Lesson 54: Quoted Imperative Sentences: ~(으)라고

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Vocabulary
Introduction

Quoted Imperative Sentences: ~(으)라고
Negative Quoted Imperative Sentences: ~지 말라고

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
의사소통 = communication

의사소통 usually refers to communication through a language. I know that sounds ambiguous, but try to understand my explanation. If I were to say a sentence like this:

제가 그 사람과 의사소통이 잘 안 돼요 = (Communication with that person isn’t good) I can’t communicate with that person

It would usually refer to there being a language barrier between the two people, and not some other type of communication problem. For example, if you were on a blind date with somebody and you just couldn’t have a good conversation, 의사소통 would usually not be used to refer to this type of “communication.” Instead, it would be better to use the word “대화” in these situations.

Examples:
저는 저의 아내 부모님과 의사소통을 하기 위해 한국어를 배웠어요
= I learned Korean so that I could communicate with my wife’s parents

외국인과의 의사소통 능력은 직업을 구하는 데 있어 가장 중요한 항목 중 하나예요
= Having the skills to communicate with foreigners is one of the most important things you can have when looking for a job

한국어실력을 늘리고 싶으면 선생님이 한국 사람들이랑 의사소통을 많이 하라고 그랬어요
= In order to increase my Korean skills, my teacher told me to communicate with Korean people a lot

조각 = piece, slice

Common Usages:
조각가 = sculptor
조각미남 = a man as handsome as a statue

Examples:
당근을 작은 조각으로 자르세요 = Cut the carrots into small pieces, please
저는 떨어진 그 조각을 또 세웠어요 = I (again) stood up the pieces that fell
저는 이이들에게 피자를 한 조각씩 줄 거에요 = I will give one piece of pizza to each kid

엄마가 한 조각 더 먹으라고 했지만 제가 배불러서 더 못 먹었어요
= Mom told me to eat one more piece, but I was full so I couldn’t eat anymore

유리병을 떨어뜨려서 바닥에 유리조각이 많으므로 걸을 때 조심하세요
= Be careful when you walk because I dropped a glass bottle on the ground and now there are many pieces of glass

부사장 = vice president

Notes: 부사장 refers to the vice president of a company, not a nation. 사장 (or 회사장) is used to refer to the president of the company. 부 (副) refers to the “sub” or “assistant” of something.

Examples:
사장 다음으로 높은 사람은 부사장이에요
= The next highest person after the president is the vice president

이 회사에서 부사장이 되기 위해 10년 넘게 열심히 일했어요
= I worked hard for more than 10 years in order to become the vice president at this company

지도교사 = guidance counselor

Examples:
어떤 지도교사를 만나는지에 따라 학생들의 미래가 달라질 수 있어요
= Depending on what type of guidance counselor a student meets, their future can be different

대학교 때 자유롭게 공부하고 싶으면 지도교사가 전공을 나중에 선택하라고 말했어요
= If you want to study freely in university, my guidance counselor told me to choose my major later

원어민 = native speaker

Common Usages:
영어 원어민 선생님 = native English teacher
중국어 원어민 선생님 = native Chinese teacher

Examples:
이 사람은 우리 학교(의) 영어 원어민 선생님이에요
= This person is our school’s native English teacher

우리학교에서는 영어원어민 선생님 10분이 있습니다
= At our school, there are 10 native English speakers

서울시는 영어원어민에 관한 예산 전반을 줄이고 있어요
= The City of Seoul is lowering the budget for native English speakers in general (across the board)

자막 = subtitles

Examples:
이 한국드라마가 영어자막이 있었으면 좋겠어요
= I wish this Korean drama had English subtitles

저는 영화를 볼 때 더빙으로 보는 것보다 자막으로 보는 것을 더 선호해요
= When I watch a movie, I prefer to watch it with subtitles instead of voice-overs

식중독 = food poisoning

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “식쭝독”

Common Usages:
식중독에 걸리다 = to get food poisoning

Examples:
식중독에 걸리면 물을 많이 마시라고 했어요
= I told him to drink a lot of water if he gets food poisoning

해물만 먹다가 식중독에 걸려서 병원에 갔어요
= I only ate seafood, and then – something about only eating seafood caused me to get food poisoning and go to the hospital

존댓말 = honorific speaking

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “존댄말”

Notes: 반말 is the word for the “honorific speaking” that Korean people use when speaking with older people or people in a higher position. The opposite of존댓말 is 반말.

This word contains a 사이시옷. For information about this, see Lesson 131.

Common Usages:
존댓말을 쓰다/하다 = to use honorific speaking

Examples:
친구들끼리는 반말을 쓰고, 어른들과 대화를 할 때는 존댓말을 써요
= Amongst friends, you speak casually, and when talking with older people, you speak formally

저의 한국어 선생님이 모든 한국 사람들이랑 존댓말을 하라고 말씀하셨어요
= My Korean teacher told me to use honorific speaking with all Korean people

반말을 쓰거나 존댓말을 쓰거나 모든 한국 사람들이 이해할 수 있을 거예요
= Regardless of if you use informal speech or honorific speech, all Korean people will be able to understand you

한국어를 배울 때 가장 어려운 부분은 존댓말을 쓰는 것이라고 생각합니다
= I think the most difficult part when learning Korean is using honorific speaking

오랜만 = a long time period since something has happened

Common Usages:
오랜만이다 = long time no see

Examples:
어제부터 오랜만에 쉴 생각을 하니 설레었다
= I am excited because, from now on, I realized that I can rest for the first time in a long time

우리가 오랜만에 만날 거라서 저는 친구에게 우리 집에 오라고 했어요
= It will be a long time since we last met, so I told him to come to our house

오랜만에 친구와 수다를 떠니 잠시 있고 있었던 옛 날 생각이 많이 났다
= (Because) I am chatting with an old friend for the first time in a long time, a lot of thoughts of the old days have come up

하지만 내가 하고 싶은 일을 시작해서 하루하루 잘 버티고 있다. 오늘은 오랜만에 여유가 있게 쉴 수 있는 날이다. 어제부터 오랜만에 쉴 생각을 하니 설레었다.
= But, because am starting work that I want to do, every day (day by day) I am enduring it well. Today is a day that I can rest leisurely/comfortably for the first time in a long time. From yesterday, because of the thought of resting for the first time in a while, I am excited.

Verbs:
먹이다 = to feed

Examples:
애기가 있으면 2시간마다 애기를 먹여야 돼요
= When you have a baby, you need to feed him/her every two hours

이 약을 아기에게 한 시간에 한번씩 먹이면 됩니다
= You should feed/give this medicine to the baby once every hour

애기가 배가 고파서 남편에게 밥을 먹이라고 했어요
= I told my husband to feed the baby because he is/was hungry

뛰다 = to run

Common Usages:
뛰어가다 = to run to (to go by running)
뛰어다니다 = to run around an area
뛰어오다 = to come by running
뛰어 넘다 = to run/jump over something
심장이 뛰다 = for a heart to be pounding

Examples:
복도에서 뛰는 것은 위험해요 = It is dangerous to run in the hallway
그렇게 빨리 뛰어서는 안 돼요 = You shouldn’t run that fast
너무 늦어서 학교에 뛰어갔어요 = I was very late, so I ran to school
말이 날뛰듯이 그의 심장이 뛰었다 = His heart was racing, as if a horse bucking
아이들이 놀이터에서 뛰어다녔어요 = The kids were running around the playground
선생님이 복도에서 뛰지 말라고 했어요 = The teacher told me to not run in the hallway
뛰다가 조심하지 않았다면 넘어졌을 거예요 = If I wasn’t careful when I was running, I would have fallen

운영하다 = to manage, to operate

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “우녕하다”

Common Usages:
운영비 = management/operational fees
운영체제 = operating system (on a computer)
회사/사업을 운영하다 = to manage a company
웹사이트를 운영하다 = to manage a website

Examples:
회사를 자유롭게 운영하고 싶으면 혼자 하라고 했어요
= I told him that if he wants to run his business freely, to do it himself

우리가 사장님 없이 이 회사를 계속 운영할 수 있느냐고 물어봤어요
= I asked if we could run/manage this company without the boss/C.E.O/president

갱신하다 = to renew

The noun form of this word (“갱신”) translates to “renewal”

Common Usages:
계약을 갱신하다 = to renew a contract
비자를 갱신하다 = to renew a visa

Examples:
내년에도 계약을 갱신할 수 있었으면 좋겠어요
= I wish/hope I can renew my contract next year

외국인들은 비자를 주기적으로 갱신해야 하기 때문에 항상 비자만기날짜를 기억해야 돼요
= Because foreigners need to renew their visa periodically, they should always remember the date their visa expires

토하다 = to throw up

The noun form of this word (“토”) translates to “vomit.”

Common Usages:
토할 뻔 했다 = to almost throw up

Examples:
해물을 먹었다가 토했어요 = I ate seafood and then threw up
차에 제발 토하지 말라고 했어요 = I said ‘please don’t throw up’ in the car
제가 밥을 먹었을 때 거의 토할 뻔 했어요 = When I was eating I almost threw up

제가 어제 회사에서 조금 아팠잖아요…… 그래서 집에 가서 밥을 먹고 갑자기 토했어요~ 그래서 병원에 갔어요.
= Remember/don’t forget/as you know I was sick at work yesterday… Then, I went home and ate, and suddenly threw up, so I went to the hospital

과장하다 = to exaggerate

The noun form of this word (“과장”) translates to “an exaggeration”

Notes: You can call somebody who over-exaggerates too much an “오버쟁이”

Examples:
제 남편은 이야기를 할 때마다 심하게 과장을 해요
= Whenever my husband talks he always (severely) exaggerates

남자 친구에게 계속 과장하지 말라고 했지만 그는 한 달에 거의 500 만 원을 번다고 했어요
= I told my boyfriend to not exaggerate, but he said that he almost makes 500 만 원 per month

분석하다 = to analyze

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “분서카다”

The noun form of this word (“분석”) translates to “analysis”

Common Usages:
분석가 = analyst
시장 분석 = market analysis
캐릭터 분석 = character analysis

Examples:
연구결과를 분석해 주세요 = Please analyze the results of the research
자료를 표에 넣고 분석했어요 = I put the data into a table and analyzed it

이 사진이 무언가를 나타내기 위해 찍은 사진 같아서 분석을 해 봐야 해요
= I think this picture was taken to show something, so we should analyze it

좋은 영화배우가 되기 위해서는 자기가 맡은 역할의 캐릭터 분석을 꼼꼼히 해야 해요
= If you want to become a good movie actor, you must meticulously analyze the character of the role you took on

올라타다 = to get on

Notes: This word is a combination of the words 오르다 (to go up) and 타다 (to get on, to ride).

Common Usages:
말에 올라타다 = to get on a horse
버스에 올라타다 = to get on a bus

Examples:
버스 아저씨가 저한테 올라타라고 했어요 = The bus driver told me to get on (the bus)
말을 올라타 봤는데 너무 높아서 넘어졌어요 = I tried to get on the horse, but it was so high that I fell

참석하다 = to attend

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “참서카다”

The noun form of this word (“참석”) translates to “attendance”

Common Usages:
참석률 = attendance rate
참석자 = a person in attendance

Examples:
중요한 내용이 없어서 회의를 참석하지 말라고 했어요
= He told me to not attend the meeting because there is nothing important (no important content)

저는 참석을 못 하는데 저 대신에 저의 부인이 갈 거예요
= I can’t attend, but instead of me, my wife will go

어쩌면 제가 내일 중요한 회의에 참석하지 못할지도 몰라요
= I’m not sure if I can attend the important meeting tomorrow

Adjectives:
자유롭다 = to be free

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “자유롭따”

Notes: This word is not used to describe something that doesn’t cost money. Instead, it is used to describe “free” in the sense that something has no restrictions.

Examples:
회사를 자유롭게 운영하고 싶으면 혼자 하라고 했어요
= I told him that if he wants to run his business freely, to do it himself

그 친구는 매우 자유롭기 때문에 하고 싶은 걸 다 할 수 있어서 부러워요
= I am envious of that friend because he can do anything he wants because he is very free

대학교 때 자유롭게 공부하고 싶으면 지도교사가 전공을 나중에 선택하라고 말했어요
= If you want to study freely in university, my guidance counselor told me to choose my major later

Adverbs and Other Words:
와중 = meanwhile

Notes: The usage of 와중 is similar to the word 동안 in that it can’t be used by itself in a sentence. It is often described by a verb to indicate that something comes up “right while” some other action was processing. For example:

밥을 먹는 와중에 친구가 더러운 이야기를 해서 밥맛이 떨어졌어요
= Right when I was eating, my friend talked about something dirty so I lost by appetite

It can also be described by adjectives, the most common of which being “바쁜 와중” and “아픈 와중.” For example:

너무 바쁜 와중에 친구가 찾아왔기 때문에 친구와 시간을 보내지 못했어요
= Right when I was busy, my friend came looking for me so I couldn’t spend any time with him

It can also be placed after 그 to describe a time period referenced by context, for example:

그 와중에 나는 밥을 빨리 먹고 외출할 준비를 끝냈다
= While I was doing that, I finished eating and prepared to leave

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

You learned a lot about quoted sentences in the previous two lessons, but there is still more for you to learn. In this lesson, you will learn how to quote a command. Let’s get started.

 

Quoted Imperative Sentences: ~()라고

In Lesson 40, you learned how to make a command with the imperative mood. You learned that there are many ways to end a sentence when giving somebody a command. Aside from their respective differences in politeness, any of these could be added to a verb to make a command:

~아/어
~아/어라
~(으)세요
~(으)십시오

I could apply these different formalities to any verb. For example:

수고해! = work hard!
수고해라! = work hard!
수고하세요! = work hard!
수고하십시오! = work hard!

However, when quoting a clause that ends as a command, none of these additions are attached to the final verb in the clause. When quoting a command, you use an ending that is similar to the second one presented (~아/어라). Here is a list of verbs with that addition added to it:

가라
먹어라
뛰어라
읽어라
올라타라

When quoting these words as commands, you must attach ~(으)라고 to the stem of the verb. ~으라고 is added to the stem of a verb ending in a consonant (except ㄹ), and ~라고 is added to the stem of a verb ending in a vowel (and where the final consonant isㄹ). Notice that the first part of the addition is ~(으) and not ~아/어. The difference can be significant depending on the word. For example, here is a table showing how a verb will change depending on if ~(으)라 or ~아/어라 is added:

In addition to some basic words, I specifically chose a bunch of irregular verbs. It is a good exercise to look at this type of table. If you don’t know why these changes are being made, you might want to brush up on your irregulars from Lesson 7.

Verb (translation) + ~(으)라 + ~아/어라
가다 (to go) 가라 가라
먹다 (to eat) 먹으라 먹어라
뛰다 (to run) 뛰라 뛰어라
읽다 (to read) 읽으라 읽어라
올라타다 (to get on) 올라타라 올라타라
하다 (to do) 하라 해라
먹이다 (to feed) 먹이라 먹여라
짓다 (to build) 지으라 지어라
걷다 (to walk) 걸으라 걸어라
잠그다 (to lock) 잠그라 잠가라
돕다 (to help) 도우라 도와라
자르다 (to cut) 자르라 잘라
듣다 (to hear) 들으라 들어라
만들다 (to make) 만들라 만들어라

Notice from the table that in some cases (가다, for example), there is no difference between how the two additions are added to a verb. However, in most cases, there is a difference.

Anyways, the addition we are looking at in this lesson is ~(으)라고. This addition can be added to a command that you want to quote. Below are many, many examples:

우리 아빠는 저에게 밥을 빨리 먹으라고 했어요 = My dad told me to eat fast
선생님은 학생들에게 열심히 공부하라고 했어요 = The teacher told the students to study hard
나는 애기에게 우유를 마시라고 했어 = I told the baby to drink his milk
버스 아저씨가 나한테 올라타라고 했어요 = The bus driver told me to get on (the bus)

식중독에 걸리면 물을 많이 마시라고 했어요
= I told him to drink a lot of water if he gets food poisoning

애기가 배가 고파서 남편에게 밥을 먹이라고 했어요
= I told my husband to feed the baby because he is/was hungry

어머니는 아들한테 밥을 먹으러 빨리 오라고 했어요
= The mother told her son to quickly come to eat

회사를 자유롭게 운영하고 싶으면 혼자 하라고 했어요
= I told him that if he wants to run his business freely, to do it himself

엄마가 한 조각 더 먹으라고 했지만 제가 배불러서 더 못 먹었어요
= Mom told me to eat one more piece, but I was full so I couldn’t eat anymore

저는 직원들에게 불만이 있으면 저에게 아무 때나 말을 하라고 했어요
= I told the workers that if they have a complaint (are dissatisfied), they may talk to me (tell me) anytime

우리가 오랜만에 만날 거라서 저는 친구에게 우리 집에 오라고 했어요
= It will be a long time since we last met, so I told him to come to our house

저의 한국어 선생님이 모든 한국 사람들이랑 존댓말을 하라고 말씀하셨어요
= My Korean teacher told me to use honorific speaking with all Korean people

대학교 때 자유롭게 공부하고 싶으면 지도교사가 전공을 나중에 선택하라고 말했어요
= If you want to study freely in university, my guidance counselor told me to choose my major later

한국어실력을 늘리고 싶으면 선생님이 한국 사람들이랑 의사소통을 많이 하라고 그랬어요
= In order to increase my Korean skills, my teacher told me to communicate with Korean people a lot

Now that we know all of this, we can look at how to quote negative imperative sentences.

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Negative Quoted Imperative Sentences: ~ 말라고

In the previous section, you learned how to add ~(으)라고 to a command that you want quote. In Lesson 40, you learned how to make negative commands by using ~지 말다. For example:

가지 말아
가지 마세요
가지 마십시오

By attaching ~(으)라고 to ~지 말다, you can create a negative quoted command. For example:

가지 말라고
먹지 말라고
하지 말라고
마시지 말라고
읽지 말라고

It is essentially the same principle from the previous section, but I figured it was worth introducing separately. Below are many examples of this in use:

그렇게 하지 말라고 했어 = I told you not to do it like that
불을 만지지 말라고 했어 = I told you not to touch the fire
밥을 그렇게 빨리 먹지 말라고 했어요 = I told you not to eat food that fast
선생님은 수업에 늦게 오지 말라고 했어요 = The teacher told us not to come late to class
선생님이 복도에서 뛰지 말라고 했어요 = The teacher told me to not run in the hallway
차에 제발 토하지 말라고 했어요 = I said ‘please don’t throw up’ in the car

여자친구는 다른 여자와 대화를 하지 말라고 했어요
= My girlfriend told me not to talk to (have a conversation with) other girls

제가 공부하는 동안 저에게 얘기하지 말라고 그랬어요
= I told him not to speak to me while I’m studying

중요한 내용이 없어서 회의를 참석하지 말라고 했어요
= He told me to not attend the meeting because there is nothing important (no important content)

남자 친구에게 계속 과장하지 말라고 했지만 그는 한 달에 거의 500 만 원을 번다고 했어요
= I told my boyfriend to not exaggerate, but he said that he almost makes 500 만 원 per month

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