs and Other Verbs:
예순 = sixty
혹은 = or

 

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn more ways to abbreviate Korean sentences. In the previous lesson, you learned about common ways that Korean people shorten their sentences in messaging or when talking on the internet. In this lesson, you will learn how to abbreviate conjugations of quoted sentences. Let’s get started.

 

 

 

Conjugating ~ㄴ/는다고 하다 to ~한대

In Lesson 52, you started learning about quoted sentences, and how you can add ~ㄴ/는다고 to indicate that something is said/written/thought. The predicating verb is typically something like 말하다 (to speak), 생각하다 (to think), or some other verb that can indicate that words or thoughts were expressed.

For example, when quoted in the present tense:

아들은 바나나를 좋아한다고 해요 = Our son says that he likes bananas

The same thing can be done with adjectives in the present tense, but remember the different rules for quoting adjectives from Lesson 52 (and more generally for conjugating adjectives in general from Lesson 5). For example:

저의 친구들은 저의 여자 친구가 예쁘다고 해요 = My friends say that my girlfriend is pretty

In both of those situations (with verbs and adjectives), the construction of “~다고 해(요)” can be contracted to ~대(요). See how this abbreviation is done by examining the sentences below, which are adapted to reflect this new grammatical principle:

아들은 바나나를 좋아한대요 = Our son says that he likes bananas
저의 친구들은 저의 여자 친구가 예쁘대요 = My friends say that my girlfriend is pretty

The tense of the quoted clause (the tense of the clause before ~다고 해(요)) is irrelevant. ~대(요) is a contraction of ~다고 해(요), so it doesn’t matter if the part before ~다고 해(요) is 하, 한, 했 or 하겠 . In other words:

한다고 해요 can contract to 한대요
했다고 해요 can contract to 했대요
하겠다고 해요 can contract to 하겠대요

The sentences from before show examples where the quote (regardless of the action within the quote) is made in the present tense to say that something is said. For example:

아들은 바나나를 좋아한대요 = Our son says that he likes bananas
저의 친구들은 저의 여자 친구가 예쁘대요 = My friends say that my girlfriend is pretty

The underlined endings used above are contractions of “~다고 (요).” Often times, quoted sentences indicate that something was said. For example:

그는 밥을 벌써 먹었다고 했어요 = He said that he already ate
야시장에 가기 싫다고 했어요 = He said that he doesn’t want to go to the night market

In theory, “~다고 했다” (or any of its derivatives like 했어요 or 했어) can be contracted to “~댔다” (or any of its derivatives like 댔어요 or 댔어). For example:

그는 밥을 벌써 먹었댔어요 = He said that he already ate
야시장에 가기 싫댔어요 = He said that he doesn’t want to go to the night market

That being said, even if the speaker wants to indicate that the quote was spoken in the past, it is still common to use the present tense contraction ~대(요). When using these contractions, you are relaying what somebody else has already said. Therefore, by default, the spoken portion of the sentence is already in the past. As a result, even if you use the present tense contraction ~대요, context can indicate that this quote was spoken in the past.

You might be looking at this and thinking “wait a minute, he showed us examples at the beginning of the lesson where the spoken portion of the sentence occurs in the present.” Look at those sentences again:

아들은 바나나를 좋아한대요 = Our son says that he likes bananas

Maybe your son likes bananas now, but when did he say that? In order for you to know that he said it (and to be conveying it as is the purpose of this sentence), you must have heard this in the past.

저의 친구들은 저의 여자 친구가 예쁘대요 = My friends say that my girlfriend is pretty

Maybe your friends say that your girlfriend is pretty now, but when did they say that? In order for you to know that they said it (and to be conveying it as is the purpose of this sentence), you must have heard this in the past. Therefore, although the Korean sentences shown in the present tense shown at the beginning of the lesson are grammatically correct, their English translations could be interpreted into the past or present tense. It doesn’t really matter.

Let’s look at some other examples of this abbreviation:

오빤 점심이 맛있대 = My brother said/says that lunch is delicious
(오빠는 점심이 맛있다고 했어)

학생들은 시험이 너무 어렵대요 = The students said that the exam was too difficult
(학생들은 시험이 너무 어렵다고 했어요)

여자 친구는 여행을 곧 하고 싶대요 = My girlfriend said/says that she wants to go traveling soon
(여자 친구는 여행을 곧 하고 싶다고 했어요)

그 남자는 한국말을 조금만 할 수 있대 = He said/says that he can only speak Korean a little bit
(그 남자는 한국말을 조금만 할 수 있다고 했어)

아버지는 열쇠를 잃어버렸대요 = Dad said that he lost his keys
(아버지는 열쇠를 잃어버렸다고 했어요)

친구는 내일부터 중국어공부를 시작하겠대요 = My friend said that he is going to start studying Chinese from tomorrow
(친구는 내일부터 중국어공부를 시작하겠다고 했어요)

This abbreviation can only be used when you are relaying a quote that was said by another person. For example, it would be unnatural to say something like this:

우리가 가기 전에 나는 배고프대

These contractions (and the ones discussed below) are very common in speech, but you will almost never see them written, unless it is a direct quote of what somebody said. Note that because of the way these constructions are pronounced (specifically with verbs in the present tense), to an untrained ear they could be very easily mistaken for ~는데 (which you studied in Lessons 76 and 77).

This contraction can be applied to 이다, but the rules are a little bit different. Let’s look at this next.

 

 

 

 

Abbreviating Quoted Sentences with 이다

This same type of contraction can be done to abbreviate quoted sentences ending in 이다. In Lesson 52, you learned how to quote with verbs, adjectives and 이다. I don’t want to get too much into those rules again (you can check out Lesson 52 if you are not sure), but in general you learned that when quoting a sentence that ends in 이다, ~(이)라고 can be added to the final noun. For example:

그 사람은 선생님이라고 해요 = That person says he is a teacher
너무 어려운 문제라고 해요 = He says it is a difficult problem/question

“~(이)라고 해(요)” can abbreviated to “(이)래(요). For example:

그 사람은 선생님이래요 = That person says he is a teacher
너무 어려운 문제 = He says it is a difficult problem/question

As we saw earlier in the lesson, often times, quoted sentences indicate that something was said. For example:

그 사람은 선생님이라고 했어요 = That person said he is a teacher
너무 어려운 문제라고 했어요 = He said it is a difficult problem/question

In theory, “~(이)라고 했다” (or any of its derivatives like 했어요 or 했어) can be contracted to “~(이)랬다” (or any of its derivatives like 랬어요 or 랬어). For example:

그 사람은 선생님이랬어요 = That person said he is a teacher
너무 어려운 문제랬어 = He said it is a difficult problem/question

That being said, even if the speaker indicates that the quote occurred in the past tense, it is still common to use the present tense contraction ~(이)래(요). For example:

그 사람은 선생님이래요 = That person said/says he is a teacher
너무 어려운 문제래 = He said/says it is a difficult problem/question

In Lesson 9, you learned how to create the indication of future tense by adding ~ㄹ/을 것이다 to a noun. For example:

저는 밥을 먹을 것이에요 = I will eat rice
저는 밥을 먹을 거예요 = I will eat rice

As the final conjugating word of these types of sentences is 이다, ~(이)래(요) can be used to abbreviate these types of sentences when they are quoted. For example:

슬기가 내일 학교에 갈 것이에요 = Seulgi will go to school tomorrow, or
슬기가 내일 학교에 갈 거예요 = Seulgi will go to school tomorrow

슬기가 내일 학교에 갈 것이라고 했어요 = Seulgi said that she will go to school tomorrow, or
슬기가 내일 학교에 갈 거라고 했어요 = Seulgi said that she will go to school tomorrow

슬기가 내일 학교에 갈 것이래요 = Seulgi said that she is going to school tomorrow, or
슬기가 내일 학교에 갈 거래요 = Seulgi said that she is going to school tomorrow

More examples:
친구를 만나러 갈 거래  = He said that he is going to go meet a friend
(친구를 만나러 갈 거라고 했어)

교장선생님은 밖에 식사를 하실 거래요 = The principal said that he/she is going to go out for lunch/dinner
(교장선생님은 밖에 식사를 하실 거라고 하셨어요)

Due to the similar structure with quoted sentences with 이다 (Lesson 52) and quoted imperative sentences (Lesson 54), the abbreviated forms of both look very similar. Let’s talk about this next.

 

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Abbreviating a Quoted Imperative Sentence

In Lesson 54, you learned how add ~(으)라고 to quote an imperative sentence. For example:

엄마가 빨리 오라고 했어요 = Mom says/said “come quick!”
엄마가 천천히 먹으라고 했어요 = Mom says/said “eat slowly”
여자친구는 비싼 반지를 사라고 했어요 = My girlfriend says/said “buy an expensive ring”

Again, the final “했어요” in the sentences above are conjugated in the past tense. When abbreviating this, context allows it to often be used in the present tense. I talked about this already in the two previous sections.

These quoted imperative sentences can also be abbreviated. The manner in which it is done is very similar to how quoted sentences with 이다 are abbreviated. When abbreviating quoted imperative sentences, “~(으)라고 해요” can abbreviate to “~(으)래(요). The three sentences above can be abbreviated to:

엄마가 빨리 오래요 = Mom says/said “come quick!”
엄마가 천천히 먹으래요 = Mom says/said “eat slowly”
여자친구가 비싼 반지를 사래 = My girlfriend says/said “buy an expensive ring”

Before we finish, let’s look at how abbreviating ~자 and ~(느)냐 is done.

 

 

 

 

Abbreviating ~자고 하다 and ~냐고 하다

In Lesson 44, you learned how to add ~자 to a verb to suggest that an action be done together. For example:

밥을 먹자! = Let’s eat!
내일 공원에 가자! = Tomorrow, let’s go to the park!

In Lesson 53, you also learned that you can quote these types of sentences by attaching ~고 to ~자. For example:

아빠가 밥을 먹자고 했어 = Dad said “Let’s eat”
여자 친구가 공원에 가자고 했어 = My girlfriend said “let’s go to the park”

“~자고 해(요)” can abbreviated to “~재(요). For example:

Again, technically, ~자고 했어(요) can abbreviate to ~쟀어(요). When abbreviating this, context allows it to often be used in the present tense.

For example:

아빠가 밥을 먹재요 = Dad says/said “Let’s eat”
여자 친구가 공원에 가재 = My girlfriend says/said “let’s go to the park”

In Lesson 53, you also learned that you can quote questions by using ~(느)냐고 (for a verb) and ~(으)냐고 (for an adjective). For example:

그 여자가 예쁘냐고 물어봤어요/했어요 = He asked “is the girl pretty.”

In these cases, “냐고 물어보다/하다” can be contracted to “냬”. For example:

그는 여자가 예쁘냬 = He asked “Is the girl pretty?”

This type of grammar often shows up on the TOPIK tests. Back when the intermediate test still existed, a question like this would be quite common:

Which of the following is incorrect?
(1)    엄마는 나한테 밥을 많이 먹지 말래
(2)    엄마는 나한테 밥을 먹재
(3)    엄마는 나한테 밥이 있냬
(4)    엄마는 밥을 빨리 먹었대 했어
(5)    엄마는 밥을 먹을 거래

The answer being number (4). 했어 shouldn’t be placed after “먹었대” because “먹었다” already includes this conjugation.

That’s it for this lesson!

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