Lesson 46: I have to/I need to ~아/어야 하다/되다/지/겠다, ~ㄹ 필요가 있다/없다

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Vocabulary
Introduction

To have to: ~아/어야 하다 / 되다 / 지 / 겠다
To need: 필요하다
To need to: ~ㄹ을 필요가 있다/없다

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. You might not be able to understand all of the grammar within the example sentences, but most of the grammar used will be introduced by the end of Unit 2. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used, and maybe even to expose yourself to the grammar that you will be learning shortly.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
예외 = exception

Common Usages:
… 예외로 하고… = except for…
예외 없이 = without exception

Examples:
그것은 유일한 예외예요 = That is the only exception
예외를 다 설명할 필요가 있어요 = You need to explain all of the exceptions

영어문법을 공부할 때 예외를 그냥 다 외워야 돼요
= When you study English grammar, you just need to memorize all of the exceptions

신입생만 예외로 하고 모든 학생들이 체육대회에 참가해야 해요
= All students, with the exception of only the new students, must participate in the P.E. day (event)

복사기 = photocopier

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “복싸기”

Examples:
복사기를 수리해야 되었어요 = We had to repair the photocopier
우리 회사는 새로운 복사기가 필요해요 = Our office needs a new photocopier

칼라 복사기가 있는 곳을 찾기 위해 한 시간 넘게 걸어 다녔어요
= It walked around for an hour looking for a color photocopier

오늘 새로운 복사기가 올 거라서 이 오래된 것을 버려야 돼요
= The new photocopier will come today, you we have to throw out this old one

신입생 = freshman

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “시닙쌩”

Common Usages:
신입생 입학설명회 = an information service for potential freshmen
신입생 환영회 = freshmen orientation

Examples:
신입생들에게 반말을 해야지 = You should speak in 반말 to the freshmen students
신입생들을 위해 선물을 준비해야 할 거예요 = We will have to prepare a present for the freshmen
신입생만 예외로 하고 모든 학생들이 체육대회에 참가해야 해요 = All students, with the exception of only the new students, must participate in the P.E. day (event)

운명 = fate

Common Usages:
운명적으로 = fatefully
운명적인 사랑 = fateful love
운명에 맡기다 = to leave things to fate/to let things happen as they should

Examples:
운명을 믿어야지 = You need to trust (in) fate
제가 당신을 만나게 된 건 하늘이 정해준 운명이에요 = Meeting you was fate set by the sky
사람들이 언젠가 죽는 것은 어쩔 수 없는 운명이다  = The fact that people die is an inevitable fate/destiny

시력 = vision

Common Usages:
시력보호 = protection of one’s vision/eyesight
시력이 떨어지다/나빠지다 = for one’s eyesight to get worse
시력이 좋아지다 = for one’s eyesight to get better

Examples:
시력이 안 좋아서 안경을 써야 돼요 = My eyesight isn’t good so I have to wear glasses

시력이 워낙 안 좋아서 화면에 가까이 있어야 되었어요
= My eyesight isn’t good, so I had to be close to the screen

시력보호를 위해 어렸을 때부터 텔레비전을 멀리서 보는 습관을 갖는 것이 중요해요
= To protect your eyesight, it is important to get in the habit of watching television from far away from when you are young

조개 = clam

Common Usages:
조갯살 = the “meat” (edible part of) a shell fish/clam

Examples:
조개를 넣어야지 = You need to put clams inside
국을 끓일 때 조개를 넣어서 육수를 내면 국물이 더욱 맛있어요 = When you make “boil” soup, if you put clams into the broth, the water (“soup water”) tastes more delicious

캐릭터 = character

Common Usages:
캐릭터 분석 = character analysis

Examples:
그 영화가 영웅 캐릭터가 필요해요 = That movie needs a hero character
강한 캐릭터를 만들 필요가 있어요 = We need to make a strong character

좋은 영화배우가 되기 위해서는 자기가 맡은 역할의 캐릭터 분석을 꼼꼼히 해야 해요
= If you want to become a good movie actor, you must meticulously analyze the character of the role you took on

캐릭터 산업은 꾸준히 성장하고 있는 산업으로서 더 많은 투자가가 필요합니다
= The character industry continuous to develop as an industry, so we need more investors

영웅 = hero

Examples:
영웅이 왕비를 살려야지 = The hero should save the queen

김연아 선수는 모든 대한민국 국민들이 좋아하는 스포츠 영웅과 같은 선수예요
= Kim Yeo-na is sports hero loved by all Koreans

제가 끝까지 최선을 다할 수 있도록 힘을 주신 저의 어머님이 진정한 영웅이에요
= My mother, who puts everything she has into things (who always does her best) is a true/real hero

신화 = myth

Common Usages:
건국신화 = the myth of how a nation is born (Korea’s is particularly interesting)
단군신화 = the myth of “Dangun”

Examples:
한국의 건국신화는 모두가 알아야 하는 상식입니다
= Korea’s “birth myth” is common sense that all people need to know

가난한 집안에서 태어나 이렇게 큰 성공을 이룬 이 사람의 이야기는 신화와 같아요
= The story of this person being born into a poor family and achieving this much success is like a myth/legend

왕비 = queen

Examples:
영웅이 왕비를 살려야지 = The hero should save the queen
모든 사람들이 왕비가 하는 말을 동의해야 돼요  = Everybody has to agree with what the queen says

세계에서 가장 잘 알려진 왕비 중 한 명은 영국의 왕비에요
= The most well know queen in the world is the Queen of England

왕비가 존재하는 나라는 현재 별로 많지 않아요
= There aren’t that many nations that currently have a queen

화면 = screen

Notes: This word is used to refer to the screen of something electric – like a television, computer or movie screen. To refer to the screen that keeps bugs out, the word “방충망” should be used.

Common Usages:
화면이 안 보이다 = to not be able to see the screen

Examples:
다들 화면을 볼 수 있도록 조금 비켜 주세요 = Please move a little bit so that everybody can see the screen
로그인을 이미 했지만 그 화면이 안 보여요 = I already logged in, but I don’t see that screen
시력이 워낙 안 좋아서 화면에 가까이 있어야 되었어요 = My eyesight isn’t good, so I had to be close to the screen

울타리 = fence

Common Usages:
울타리를 쌓다 = to build/put up a fence
가족이라는 울타리 = the idea that a family acts as a fence to protect somebody (a child)

Examples:
울타리를 넘어야 돼요 = We need to go over the fence

강아지가 울타리를 뛰어 넘고 토끼를 뒤따라갔어요
= The puppy jumped over the fence and chased after the rabbit

저는 가족이라는 울타리 안에서 행복하게 유년시절을 보냈어요
= I had a happy childhood in the “fence of family”

Verbs:
동의하다 = to agree

The noun form of this word (“동의”) translates to “an agreement”
This word is sometimes pronounced as “동이하다”

Common Usages:
동의서 = a consent form
동의함 = “I agree/accept” (usually printed on documents or the internet where you need to indicate that you “accept” something like the terms and conditions)

Examples:
제 말에 동의해야 해요 = You need to agree with me
모든 사람들이 왕비가 하는 말을 동의해야 돼요 = Everybody has to agree with what the queen says

그 규칙에 동의하든지 안 하든지 그 규칙을 따라야 돼요
= It doesn’t matter if you agree with the rule or not, you have to follow it

야당이 새로운 정책을 동의하게 하기 위해 거짓말을 했어요
= We lied in order to make the opposition (party) agree with the new policy

이 의견에 동의하지 않는 사람은 제 사무실로 오후에 찾아오세요
= People who don’t agree with this opinion, please come and see (“find”) me in my office this afternoon

검토하다 = to review, to examine

Common Usages:
철저히 검토하다 = to review thoroughly

Examples:
결과를 다시 검토해야겠다 = We’ll have to examine the results again
결과를 발표하기 전에 자료를 검토해야 돼요 = Before announcing the results, we need to examine the data

이 자료를 철저히 검토하고 나서 모두들 준비가 되면 회의를 진행하겠습니다
= After we review the data thoroughly and everybody is ready, we will continue with the meeting

뺏다 = to take something away

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “뺃따”

Notes: 뺏다 is used when the sentence is in the perspective of the person taking away an object. For example:
나는 슬기에게서 핸드폰을 뺏었어요 = I took Seulgi’s cell phone away from her

뺏기다 is used when the sentence is in the perspective of the person who had the object taken from him/her.
나는 슬기에게 핸드폰을 뺏겼어요 = I had my cell phone taken away by Seulgi

Common Usages:
강제로 뺏다 = to take away against one’s will

Examples:
우리 아들이 핸드폰을 많이 쓰고 있어서 핸드폰을 뺏어야 할 것 같아요
= Our son is using his cell-phone so much, we’ll probably have to take it away from him

뽑다 = to pull out

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “뽑따”

Notes: 빼다 and 뽑다 have very similar meanings. 뽑다 is usually used when an object is stuck into something and you need to remove it. For example, when pulling out a hair (which is stuck into your skin) 뽑다 is usually used.  However, the usages often overlap. For example, when pulling out a tooth, it is acceptable to say “이빨을 뽑다” or “이빨을 빼다.”

Common Usages:
돈을 뽑다 = to take out money (from an ATM)
이빨을 뽑다 = to pull out a tooth
머리카락을 뽑다 = to pull out a hair
피를 뽑다 = to take out blood

Example:
그 이를 뽑아야 될 것 같아요 = We will probably have to pull out that tooth

It is also used to indicate that one “chooses” amongst a bunch of choices. For example:
그들은 많은 후보자들 중에서 저를 뽑았어요 = They chose me from many candidates

그 남자가 어떻게 생겼는지 상관없이 경험이 많아서 우리는 그를 뽑아야 돼요
= Regardless of what that person looks like, because he has a lot of experience, we need to hire him

저는 열 가지 주제 중에 자연이라는 주제를 뽑아서 이에 맞는 설계도를 만들어야 해요
= Of ten possible choices, I chose the one called “nature” and I need to make an appropriate diagram for it

성공하다 = to succeed

The noun form of this word (“성공”) translates to “success”

Common Usages:
성공률 = success rate

Examples:
제가 친구의 성공을 너무 기뻐했어요 = I am happy/glad about/of my friend’s success
성공하고 싶으면 매일 열심히 해야 돼요 = If you want to succeed, you need to work hard every day

게임을 하는 것만큼 일을 열심히 하면 성공할 수 있다
= If you work as much as you play games, you can succeed

가난한 집안에서 태어나 이렇게 큰 성공을 이룬 이 사람의 이야기는 신화와 같아요
= The story of this person being born into a poor family and achieving this much success is like a myth/legend

연결하다 = to connect

The noun form of this word (“연결”) translates to “a connection”

Examples:
TV를 켜고 싶으면 이거를 TV에 연결해야 해요
= If you want to turn on the TV, you need to connect this thing to the TV

핸드폰 배터리가 떨어져서 집에 도착하자마자 충전기에 연결해서 충전을 했어요
= I ran out of battery, so as soon as I arrived home I connected (my phone) to my charger and charged it

협조하다 = to cooperate

The noun form of this word (“협조”) translates to “cooperation”
The pronunciation of this word is closer to “협쪼하다”

Common Usages:
협조를 구하다 = to ask/request for help/cooperation

Examples:
이 일을 끝내고 싶으면 우리는 협조해야 해요
= If you want to finish this work, we need to cooperate

경찰은 이 지역의 살인사건의 단서를 찾기 위해 지역주민들에게 협조를 구했다
= The police are asking for the help/cooperation of citizens in the area in order to find clues to the murder (in the area)

Adjectives:
생생하다 = to be vivid, graphic

Common Usages:
꿈이 생생하다 = for a dream to be vivid

Examples:
어제 꾼 꿈 내용이 아직도 생생해서 기분이 이상해요
= I still vividly remember what I dreamed about yesterday, so I feel weird

이 그림은 각 색깔의 느낌을 생생하게 표현해서 더 높은 가치가 있습니다
= This painting has a lot of value because it vividly expresses the feeling of each color

성숙하다 = to be mature

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “성수카다”

Examples:
직장에서 성숙하게 행동해야 돼요 = You need to act maturely at work

저는 막내이지만 형과 누나보다 더 성숙해요
= Even though I am the youngest I am more mature than my older brother and sister

보통 청소년기에 여학생들이 남학생들보다 더 성숙해요
= Usually during adolescence, female students are more mature than male students

Adverbs and Other Words:
실제 = actual

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “실쩨”

Common Usages:
실제상황 = actual/real-life situation

Examples:
실제 나이를 말해야 돼요 = You need to say your real/actual age

중학교 때 처음 해리포터 영화를 봤는데 내가 실제로 영화에서 본 장소를 갈 생각을 하니 너무 기분이 좋았다 = I first saw Harry Potter when I was in middle school, and I was very happy because of the thought of going to the actual place that I saw in the movie

가까이 = closely

This is the adverb form of the adjective 가깝다

Examples:
그렇게 가까이 앉을 필요가 없어요 = There’s no need to sit that close
시력이 워낙 안 좋아서 화면에 가까이 있어야 되었어요= My eyesight isn’t good, so I had to be close to the screen

운명적으로 = fatefully

Common Usages:
운명적으로 사랑에 빠지다 = to fall in love fatefully

Examples:
저와 윌리는 부다페스트에서 운명적으로 사랑에 빠졌어요
= Willy and I fell in love in Budapest by fate/fatefully (this is actually true!)

운명적으로 같은 장소, 같은 시간에 저는 똑 같은 사람을 마주쳤어요
= Fatefully (by fate), at the same place, at the same time, I bumped into the same person

반말 = casual speaking

Notes:  반말 is the word for the “casual speaking” that Korean people use when speaking with friends or somebody in a lower position. The opposite of 반말 is 존댓말.

Examples:
신입생들에게 반말을 해야지 = You should speak in 반말 to the freshmen students
친구들끼리는 반말을 쓰고, 어른들과 대화를 할 때는 존댓말을 써요 = Amongst friends, you speak casually, and when talking with older people, you speak formally

워낙 = so/very

Examples:
시력이 워낙 안 좋아서 화면에 가까이 있어야 되었어요
= My eyesight isn’t good, so I had to be close to the screen

워낙 이 식당의 음식이 맛있기 때문에 가격이 비싸도 항상 사람들로 붐벼요
= This restaurant’s food is very delicious, so even though the price is a little bit expensive, it is always filled with people

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.

 

Introduction

In this lesson, you will learn how to use ~아/어야 하다 to indicate that something must be done.  In addition, you will learn about the word 필요하다 and how it can be used to create a similar meaning as ~아/어야 하다. Let’s get started.

 

 

To have to: ~/하다 / 되다 / 지 / 겠다

By adding ~아/어야 하다 to the stem of a word at the end of a sentence, you can create the meaning of “one has to…” or “one must…” For example:

공부하다 = to study
공부해야 한다 = to have to study

먹다 = to eat
먹어야 한다 = to have to eat

가다 = to go
가야 한다 = to have to go

We can see these used in very simple sentences. For example:

저는 밥을 먹어야 해요 = I have to eat
저는 지금 공부해야 해요 = I have to study now
저는 집에 가야 해요 = I have to go home

To English speakers, the words “must/have to” and “should” have different meanings. For example, while the following two sentences feel the same to English speakers:

I must go to the park, and
I have to go to the park

Using “should” creates a slightly different nuance to English speakers. For example:

I should go to the park

However, in Korean, “~아/어야 하다” (and the other similar forms introduced later in the lesson) can be translated to “one must/have to” or “one should.” Learners of Korean are often confused at how this one grammatical principle can represent two seemingly different meanings in English. In reality, the difference in English between those two words isn’t very big. Try to step out of your English brain for a minute and realize that these sentences effectively express the same meaning. Using “must” might feel stronger to an English speaker, but the end result of all these sentences is the same:

I must go to the park
I have to go to the park
I should go to the park

Therefore, sentences like this:

대학교에 가고 싶다면 열심히 공부해야 돼요

Could be translated as:

If you want to go to University, you must study hard
If you want to go to University, you have to study hard
If you want to go to University, you should study hard

Below are many examples of ~아/어야 하다 in use:

친구를 만나러 지금 가야 해요 = I have to go now to meet my friend
제 말에 동의해야 해요 = You need to agree with me
먹어야 해서 늦게 왔어요 = I was late because I had to eat

이 일을 끝내고 싶으면 우리는 협조해야 해요
= If you want to finish this work, we need to cooperate

TV를 켜고 싶으면 이것을 TV에 연결해야 해요
= If you want to turn on the TV, you need to connect this thing to the TV

책을 읽은 후에 제자리에 둬야 해요
= After reading the book, you have to put it back in the right place

대학교에 가고 싶다면 열심히 공부해야 해요
= If you want to go to university, you have to study hard

우리 아들이 핸드폰을 많이 쓰고 있어서 핸드폰을 뺏어야 할 것 같아요
= Our son is using his cell-phone so much, we’ll probably have to take it away from him

Replacing 하다 with 되다 in ~아/어야 하다 can be done with no difference in meaning. I feel that using 되다 instead of 하다 is much more common in speech. For example:

우리는 빨리 가야 돼 = We have to go fast
울타리를 넘어야 돼요 = We need to go over the fence
직장에서 성숙하게 행동해야 돼요 = You need to act maturely at work
시력이 안 좋아서 안경을 써야 돼요 = My eyesight isn’t good so I have to wear glasses
실제 나이를 말해야 돼요 = You need to say your real/actual age

성공하고 싶으면 매일 열심히 해야 돼요
= If you want to succeed, you need to work hard every day

모든 사람들이 왕비가 하는 말을 동의해야 돼요
= Everybody has to agree with what the queen says

영어문법을 공부할 때 예외를 그냥 다 외워야 돼요
= When you study English grammar, you just need to memorize all of the exceptions

결과를 발표하기 전에 자료를 검토해야 돼요
= Before announcing the results, we need to examine the data

.

.

It is also possible to use “~지” (or the formal equivalent ~죠) instead of 하다 or 되다 in ~아/어 야 하다/되다. Using ~아/어지/죠like this is mostly done in conversation. You can use 지 to create similar sentences to those above with 하다 and 되다. For example:

우리가 빨리 가야지! = We have to go fast!
우리는 빨리 가야죠! = We have to go fast!
Notice here that there are no spaces between ~아/어야 and 지/죠.

Instead of:
우리는 빨리 가야 해요 = We have to go fast!
우리는 빨리 가야 돼요 = We have to go fast!

Below are more examples:

먹어야지! = You have to eat!
신입생들에게 반말을 해야지 = You should speak in 반말 to the freshmen students
운명을 믿어야지 = You need to trust (in) fate
조개를 넣어야지 = You need to put clams inside
영웅이 왕비를 살려야지 = The hero should save the queen

Another usage of~지 (or the formal version ~죠) will be introduced in Lesson 93.

It is possible to conjugate 하다 or 되다 at the end of the clause to reflect that something “had to have” happened or “will have to” happen. For example:

그때 열심히 일해야 되었어요 = At that time I had to work really hard
복사기를 수리해야 되었어요 = We had to repair the photocopier
시력이 워낙 안 좋아서 화면에 가까이 있어야 되었어요= My eyesight isn’t good, so I had to be close to the screen

10분 후에 가야 될 거예요 = We will have to go in 10 minutes
그 이를 뽑아야 될 것 같아요 = We will probably have to pull out that tooth
신입생들을 위해 선물을 준비해야 할 거예요 = We will have to prepare a present for the freshmen

When conjugating these types of sentences to the future, it is possible to attach ~겠다 to the final verb. For example:

밥을 먹어야 하겠다 = I will have to eat (rice)

The construction of “~아/어야 하겠다” is often shortened to ~아/어야겠다 in speech.
For example:

밥을 먹어야겠다

When adding ~아/어야겠다 to the end of a sentence like this, the translation of “I will have to…” doesn’t perfectly reflect the purpose of this construction. When a speaker uses ~아/어야겠다, he/she has received some sort of information or signal that is causing him/her to say this sentence. For example, if you just looked at the time and realized you had to go, you could say:

나는 지금 가야겠다

It is hard to come up with a perfect translation for this in English. Some translations for the sentence above could be:

I’d better get going now
I guess I better go now
I’ll have to go now

Remember that I always suggest to not focus too much on English translations but rather to focus on the meaning that the Korean sentence has. Below are more examples:

남자친구랑 내일 헤어져야겠다 = I’ll have to break up with my boyfriend tomorrow
이 사실을 부장님께 알려 줘야겠어요 = I’ll have to tell the boss (about) that fact
그녀를 위해 선물을 사야겠어요 = I’ll have to buy her a present
결과를 다시 검토해야겠다 = We’ll have to examine the results again

 

 

To need: 필요하다

You can essentially create the same meaning of “I have to” with “I need to” in Korean by using the word “필요하다.” 필요하다 is one of those words like 있다 that feels like a verb, but is considered an adjective in Korean. Like the other adjectives-that-feel-like-verbs, this rarely becomes an issue, except for when conjugating it using the plain (diary) form. Remember, the plain form conjugation for an adjective is the same as the dictionary form. Therefore, the following would be an incorrect conjugation:

필요한다

Instead, the following would be correct:

필요하다

필요하다 can be used to sentences to have the meaning of “to need.” Again, because this word acts as an adjective, the use of the object particle (~을/를) would be incorrect:

나는 밥을 필요하다 (This sentence is incorrect)

Instead, if you want to say that you “need” something, you should add the particle ~이/가 to the noun that you “need.” For example:

나는 밥이 필요하다 = I need food/rice

More examples:

나는 여자 친구가 필요하다 = I need a girlfriend
우리 회사는 새로운 복사기가 필요해요 = Our office needs a new photocopier
그 영화가 영웅 캐릭터가 필요해요 = That movie needs a hero character

You can use the noun “필요” (meaning “necessity”) with verbs to create a similar meaning to using ~아/어야 하다. Let’s talk about this next.

 

To need to: ~ㄹ/을 필요가 있다/없다

If you want to say that you “need to” do a verb, as in:

I need to eat
I need to sleep

You can add ~ㄹ/을 필요가 있다 to the stem of a verb/adjective. For example:

나는 밥을 먹을 필요가 있다
나는 잘 필요가 있다

Notice the makeup of this grammatical concept. “필요” acts as a noun that is being described by a verb. For example:

밥을 먹을 필요 = The necessity to eat
잘 필요 = The necessity to sleep

있다 is then used to indicate that the person “has” that necessity. For example:

나는 밥을 먹을 필요가 있다 = I have the necessity to eat
나는 잘 필요가 있다 = I have the necessity to sleep

Of course, those translations are nonsense. The sentences above would normally translate to:

나는 밥을 먹을 필요가 있다 = I need to eat
나는 잘 필요가 있다 = I need to sleep

Below are more examples. Also notice that you have use 없다 instead of 있다 to indicate that one does not need to do something:

저는 그 여자랑 결혼할 필요가 있어요 = I need to marry that girl
시험공부를 곧 할 필요가 있어요 = I need to study soon
강한 캐릭터를 만들 필요가 있어요 = We need to make a strong character
예외를 다 설명할 필요가 있어요 = You need to explain all of the exceptions
제자리에 놓을 필요가 없어요 = You don’t need to put it back in its place
그렇게 가까이 앉을 필요가 없어요 = There’s no need to sit that close
그렇게 할 필요가 없어요 = You don’t need to do it like that

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