Lesson 28: Anomalies with ~는 것

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Vocabulary

Irregulars with ~는 것
Present Tense
Past and Future Tense

My Favorite Thing: 가장 좋아하는 것
~는 with 싶다, 있다 and 없다
Using 그 (and other smaller words) in ~는 것 sentences

 

Vocabulary

Click on the English word to see information and examples of that word in use. You will probably be able to understand most of the grammar in these example sentences, but some of the sentences might use grammar from later lessons. Use these sentences to give yourself a feel for how each word can be used.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
어른 = adult

Common Usages:
어른스럽다 = to be mature
어른이 되다 = to become an adult

Examples:
어른들이 이런 영화를 보통 좋아하지 않아요 = Adults usually don’t like this sort of movie

어린이 = child, children

Common Usages:
어린이 집 = preschool, kindergarten
어린이날 = Children’s Day (national holiday in Korea)
어린이 시절 = one’s childhood
어린이대공원 = Children’s Grand Park (a park in Seoul)

Examples:
이 학교는 초등학교라서 이 동네에 어린이들이 많아요
= There are a lot of children in this neighborhood because this school is an elementary school

어린이들을 좋아하기 때문에 초등학교 선생님이 되고 싶어요
= I wanted to become an elementary teacher because I like children

공주 = princess

Common Usages:
백설공주 = Snow White

Examples:
저는 저의 여자 친구를 공주처럼 대우해요 = I treat my girlfriend like a princess
우리 딸은 자기가 공주 같다고 생각해요 = Our daughter thinks she is a princess

영향 = influence

Notes: 영향 is a noun that you need to use whenever you want to say that something ‘influences’ something. The thing that is being influenced needs to have 에 attached to it, and you can add the verbs 주다 or 미치다to act on the noun 영향. For example:

부모님들은 아이에 영향을 준다/미친다 = Parents influence their children

Common Usages:
영향력 = influence, leverage
영향을 주다/미치다 = to influence

Examples:
그 문제가 우리 일에 무슨 영향을 미칠 거예요? = What affect will that problem have on our work?
그의 엄마의 죽음이 그의 성격에 영향을 미쳤어요 = The death of his mother affected his personality

= some sort of writing

Common Usages:
한글 = Korean script (the Korean writing system)
댓글 = a comment (usually on the internet, like on Facebook or on a forum)
글씨 = one’s handwriting

Examples:
제가 공책에 글을 빨리 썼어요 = I wrote something (some words) quickly in my notebook

문학 = literature

Common Usages:
문학 작품 = some sort of literary work
대중문학 = popular literature
고전문학 = classic literature
현대문학 = current/contemporary literature
서양문학 = Western literature
동양문학 = Eastern literature

Examples:
저는 문학에 관심이 없어요 = I’m not interested in literature
저는 2년 동안 서양문학을 공부했지만 아직 해외여행을 한 적이 없어요 = I have been studying Western literature for 2 years, but I have never traveled abroad before

지방 = district, local area

Notes: This word is also used to refer to the countryside, much like the word “시골.” “지방” also translates to “fat,” but this is technically a separate word.

Common Usages:
지방정부 = local government
지방경찰 = local police
지방세 = local taxes

Examples:
이 지방에 경찰이 많아요 = There are a lot of police in this area
내일 이 지방 전체에 비가 올 거예요 = It will rain in this entire area tomorrow

이웃사람 = neighbor

Examples:
옆에 사는 이웃사람이 너무 시끄러워요 = The neighbor who lives next to me is too loud
저는 이웃사람들과 관계를 완전히 끊었어요 = I completely cut off any relationship with neighbors
이웃사람의 애기를 아르바이트로 돌봐요 = I look after my neighbor’s baby as a part-time job

환경 = environment

Common Usages:
환경을 보존하다 = to preserve the environment
환경을 지키다/보호하다 = to protect the environment
환경을 파괴하다 = to destroy the environment
환경문제 = an environmental problem

Notes: This word is used to refer to the “natural” environment. For example:
환경에 관련된 많은 영화가 있다 = There are a lot of movies relating to the environment
환경을 지키는 것이 중요하다 = It is important to protect the environment

It can also be used to refer to the metaphorical “atmosphere” of a place of situation. For example, the environment that exists within a room or something:
이 교실환경이 너무 삭막해서 다른 데에 가야 돼요 = The environment/atmosphere of this classroom is so desolate we should go somewhere else

농장 = farm

Examples:
저는 농장에서 자랐어요 = I grew up on a farm
농장에서 사는 게 싫어요 = I don’t like living on a farm
그 농장은 닭을 키워요 = That farm raises chickens

부분 = part, section

Common Usages:
부분 마취 = local anesthetic
대부분 = most (the biggest part of)
일부분 = one part (of)

Examples:
마음에 드는 부분이 있나요? = Do you have a part/section that you like?
대부분 사람들은 이런 음식을 좋아해요 = Most people like this kind of food
한국어를 배울 때 가장 어려운 부분은 존댓말을 쓰는 것이라고 생각합니다 = I think the most difficult part when learning Korean is using honorifics

광고 = advertisement

Common Usages:
광고를 붙이다 = to put up an advertisement (on a wall, for example)

Examples:
수익을 높이려고 광고를 붙였어요 = I put up an advertisement to raise profits
그 광고가 TV에 어제 방송되었다 = That advertisement aired/broadcasted yesterday on TV
그 광고를 만든 사람이 진짜 잘 만들었어요 = The person who made this advertisement did a really good job

농구 = basketball

Common Usages:
농구장 = basketball court
농구선수 = basketball player
농구공 = basketball ball
농구경기 = basketball game

Examples:
우리는 다른 팀을 농구경기에서 이겼어요
= We beat the other team in the basketball game

농구를 체육관이나 야외농구장에서 할래요?
= Shall we play basketball in the gymnasium or on the outdoor court?

체육수업시간에 농구를 하고 싶은 사람이 있어요?
= Is there anybody who wants to play basketball during PE class?

배구 = volleyball

Common Usages:
배구장 = volleyball court
배구선수 = volleyball player
배구경기 = volleyball game

Examples:
배구를 하고 싶은 사람이 없어요 = There isn’t anybody who wants to play volleyball

지구 = earth

Common Usages:
지구본 = globe
지구 온난화 = global warming
지구과학 = earth science

Examples:
제가 가장 좋아하는 과학은 지구과학이에요 = My favorite (type of) Science is earth science
지구 온난화는 전세계적으로 심각한 문제예요 = Global warming is a serious problem for the whole world

방귀 = fart

Notes: This word is sometimes pronounced as “방구”

Common Usages:
방귀를 끼다 = to fart

Examples:
방귀를 꼈어? = Did you just let one rip?
네가 방귀 꼈구나! = (I just realized that) you farted!

고개 = head

Notes: 머리 also means “head,” but “고개” is used usually used when moving your head in a some direction. For example, when nodding, shaking, lowering or raising one’s head.

Common Usages:
고개를 들다 = to raise one’s head
고개를 숙이다 = to lower one’s head (to bow)
고개를 끄덕이다 = to nod one’s head
고개를 젓다 = to shake one’s head

Examples:
그는 고개를 들고 그녀를 바라봤어요 = He lifted his head and stared at her

방향 = direction

Common Usages:
우측 방향 = the right direction
좌측 방향 = the left direction
다른 방향 = different direction
반대방향 = the opposite direction
방향을 바꾸다 = to change direction
방향을 잘 못 잡았다 = to take the wrong direction

Examples:
저는 그 사람과 같은 방향으로 가고 싶어요 = I want to go the same direction as that person
우리가 헤어지고 서로 다른 방향으로 갔어요 = We split up and each went different directions

해외 = abroad, overseas

Common Usages:
해외여행 = travelling abroad
해외근무 = working overseas
해외방송 = foreign broadcast
해외시장 = foreign markets/overseas markets

Examples:
제가 장학금을 받게 되면 해외대학교에 갈 거예요
= If I end up getting a scholarship, I will go to a foreign university

저는 10년 동안 서구문화를 공부했지만 해외여행을 한 적이 없어요
= For the last 10 years, I studied western culture, but I have never traveled abroad

자체 = itself, its own

Notes: 자체 is a difficult word to describe, but usually fairly easy to grasp in one’s head. It reminds me of saying a phrase like “The car itself isn’t bad…” Here, what is the difference if I just say the phrase “The car isn’t bad…”?  Presented on their own, those two sentences have essentially the same meaning. However, when using the word “itself/himself/herself/etc” the speaker is stressing that the car is fine, but there is some other problem with the situation.
It is usually placed after a noun (for example, “차 자체”) or “그”

Examples: 차 자체가 괜찮지만 제가 그냥 팔고 싶어요 = The car itself is fine, I just want to sell it
그 생각 자체가 무서워요 = That thought itself is scary (just the thought of that is scary)
우리가 유일하게 무서워해야 하는 것은 무서움 자체 뿐이다 = The only thing we have to fear is fear itself

Person 1: 삶에 대해 무엇을 좋아합니까? = What do you like about life?
Person 2: 저는 삶 자체를 좋아합니다 = I like life itself

시대 = times, period

Common Usages:
소녀시대 = Girl’s Generation (a famous Korean girl group)
시대가 변하다 = for times to change

Examples:
그때부터 시대가 많이 변했어요 = The times have changed a lot since then

그 시대에 산 사람들은 올바른 의료적인 치료나 약 없이 살았어요
= People who lived in that era/generation lived without proper medical treatment or medicine

우리 할아버지, 할머니들은 다른 시대에서 오셨어요
= Our grandfathers and grandmothers came from a different generation

현대는 새로운 기술이 사람들에게 바로 받아들이는 시대예요
= Present days are a time when new technology is adopted/accepted by people right away

주의 = caution

Notes: You will most commonly see this word on signs. Must like how in English, we don’t say the word “Caution” often, but you will see it printed on signs. When telling somebody to be cautious or “use caution” in speech, it is common to say “be careful.” The word “조심하다” translates to “to be careful,” but when used as a command, it is often used with the imperative ~(으)세요: 조심하세요!

Common Usages:
추락주의 = beware of falling down (watch your step)
전기주의 = be cautious of electricity (electrical hazard)
보행자주의 = be cautious of pedestrians

Verbs:
연구하다 = to research

The noun form of this word (“연구”) translates to “research”

Common Usages:
연구소 = a research lab
연구자료 = research material
연구논문 = a research paper

Examples:
연구결과를 분석해 주세요 = Please analyze the results of the research
정부가 그 병을 연구하고 있는 회사에게 돈을 줄 것이다 = The government will give money to the company researching that disease

집중하다 = to concentrate

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “집쭝하다”
The noun form of this word (“집중”) translates to “concentration”

Common Usages:
집중력 = concentration power/ability
집중호우 = rain concentrated in one area (localized rain)
집중치료실 = intensive care unit

Examples:
여기가 시끄러워서 저는 집중할 수 없어요 = I can’t concentrate here because it is loud
수업에 집중하고 있는 학생이 없어요 = There aren’t any students who are concentrating on the class
영화 보는 동안 계속 웃는 사람 때문에 집중할 수 없었어요 = Because of the person who kept laughing during the movie, I couldn’t concentrate

나누다 = to divide

Common Usages:
나누기 = division (in math)
나눠주다 = to pass out (the meanings of ‘divide’ and ‘give’ combined)
말을 나누다 = to talk with somebody
이야기를 나누다 = to talk with somebody

Examples:
할아버지와 할아버지 친구는 옛날 이야기를 나눴어요
= Grandpa and his friend talked with each other about old stories

학생들을 작은 그룹으로 나눠서 게임을 할 거예요
= I’m going to divide the students into small groups and play a game

이용하다 = to use

The noun form of this word (“이용”) translates to “usage”

Notes: 이용하다 and 사용하다 both translate to “to use” and are very similar. Although their usages can overlap sometimes, 사용하다 is more likely to be used when using something that can disappear after using it. For example, if using a piece of tissue paper to blow your nose, 사용하다 would be more appropriate. However, if using some sort of service, like the mass transportation service provided by a city, 이용하다 would be more appropriate.

Common Usages:
이용 가치가 있다 = to be useful
이용 가치가 없다 = to not be useful

Examples:
나는 매일 대중교통을 이용한다 = I use public transportation every day

이 제품을 이용하기 전에 이용방법을 읽으시기 바랍니다
= Before using this product, please read the instruction manual

네이버 지도앱으로 편리하게 지도 이용하기
= a button on the mobile website of Naver (Korean search engine) “use the map conveniently/ comfortably on the Naver map app.

등록하다 = to register

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “등노카다”
The noun form of this word (“등록”) translates to “registration”

Common Usages:
등록금 = tuition/registration fee
등록카드 = registration card
외국인등록증 = foreign registration card/proof

Examples:
이 수업을 등록하고 싶은 사람이 적어요
= There aren’t many people who want to register for this class

외국인등록증을 갖고 싶으면 한국에서 신청해야 돼요
= If you want to get a foreign registration card, you need to apply in Korea

외국인등록증이 만료되자마자 저는 그것을 연장하러 출입국사무소에 갔어요
= As soon as my foreign registration card expired, I went to the immigration office to renew it

메다 = to carry on one's shoulder

Common Usages:
어깨에 메다 = to carry something on one’s shoulders
가방을 메다 = to carry a backpack (on one’s shoulders)

Examples:
제가 무거운 가방을 메고 갔어요 = I put the heavy bag on my shoulder and went

세우다 = to stand something up, to line something up

Notes: There are many ways that 세우다can be translated – all of which relate to “standing/setting” something up. For example:

To stand a person up:
그 사람이 넘어져서 저는 일으켜 세웠어요 = I stood that person up because he fell

To stand something up:
저는 떨어진 그 조각을 또 세웠어요 = I set the fallen piece upright once again

To set a record:
그 선수가 지난 대회에서 새로운 기록을 세웠어요 = That athlete set a new record at the last competition

To set up or “establish” a business:
그 사람이 작년에 새로운 회사를 세웠어요 = That person set up a new company last year

To set plans or something similar:
우리가 아직 정확한 계획을 세우지 못했어요 = We haven’t yet made (set up) exact plans

To park a car: 차를 세울 데가 없어요 = There is nowhere (no place) to park the car

움직이다 = to move

Common Usages:
움직이지 마세요 = Don’t move
마음을 움직이다 = to “be moved”

Examples:
저는 의자를 앞으로 움직였어요 = I moved my chair forward
그것을 움직이는 것이 불가능해요 = It is impossible to move that
그대로 움직이지 마 = Don’t move, and stay the way you are
버스가 출발했을 때 사람들은 움직였어요 = when the bus departed, people moved
아무 움직임 없이 1시간 동안 앉아서 컴퓨터를 해서는 안 돼요 = You shouldn’t sit at a computer for an hour without any movement

정리하다 = to arrange

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “정니하다”
The noun form of this word (“정리”) translates to “organization” or “arrangement”

Common Usages:
뒷정리 = to clean up after you’re done
정리해드릴까요? = May I clean this up for you? (Often said by servers at a restaurant)

Examples:
제가 서류를 정리해야 하니까 잠깐 기다려 주세요 = I need to organize my papers, so please wait a minute
거실을 깨끗하게 정리하고 엄마한테 진심으로 감사하다는 말을 전했다 = We cleanly organized the living room, and then said ‘thank you’ to my mom from the bottom of my heart

취소하다 = to cancel

The noun form of this word (“취소”) translates to “cancellation”

Common Usages:
주문을 취소하다 = to cancel an order
예약을 취소하다 = to cancel a reservation

Examples:
주문을 취소하고 있는 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people who are cancelling their order
저는 야외모임을 비 때문에 취소했어요 = I cancelled the outdoor meeting because of the rain

지키다 = to protect, to defend

Common Usages:
지켜보다 = watch over
비밀을 지키다 = to protect a secret/not tell somebody else about a secret
환경을 지키다 = to protect the environment
약속을 지키다 = to keep a promise

Examples:
사람들은 자연을 지켜야 돼요 = People need to protect nature
그 사람이 약속을 잘 지키지 않아요 = That person always breaks his/her promises (doesn’t keep promises well)

놓치다 = to miss (a train/buss/opportunity)

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “녿치다”

Notes: In English, the word “miss” can also be used to indicate that you want to see somebody – for example: “I miss my friend.” The word “놓치다” is not used for this meaning. It is only used when talking about “missing” something like a bus or opportunity.

Common Usages:
기회를 놓치다 = to miss an opportunity
신호를 놓치다 = to miss a traffic light (to get caught at a traffic light)
버스/전철을 놓치다 = to miss a bus/subway (or train)

Examples: 지하철을 놓쳤기 때문에 택시를 타야 돼요 = I missed the subway, so I must take a taxi
우리는 이미 버스를 놓쳤을 것 같아요 = We probably already missed the bus

대학교에 갈지 안 갈지 많이 망설였기 때문에 대학교에 갈 기회를 놓쳤어요
= I missed the opportunity to go to University because I was hesitating a lot about if I should go or not

Adjectives:
적다 = to be few

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “적따”

Notes: In Korean, adjectives can be placed before a noun to describe them, or at the end of a sentence to predicate the entire sentence. For example:

Before a noun:
많은 사람들이 바나나를 좋아해요 = A lot of people like bananas
중요한 일을 했어요 = I did important work

Predicating a sentence:
바나나를 좋아하는 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people who like bananas
이 일이 중요해요 = This work is important
You might want to read more information about the ways adjectives can be used in Lesson 3.

Most adjectives can be used in both ways, but 적다 is most commonly used when predicating a sentence, and not when describing an upcoming noun.

Examples:
나를 좋아하는 학생들은 적어 = There are few students who like me
이 수업을 등록하고 싶은 사람이 적어요 = There aren’t many people who want to register for this class
한국은 다른 나라보다 이민자가 적어요 = Korea doesn’t have that many immigrants compared to other countries

강하다 = to be strong

Common Usages:
강해 보이다 = to look strong
강한 남자 = strong man

Examples:
바다의 힘이 아주 강하다 = The ocean’s power is very strong
저는 저의 남동생보다 2배 더 강해요 = I am twice as strong as my younger brother
시간이 흐르면서 저는 더욱더욱 강해졌어요 = As time went by, I got more and more strong

불편하다 = to be uncomfortable

Notes: This word is also used to refer to an injury or physical problem that somebody may have. For example, if asking if somebody may be hurt or in pain, you can ask “불편한 데가 있나요?” At my former school, one teacher couldn’t participate in the sports day competitions because he walks with a serious limp. When it was described to me, another teacher told me “그 선생님의 다리가 불편해요.”

Examples:
이 신발은 너무 불편해요 = These shoes are too uncomfortable
이렇게 앉아 있는 것이 불편해요 = It is uncomfortable to sit like this

충분하다 = to be enough, to be sufficient

Common Usages:
시간이 충분하다 = to have enough time
돈이 충분하다 = to have enough money

Examples:
밥이 충분해요? = Is there enough food/rice?
남은 소주가 충분하지 않아서 편의점에 잠깐 가야 돼요 = I need to go to the convenience store for a moment because we don’t have enough Soju

졸리다 = to be sleepy

Examples:
왜 이렇게 졸려 보여요? = Why do you look so tired?
제가 영화를 봤을 때 너무 졸렸어요 = I was too sleepy when I watched the movie
제가 너무 졸려서 집에 가서 바로 잘 거예요 = I will go home and immediately go to sleep because I’m tired

솔직하다 = to be honest/frank

Common Usages:
솔직히 = honestly, frankly
솔직히 말하면… = If I speak honestly… “to be frank”…
솔직한 답변 = an honest answer
솔직한 심정 = honest feelings

Examples:
그가 친절하기도 하고 솔직하기도 해요 = He is nice and honest, too
솔직히 제가 어떻게 할지 몰라요 = Honestly, I don’t know what I will do
솔직하게 말하면 이게 맛이 없어요 = To be honest, this tastes bad

정확하다 = to be exact

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “정화카다”

Common Usages:
정확히 모르겠는데… = I don’t know exactly, but…

Examples:
우리가 아직 정확한 계획을 세우지 못했어요 = We haven’t made exact plans yet
위치가 어디인지 정확히 몰라요 = I don’t know exactly where that place is

Person 1: 우리가 마지막으로 언제 만났지? = When was the last time that we met?
Person 2: 글쎄. 정확히 기억 안 나지만 두 달 전인가? = Well… I don’t remember exactly, but was it two months ago?

친하다 = to be familiar with, to be close with

Common Usages:
친한 친구 = a close friend
제일 친한 친구 = a best friend
친해지다 = to get close with
(이름)과 친하다 = to be close with (a person’s name)

Examples:
저는 슬기랑 대학교 때 친해졌어요 = I got close with Seulgi in University
옆 집에서 사는 사람과 친해지고 있어요 = I am getting close to the person who lives next door
우리 반에는 나와 친한 친구 여섯 명이 있다 = There are 6 people in my class who are close friends with me
그 사람은 저의 여자 친구가 아니라 그냥 친한 친구예요 = That person isn’t my girlfriend, she is just a close friend

급하다 = to be urgent

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “그파다”

Common Usages:
구급차 = ambulance
급행 열차 = express (train)
급히 = urgently
응급 = emergency _______
응급처치 = first aid
긴급하다 = very urgent
성격이 급하다 = describes the type of person who has a personality that is always rushed

Examples:
그 일이 급해도 저는 오늘 그것을 할 수 없어요
= Regardless of if that task is urgent, I can’t do it today

서울에서 사는 사람들의 성격은 너무 급해요
= The people who live in Seoul have a very rushed/impatient nature

제가 집에 가는 동안 급한 일이 생겼어요
= When I was going home, something urgent came up

저는 사람들이 지하철을 급히 타는 것을 싫어해요
= I don’t like people getting on the subway in a rush

상황이 너무 급해서 사람들이 계단을 뛰어 내렸어요
= The situation was very urgent, so people ran down the stairs

Adverbs and Other words:
결국 = eventually

Examples:
우리는 결국 마지막 경기에서 졌어요 = We ended up losing in the last game
그는 자신의 아름다움에 매혹되어 결국 호수에 빠져 죽었다 = He was captivated by its beauty, and then (so) he eventually drowned in the lake.

내내 = throughout a time

Common Usages:
수업 시간 내내 = throughout the (entire) class
1년 내내 = throughout the (entire) year
주말 내내 = throughout the (entire) weekend

Examples:
다음 달을 제외하고 저는 올해 내내 한국에서 있을 거예요 = Except for next month, I will be in Korea for the entire year

드디어 = finally, at last

Examples:
그녀가 저랑 드디어 사랑에 빠졌어요 = She finally fell in love with me
열쇠를 가지고 있는 사람이 드디어 왔어요 = The person who has the key eventually came
회사장은 많은 시위자들로부터 드디어 빠져 나왔어요 = The CEO finally escaped (came out of) the crowd of protesters

그냥 = only, just

Notes: It’s hard to give this word a definition. Much like how the word “just” in English is hard to define. 그냥 (like “just”) is used when an action happens for no real reason. As such, it is also common to answer questions using only this word. For example:

Person 1: 학교에 왜 왔어요? = Why did you come to school
Person 2: 그냥 = Just because… (no reason)

Examples:
저는 학교에 그냥 왔어요 = I just came to school
이 상황을 그대로 그냥 인정하세요 = Just accept the situation as it is
아무것도 만지지 말고 그냥 그대로 두세요 = Don’t touch anything,… just leave it.
그 게 아니라 나는 너를 그냥 보고 싶어 = It’s not that, I just want to see you
그는 하루 종일 그냥 컴퓨터를 해요 = He just uses the computer all day
우리는 예전처럼 그냥 집에서 영화를 봤어요 = We just watched movies at our house like old times
그냥 앉아 있는 것 대신에 헬스장에 가서 운동하자! = Instead of just sitting here, let’s go to the gym and exercise!

약간 = slightly/a little bit

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “약깐”

Examples:
Person 1: 무슨 맛이에요? = What does it taste like (what is the taste)?
Person 2: 약간 고소한 맛… = It’s a little bit “nutty”

Person 1: 그 게 다 이해가 돼요? = Do you understand all of that?
Person 2: 약간 = A little

철저히 = thoroughly

The pronunciation of this word is closer to “철쩌히”

Examples:
이 일을 철저히 해야 돼요 = You need to do this work thoroughly
실험 결과를 철저히 확인했어요 = I checked the results of the experiment thoroughly
이 문제에 대해 철저히 생각한 다음에 저에게 오세요 = After you have thought about this problem thoroughly, come to me

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.


Irregulars with ~

Present Tense

In Lesson 7 you learned all about Korean irregulars. In that Lesson, I wrote:

  • As with all languages, there are some irregular conjugations that you need to know. The irregulars apply at times when you add ~// (or another vowel/consonant) to a verb/adjective stem (aside from conjugating, you have yet to learn other times when you must add a vowel to a word. You will learn about these later).

Irregulars can act differently depending on what vowel/consonant you are adding to them. Up to now, you have learned a lot about adding ~아/어 to verbs/adjectives and how irregulars change as a result of this addition. For example:

걷다 + 어/아 = 걸어
부르다 + 어/아 = 불러

However, adding ~는 것 to the stem of 걷다 or 부르다 does not change them.

The only irregular that comes into play when adding ~는 것 in the present tense is the ㄹ irregular.

The ㄹ irregular from Lesson 7 stated:

  • If the final letter of a stem is ㄹ AND you add ~ㄴ/~ㅂ to that stem, the ㄹ is removed and the ㄴ /ㅂ get added on directly to the stem. However, if you are adding ‘는’ or something starting with ㅅ to the stem – the ㄹ is removed and ~는/~ㅅ is added directly after the stem.

Here is a table showing how ~는 것 should be added to the stem of a verb from each respective irregular. Notice that the ㄹ irregular is the only case where the stem changes as a result of ~는 것.

Present Tense Addition of ~는 것
Irregular Word Application
짓다 짓는 것
걷다 걷는 것
돕다 돕는 것
잠그다 잠그는 것
부르다 부르는 것
열다 여는 것

Here are some example sentences:
저는 친구가 문을 여는 것을 봤어요 = I saw my friend opening the door
마음에 드는 부분이 있나요? = Do you have a part/section that you like?
저는 아는 것만 하고 싶어요 = I only want to do things that I know
옆에 사는 이웃사람이 너무 시끄러워요 = The neighbor who lives next to me is too loud
우리가 사는 지역이 조금 위험해요 = The area we live in is a little bit dangerous
농장에서 사는 게 싫어요 = I don’t like living on a farm
옆 집에서 사는 사람과 친해지고 있어요 = I am getting close to the person who lives next door

.

 

Past and Future Tense

Four irregulars come into play when adding ~ㄴ/은 것 and ~ㄹ/을 것:

ㅅ irregular
If a word stem ends in , the gets removed when adding a vowel.

ㄷ irregular
If a word stem ends in , the gets changed to when adding a vowel.

ㅂ irregular
If a word stem ends in , the gets changed to when adding a vowel.

ㄹ irregular
When adding ~ㄴ/은 or ~ㄹ/을 to the stem of a verb or adjective where the stem ends in ㄹ, ~ㄴ or ~ㄹ replaces the in the stem.

The first two follow essentially the same rule. In each case, the stem of the word originally ends with a consonant. For example:

짓다
걷다

Therefore, when we have to decide if we add ~ㄴ or ~은, we much choose ~은:

짓은
걷은

However, each of the respective rules indicates that the placement of a vowel immediately following the stem causes it to change. The above should be changed to:

지은
걸은

When adding ~ㄴ/은 to a verb that ends in ㅂ, the same rule applies as if you were adding it to an adjective. For example:

쉽다 + ~ㄴ/은 = 쉬운
돕다 + ~ㄴ/은 = 도운
Remember that the in 돕다 changes to only when ~아/어 (or one of its derivatives) is added to it. When any other vowel is added, changes to .

When adding ~ㄴ/은 to a verb that ends in ㄹ, the same rule applies as if you were adding it to an adjective. For example:

길다 + ~ㄴ/은 = 긴
열다 + ~ㄴ/은 = 연

Here is a table showing how ~ㄴ/은 것 should be added to the stem of a verb from each respective irregular. Notice that this applies to the ㅅ, ㄷ, ㅂ and ㄹ irregulars:

Past Tense Addition of ~ㄴ/은 것
Irregular Verb Application
짓다 지은 것
걷다 걸은 것
돕다 도운 것
잠그다 잠근 것
부르다 부른 것
열다 연 것

The exact same thing is done for each respective future tense conjugation but with, ~ㄴ/은 replaced with ~ㄹ/을.

Here is a table showing how ~ㄹ/을 것 should be added to the stem of a verb from each respective irregular. Notice that this applies to the ㅅ, ㄷ, ㅂ and ㄹ irregulars and is exactly the same as the table above except for that ~ㄹ/을 is used instead of ~ㄴ/은:

Future Tense Addition of ~ㄹ/을 것
Irregular Word Application
짓다 지을 것
걷다 걸을 것
돕다 도울 것
잠그다 잠글 것
부르다 부를 것
열다 열 것

Here are some example sentences:

ㅅ irregular:
그 집을 지은 사람은 누구예요? = Who is the person that built that house?
저는 집을 지을 거예요 = I will build a house
Remember that the future tense conjugation of ~ㄹ/을 것이다 is actually just the future ~는 것.

ㄷ irregular:
그 사람은 서울에서 부산까지 걸은 첫 번째 사람이었다 = That person was the first person who walked from Seoul to Busan

ㅂ irregular
제가 도울 게 있나요? = Is there something I can help you with?
것이 is often contracted to in speech.

ㄹ irregular:
그는 문을 열 사람이에요 = He is the person who will open the doors
… I’m not sure when you would say that sentence, but it’s difficult to think up of a sentence where I can apply this irregular and make it sound natural. This irregular is often applied when conjugating to the future tense by adding ‘ㄹ/을 것이다’ to the end of a sentence:

저는 내일 시장에서 사과를 팔 거예요 = I will sell apples at the market tomorrow
그 광고를 만든 사람이 진짜 잘 만들었어요 = The person who made this advertisement did a really good job

 


 

My Favorite Thing: 가장 좋아하는

Saying “My favorite…” is one of the first things that people want to learn whenever learning a new language. In Korean, the grammar within this sentence is a little bit difficult (you only just learned it), so that is why you are just learning about it now.

There is no word in Korean for “favorite.” Instead, they use a combination of 좋아하다 (to like) and “제일/가장” (which you learned in Lesson 19). You have known how to use 제일/가장 with 좋아하다 for a long time now. Here are some simple sentences:

저는 우리 학교를 좋아해요 = I like our school
저는 우리 학교를 가장 좋아해요 = I like our school most

But you haven’t yet learned how to specifically say “My favorite ____ is…”

Let’s look at adjectives first. These should all be easy to you:

가장 큰 것 = the biggest thing
가장 작은 것 = the smallest thing
가장 어려운 것 = the most difficult thing

However, in those sentences, only adjectives are describing the noun. Now that you have learned how to describe nouns with verbs, you can now say:

내가 가장 좋아하는 것 = the thing that I like most (which is also – my favorite thing)

Notice that it is not나의 가장 좋아하는 것.” Really, you are not saying “my favorite thing” – you are saying “the thing that I like most.” So even though in English we say “my,” in Korean you shouldn’t use 나의/저의 in place of 내가/제가 in these sentences.

You could take 가장 out to simply mean “the thing that I like”

내가 좋아하는 것 = the thing that I like

Or change the subject:

저의 친구가 가장 좋아하는 것 = The thing that my friend likes most

Now that you have created the noun of “the thing that I like most” you can place it in sentences:

제가 가장 좋아하는 것은 음식이에요 = My favorite thing is food
음식은 제가 가장 좋아하는 것이에요 = Food is my favorite thing

You can also replace “것” with any other noun:

제가 가장 좋아하는 음식은 김치예요 = My favorite food is kimchi
제가 가장 좋아하는 날은 금요일이에요 = My favorite day is Friday

As I said before, people often don’t realize the power of the ~는 것 principle. Now that you can you can describe nouns with verbs, you can say much more complicated (and natural) sentences. Look at the following example:

내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 영화야 = My favorite thing is movies

This sentence is natural, but you could more precisely describe what you like if you used ~는 것. For example, you could say that your favorite thing is “watching movies” or “making movies.” You learned in Lesson 26 how to make these nouns:

영화를 보는 것 = watching movies
영화를 만드는 것 = making movies

내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 영화를 보는 것이다 = My favorite thing is watching movies

The easiest mistake to make in that sentence is (incorrectly) not changing the latter part of the sentence to a noun. Many learners of Korean would just say the following:

내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 영화를 봐…

But that just translates to “My favorite thing watches movies.” You need to say “My favorite thing is watching movies” which requires you to change the second clause of the sentence to a noun and then add 이다 (is).

친구는 선생님이다 = My friend is a teacher
내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 영화를 보는 것이다= My favorite thing is watching movies

… heh, complicated. That’s why I waited until this lesson to teach it to you.

If you specifically want to say that your “favorite thing about X is Y” you can attach “~에 있어서” to a noun in the sentence. ~에 있어서 typically translates to “when it comes to…” in English. For example:

한국에 있어서 내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 한식이야 = My favorite thing about Korea is Korean food
(or, “When it comes to Korea, my favorite thing is Korean food”)

Not only can you do that, but now that you have learned about the ~는 것 principle, you can create more complex nouns throughout the sentence. For example, instead of saying the sentence above, you could say:

한국에서 사는 것에 있어서 내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 한식이야
= My favorite part about living in Korea is Korean food

한국에서 사는 것에 있어서 내가 가장 좋아하는 것은 한식을 매일 먹는 것이야
= My favorite part about living in Korea is eating Korean food every day

 

~는 With 싶다, 있다 and 없다

There are a few words that seem a lot like verbs but are actually adjectives.

In Lesson 17, you learned about 싶다 and how it can be used to say that one “wants” to do an action. For example:

저는 한국어를 배우고 싶어요 = I want to study Korean
저는 캐나다에 가고 싶어요 = I want to go to Canada

In that lesson, I told you that 싶다 is an adjective. As such, you must treat it as any other adjective when describing a noun. This means that if you want to describe nouns in the present tense using 싶다 you must add ~ㄴ/은:

예쁜 사람 = beautiful person
똑똑한 사람 = smart person
내가 만나고 싶은 사람 = the person (who/that) I want to meet

Below are many examples:

제가 가장 만나고 싶은 사람은 유재석이에요 = The person who I want to meet most is 유재석
배구를 하고 싶은 사람이 없어요 = There isn’t anybody who wants to play volleyball
이 수업을 등록하고 싶은 사람이 적어요 = There aren’t many people who want to register for this class
이 수업을 등록하고 싶은 사람이 충분하지 않아요 = There aren’t enough people who want to register for this class
먹고 싶은 것이 있어요? = Do you want something to eat? (literally – do you have something that you want to eat?)
체육수업시간에 농구를 하고 싶은 사람이 있어요?  = Is there anybody who wants to play basketball during PE class?

~았/었던, which you learned in the previous lesson, can be added to 싶다 to carry the meaning that it creates. Essentially, the speaker can indicate that there was something he/she “wanted” to do in the past but currently doesn’t want to do anymore. For example:

그것은 제가 말하고 싶었던 것이었어요 = That was what I wanted to say

—————————————-

In Lesson 5, you learned how to use 있다 to indicate that one “has” something. I explained that this usage of 있다 is an adjective. For example:

나는 펜이 있다 = I have a pen
나는 차가 있다 = I have a car

When using adjectives to describe nouns in the present tense, you know that you should add ~ㄴ/은 to the stem of the adjective. For example:

예쁜 사람 = beautiful person
똑똑한 사람 = smart person

Grammatically it should be correct to do this with 있다 as well:

펜이 있은 사람

But this is incorrect. Even though this usage of 있다 is an adjective, you must treat it as a verb when describing an upcoming noun. For example, the following is correct:

펜이 있는 사람

The same rule applies to 없다. For example:

펜이 없는 사람

Actually, when speaking to a large group of people (for example, a teacher speaking to a group of students), it is common to ask “is there anybody who has (or doesn’t have) x?” by using this form without a predicating word. That is, it is common to say:

펜이 있는 사람!? = Does anybody have a pen? (Is there anybody who has a pen)?
펜이 없는 사람!? = Does anybody not have a pen? (Does everybody have a pen)?

This is why ~는 (instead of ~은) is added to words like “재미있다 or 재미없다” and “맛있다 or 맛없다” when describing an upcoming noun. The inclusion of “to have” or “to not have” with 있다 and 없다 requires them to describe upcoming nouns by using ~는 instead of ~은. For example:

저는 재미있는 영화를 봤어요 = I watched a fun/funny movie
저는 맛있는 밥을 먹었어요 = I ate delicious rice/food

관심 translates to “interest” and is commonly used to indicate that one “is interested” (or not interested) in something. To indicate that one has (or does not have) interest in a topic, 있다 or 없다 can be used. For example:

저는 과학에 관심이 없어요 = I am not interested in Science
저는 과학에 관심이 있어요 = I have interest in Science
(When saying that one is interested in something, it is also common to replace 있다 with 많다 to indicate that one is really interested in a topic)

We can attach ~는 to 있다 and 없다 here to describe somebody who is interested. For example:

과학에 관심이 있는 사람이 없었어요 = There was nobody who was/is interested in Science

When using 있다 to indicate that something is in the “state” of an action using ~아/어 있다 (introduced in Lesson 18) or to indicate that one is progressively doing something using ~고 있다 (also introduced in Lesson 18), 있다 is seen as a verb. Therefore, as a verb ~는 should be attached, but this isn’t seen as “strange” because in this form it is a verb anyways. It is only “strange” when adding ~는 to 있다/없다 when it is an adjective.

Below are many examples of ~는 것 being used with 있다:

수업에 집중하고 있는 학생이 없어요 = There aren’t any students who are concentrating on the class
주문을 취소하고 있는 사람이 많아요 = There are a lot of people who are cancelling their order
이렇게 앉아 있는 것이 불편해요 = It is uncomfortable to sit like this
열쇠를 가지고 있는 사람이 드디어 왔어요 = The person who has the key eventually came
정부가 그 병을 연구하고 있는 회사에게 돈을 줄 것이다 = The government will give money to the company researching that disease

~았/었던, which you learned in the previous lesson, can be added to 있다 to carry the meaning that it creates. Essentially, the speaker can indicate that something “was” in a place in the past, but is currently not in the place anymore. For example:

그곳에 있었던 사람들은 다 죽었다 = All the people that were there died
그 자리에 앉아 있었던 사람이 다른 데로 갔어요 = The person who had been sitting there went to another place

———————-

Only in a few grammatical principles is it appropriate to add ~은 to 있다 or 없다 to create 있은 or 없은. When a grammatical principle creates a meaning that specifies that an action was done in the past and we are looking at the time since that action, ~은 can be used. Two practical examples where you can see this is when adding ~ㄴ/은 후 to a word (Lesson 24) and adding ~ㄴ/은 지 to a word (Lesson 30)

 

 

 

Using (and other smaller words) in ~ sentences

One thing that I want to mention before this lesson ends is how to include words like 이/그/나의/저의 in 는 것 sentences. It’s hard to describe what I mean without examples (it’s not really a “concept” so I better show you some examples.)

In English, we could say:
The person who I met. Translated into Korean would be easy: 내가 만난 사람

However, in English, we could also say something like “that person I met.” Almost the same meaning, but not exactly the same. If you were to translate that directly, it would come out like this:

그 내가 만난 사람

But in Korean, they always place those small words that can go before nouns (이/그/저/나의/저의) immediately before nouns. So, instead of saying:

그 내가 만난 사람 you should say:
내가 만난 그 사람

It’s hard to translate some of these sentences into Korean. Look at next example. You will probably be able to understand it completely, but translating it to English is very difficult:

선생님이 본 나의 영화

It would translate to something like “my movie that the teacher watched” but that sounds a little bit unnatural in English. When these sentences come up, you should realize that the noun being described (영화 – movie) is being described by two different things:

나의 영화 = my movie, and
선생님이 본 영화 = the movie that the teacher watched

Even though it is unnatural to say the full sentence in English (my movie that the teacher watched), you should be able to understand the meaning without needing to translate it directly.

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